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Selective central perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330412/early-asymmetric-cardio-cerebral-causality-and-outcome-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Lei Gao, Peter Smieleweski, Marek Czosnyka, Ari Ercole
The brain and heart are two vital systems in health and disease, increasingly recognised as a complex, interdependent network with constant information flow in both directions. After severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), the causal, directed interactions between the brain, heart and autonomic nervous system have not been well established. Novel methods are needed to probe unmeasured, potentially prognostic information in complex biological networks that are not revealed via traditional means. In this study, we examined potential bi-directional causality between intracranial pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) and its relationship to mortality in a 24-hour period early after TBI...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274817/microvascular-nadph-oxidase-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Yao Li, Patrick J Pagano
The systemic and cerebral microcirculation contribute critically to regulation of local and global blood flow and perfusion pressure. Microvascular dysfunction, commonly seen in numerous cardiovascular pathologies, is associated with alterations in the oxidative environment including potentiated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent activation of redox signaling pathways. NADPH oxidases (Nox) are a primary source of ROS in the vascular system and play a central role in cardiovascular health and disease...
March 5, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272225/a-new-method-for-selective-reduction-in-trap-sequence-with-a-contraindication-to-fetoscopic-surgery-a-case-report
#3
Qi Li, Xin-Hua Wu, Wei-She Zhang
RATIONALE: The preferred method for multifetal pregnancy reduction (MFPR) is a transabdominal intrathoracic or intracranial injection of potassium chloride (KCl). However, in monochorionic multiple pregnancies (MMPs), especially in monoamnionic multifetal pregnancies, selective feticide by this method is often associated with miscarriage of the remaining fetuses. Selective fetal reduction in MMPs by blood flow ablation using radiofrequency ablation or fetoscopic laser surgery may improve survival of the remaining fetus...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262276/long-term-results-of-ultrasound-guided-fine-needle-aspiration-cytology-in-conjunction-with-sentinel-node-biopsy-support-step-wise-approach-in-melanoma
#4
C M C Oude Ophuis, C Verhoef, D J Grünhagen, P Siegel, A Schoengen, J Röwert-Huber, A M M Eggermont, C A Voit, A C J van Akkooi
BACKGROUND: US-FNAC is a common diagnostic tool in the work-up of many cancers. Results in melanoma were initially poor (sensitivity 20-40%). Introduction of the Berlin Morphology criteria has shown potential improvement up to 65-80% in selected patients. AIM: This cohort study evaluates the long-term survival outcome of melanoma patients undergoing Ultrasound (US) guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) prior to sentinel node biopsy (SNB) or direct lymphadenectomy...
February 21, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260926/diagnostic-and-prognostic-values-of-contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#5
Yi-Xuan Zhao, Shuang Liu, Yan-Bing Hu, Yan-Yan Ge, Dong-Mei Lv
This study aimed to explore the diagnostic and prognostic values of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in breast cancer. Between September 2009 and October 2011, a total of 143 breast cancer patients and 161 healthy people were selected as case group and control group, respectively. After the identification of lesions by conventional ultrasound, all patients underwent CEUS. The CEUS images were analyzed, and time-intensity curves (TICs) were obtained. Hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining was performed on tissue specimens, according to which the expressions of estrogen receptor (ER), c-erb-B2, p53, and Ki-67 were measured...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121874/comparison-of-a-small-central-versus-a-large-peripheral-perforator-in-a-rat-model-of-extended-dorsal-three-vascular-territory-perforator-flap
#6
Jian Ding, Xiaoliang Feng, Weiyang Gao, Hede Yan, Xianyao Tao, Long Wang, Maolin Tang
BACKGROUND: Selection of suitable perforators is critical for satisfactory postreconstructive surgery outcome. This study aims to compare a small central versus a large peripheral perforator flap in a rat extended dorsal three-vascular territory perforator flap model. METHODS: An extended intercostal artery perforator flap with three vascular territories was used to model a small central perforator flap. An extended deep circumflex iliac artery flap with three vascular territories was used to model a large peripheral perforator flap...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097916/exploring-the-first-rimonabant-analog-opioid-peptide-hybrid-compound-as-bivalent-ligand-for-cb1-and-opioid-receptors
#7
Adriano Mollica, Sveva Pelliccia, Valeria Famiglini, Azzurra Stefanucci, Giorgia Macedonio, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Brunetti, Claudio Ferrante, Stefano Pieretti, Ettore Novellino, Sandor Benyhe, Ferenc Zador, Anna Erdei, Edina Szucs, Reza Samavati, Szalbolch Dvrorasko, Csaba Tomboly, Rino Ragno, Alexandros Patsilinakos, Romano Silvestri
Cannabinoid (CB) and opioid systems are both involved in analgesia, food intake, mood and behavior. Due to the co-localization of µ-opioid (MOR) and CB1 receptors in various regions of the central nervous system (CNS) and their ability to form heterodimers, bivalent ligands targeting to both these systems may be good candidates to investigate the existence of possible cross-talking or synergistic effects, also at sub-effective doses. In this work, we selected from a small series of new Rimonabant analogs one CB1R reverse agonist to be conjugated to the opioid fragment Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-NH2...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060193/imaging-in-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#8
Rahul D Renapurkar, Sankaran Shrikanthan, Gustavo A Heresi, Charles T Lau, Deepa Gopalan
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is one of the potentially curable causes of pulmonary hypertension and is definitively treated with pulmonary thromboendartectomy. CTEPH can be overlooked, as its symptoms are nonspecific and can be mimicked by a wide range of diseases that can cause pulmonary hypertension. Early diagnosis of CTEPH and prompt evaluation for surgical candidacy are paramount factors in determining future outcomes. Imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of CTEPH and patient selection for pulmonary thromboendartectomy and balloon pulmonary angioplasty...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047962/tu-h-206-03-characterizing-b1-inhomogeneities-in-dce-mri
#9
H Gach, N Mason
PURPOSE: Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI is a valuable technique for measuring perfusion and permeability characteristics of tumors. Exogenous contrast concentrations are calculated based on changes in T1 measured using fast 3D gradient echo (FLASH) sequences. However, the slab selective pulses used in 3D MRI may result in B1 inhomogeneities across the volume of interest that can lead to errors in T1 and thus the estimated gadolinium concentration. We compared three FLASH DCE sequences (GRE, TWIST, and VIBE) to determine their signal homogeneity across slices and the accuracy in calculating T1 using acquisitions with variable flip angles...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024557/acute-right-ventricle-failure-in-the-intensive-care-unit-assessment-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Carmen Hrymak, Johann Strumpher, Eric Jacobsohn
Caring for the critically ill patient with acute right ventricle (RV) failure is a diagnostic and management challenge. A thorough understanding of normal RV anatomy and physiology is essential to manage RV failure. Despite the fact that the RV is essentially a volume chamber that ejects into a low-pressure system, the left ventricle contributes significantly to RV function through maintenance of the transseptal gradient (TSG). Preserving systemic mean arterial pressure maintains the TSG and RV perfusion. Various pathological states cause acute RV failure by decreasing the TSG and RV perfusion and/or increasing pulmonary vascular resistance...
January 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959471/lumbar-sympathectomy-techniques-for-critical-lower-limb-ischaemia-due-to-non-reconstructable-peripheral-arterial-disease
#11
REVIEW
Veena Kl Karanth, Tulasi Kota Karanth, Laxminarayan Karanth
BACKGROUND: Critical lower limb ischaemia (CLI) is a manifestation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) that is seen in patients with typical chronic ischaemic rest pain or patients with ischaemic skin lesions - ulcers or gangrene - for longer than 2 weeks. Critical lower limb ischaemia is the most severe form of PAD, and interventions to improve arterial perfusion become necessary. Although surgical bypass has been the gold standard for revascularisation, the extent or the site of disease may be such that the artery cannot be reconstructed or bypassed...
December 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929741/cerebral-microvascular-dysfunction-and-inflammation-are-improved-by-centrally-acting-antihypertensive-drugs-in-metabolic-syndrome
#12
Vanessa Estato, Alessandro Nascimento, Barbara Antunes, Fabiana Gomes, Laura Coelho, Raquel Rangel, Luciana Garzoni, Anissa Daliry, Pascal Bousquet, Eduardo Tibiriçá
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the effects of chronic oral treatment with centrally acting antihypertensive drugs, such as clonidine (CLO), an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, or LNP599, a selective I1 imidazoline receptor agonist, on brain microvascular function in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto rats were maintained on a normal diet (CON) or a HFD for 20 weeks. After this period, the HFD group received oral CLO (0...
February 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910802/near-infrared-spectroscopy-evaluated-cerebral-oxygenation-during-anesthesia
#13
REVIEW
Henrik Sørensen
Likely, maintained organ and notably cerebral perfusion, secures rapid recovery following anesthesia. To secure cerebral blood flow (CBF) at least mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) need to be considered. CBF is "autoregulated", i.e. stays more or less stable within a MAP of 50-150 mmHg, but the lower limit appears to depend on the central blood volume and/or cardiac output, illustrated by a decrease in CBF at a MAP of 80 mmHg with a compromised central blood volume, while CBF remains constant with a MAP < 40 mmHg, if the central blood volume is maintained...
December 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901279/dopamine-agonists-for-preventing-ovarian-hyperstimulation-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Huilin Tang, Selma Mourad, Suo-Di Zhai, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a potentially serious complication of ovarian stimulation in assisted reproduction technology (ART). It is characterised by enlarged ovaries and an acute fluid shift from the intravascular space to the third space, resulting in bloating, increased risk of venous thromboembolism and decreased organ perfusion. Most cases are mild, but forms of moderate or severe OHSS appear in 3% to 8% of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycles. The dopamine agonist cabergoline was introduced as a secondary prevention intervention for OHSS in women at high risk of OHSS undergoing ART treatment...
November 30, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891754/patients-with-barrett-s-esophagus-are-hypersensitive-to-acid-but-hyposensitive-to-other-stimuli-compared-with-healthy-controls
#15
C Lottrup, A L Krarup, H Gregersen, P Ejstrud, A M Drewes
BACKGROUND: Esophageal hyposensitivity has been observed in Barrett's esophagus and may contribute to its pathophysiology. However, studies are few, in particular those assessing different sensory modalities. We aimed to compare esophageal sensitivity to multimodal stimulation in patients with Barrett's esophagus and in healthy controls. METHODS: Twenty-three patients with Barrett's esophagus and 12 healthy controls were examined. A multimodal probe was placed in the lower esophagus...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822669/asl-and-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-contribution-to-the-management-of-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Sébastien Verclytte, Olivier Fisch, Lucie Colas, Olivier Vanaerde, Manuel Toledano, Jean-François Budzik
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a central role in the early diagnosis of cerebral vascular events. Today, MRI is used not only for the detection of acute ischaemic lesions, but also to fine tune the diagnosis and improve patient selection for early therapeutic decision-making. In this perspective, new tools such as arterial spin labelling (ASL) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences have been developed. These MRI sequences enable noninvasive assessment of brain damage, providing important diagnostic and prognostic information: evaluation of cerebral parenchymal perfusion; detection and aetiological assessment of thrombi; ruling out differential diagnoses...
February 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784240/biohybrid-membrane-systems-and-bioreactors-as-tools-for-in-vitro-drug-testing
#17
Simona Salerno, Loredana De Bartolo
In drug development, in vitro human model systems are absolutely essential prior to the clinical trials, considering the increasing number of chemical compounds in need of testing, and, keeping in mind that animals cannot predict all the adverse human health effects and reactions, due to the species-specific differences in metabolic pathways. The liver plays a central role in the clearance and biotransformation of chemicals and xenobiotics. In vitro liver model systems by using highly differentiated human cells could have a great impact in preclinical trials...
October 25, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765887/total-aortic-arch-replacement-advantages-of-varied-techniques
#18
REVIEW
Ryan C Shelstad, Justin G Reeves, Katsuhiro Yamanaka, T Brett Reece
We review the operative techniques of aortic arch replacement. Aortic arch replacement presents several formidable challenges, as it requires arresting the circulation to the body and replacement of the brachiocephalic vessels with special consideration for protecting the central nervous system. Perfusion strategies, selective antegrade cerebral perfusion, and operative graft selection are key elements in aortic arch replacement surgery. Standard approaches include the island technique, the branched graft technique, and the "Spielvogel" trifurcated graft technique-each having its own advantages...
December 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712796/metastasis-in-adult-brain-tumors
#19
REVIEW
Ramon Francisco Barajas, Soonmee Cha
Metastatic cancer to the central nervous system is primarily deposited by hematogenous spread in various anatomically distinct regions: calvarial, pachymeningeal, leptomeningeal, and brain parenchyma. A patient's overall clinical status and the information needed to make treatment decisions are the primary considerations in initial imaging modality selection. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is the preferred imaging modality. Morphologic MR imaging is limited to delineating anatomic deraignment of tissues. Dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced perfusion and diffusion-weighted physiology-based MR imaging sequences have been developed that complement morphologic MR imaging by providing additional diagnostic information...
November 2016: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652257/the-effect-of-esmolol-on-tissue-perfusion-and-clinical-prognosis-of-patients-with-severe-sepsis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#20
Xiuling Shang, Kaiyu Wang, Jingqing Xu, Shurong Gong, Yong Ye, Kaihua Chen, Fayang Lian, Wei Chen, Rongguo Yu
Purpose. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of esmolol on tissue perfusion and the clinical prognosis of patients with severe sepsis. Materials and Methods. One hundred fifty-one patients with severe sepsis were selected and divided into the esmolol group (n = 75) or the control group (n = 76), who received conventional antiseptic shock treatment. The esmolol group received a continuous infusion of esmolol via a central venous catheter, and their heart rate (HR) was maintained at 70-100 bpm over 72 hours...
2016: BioMed Research International
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