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Tatsushi Morita, Yutaka Momota, Akihiro Mori, Hitomi Oda, Kazunori Ike, Toshinori Sako
A 12-year-old female Shih-Tzu with hyperadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism developed concurrent refractory generalized demodicosis that did not respond to doramectin treatment. Although amitraz treatment was effective, the dog developed severe diabetes, which resulted in the cessation of amitraz and trilostane. Attempts to control the diabetes were unsuccessful, and its hyperadrenocorticism was left untreated, leading to the recurrence of demodicosis. However, demodicosis went into complete remission with a single dose of fluralaner...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Michael Bennaim, Robert E Shiel, Christopher Forde, Carmel T Mooney
BACKGROUND: Dogs with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) may be more mildly affected at the time of diagnosis today, which could influence the prevalence of associated clinical and clinicopathological abnormalities and diagnostic test performance. Different low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (LDDST) result patterns have not been evaluated individually. OBJECTIVES: To assess the current features of HAC and evaluate if the diagnostic test performance of individual LDDST result patterns differ...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Florian Seckerdieck, Ralf S Mueller
Bacterial pyoderma is common in small animal practice. Usually there is an associated underlying disease, but little is known about the prevalence of underlying diseases in dogs with recurrent pyoderma. The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency of the different underlying diseases in dogs with recurrent pyoderma. In total, 157 animals with recurrent pyoderma were identified in hospital records from 2008 to 2013 and the data analysed for primary diseases. The time between recurrences, the type of clinical signs and the age at pyoderma onset were also evaluated...
February 1, 2018: Veterinary Record
C Noël McKnight, Linda J Lew, David A Gamble
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-month-old castrated male cat was evaluated for a large, spontaneously developed cutaneous laceration over the left scapular region. The cat had a history of severe gingivostomatitis, conjunctivitis, giardiasis, and feline herpesvirus infection and had received systemic glucocorticoid treatment for 7 weeks prior to evaluation. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a 10 × 7-cm full-thickness cutaneous laceration over the left scapular region, extremely thin skin, crusts over the dorsal aspect of the neck and base of the skull, medially curling pinnae, and moderate gingivostomatitis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
J B King, J M Morton
The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and permanence of hypoadrenocorticism associated with trilostane treatment and to assess potential risk factors for hypoadrenocorticism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using case records for 156 dogs treated with trilostane after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. Occurrences of hypoadrenocorticism were categorised as either transient or permanent. After initiation of treatment with trilostane, the estimated cumulative incidence of hypoadrenocorticism was 15% by 2 years and 26% by 4...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
Jesse Crosby, Stacy Brown
Trilostane is a synthetic steroid analog used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. For small dogs, the dose found in commercially available dosage forms of trilostane is sometimes too high. Compounding trilostane in a liquid diluent provides an option for more precise dosing and adjustments, and can be easier to administer, versus a tablet or capsule. Trilostane suspends well in cod liver oil, which is generally palatable to dogs. The stability of a compounded trilostane suspension in cod liver oil stored at room temperature was investigated for 90 days...
October 2017: Veterinary Journal
Viviani De-Marco, Luciani R Carvalho, Mariana F Guzzo, Paulo S L Oliveira, Larissa G Gomes, Berenice B Mendonca
OBJECTIVES: Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism is the most common cause of naturally occurring hypercortisolism in dogs. CRHR1 expression in human and dog corticotrophinomas suggested that this gene affects pituitary tumorigenesis. The present study aimed to investigate mutations in the CRHR1 coding region in poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism. METHODS: Fifty poodles with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and 50 healthy poodles were studied...
October 2017: Clinics
Ghita Benchekroun, Loic Desquilbet, Michael E Herrtage, Nick D Jeffery, Dan Rosenberg, Nicolas Granger
Pituitary macroadenomas compress the hypothalamus, which partly regulates heart rate and body temperature. The aim of this study was to investigate whether heart rate and/or body temperature could aid in clinically differentiating dogs with macroadenomas from dogs with microadenomas (i.e. small non-compressive pituitary mass). Two groups of dogs diagnosed with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (i.e. Cushing's disease) were included. Heart rate and body temperature were collected on initial presentation before any procedure...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
J Muñoz, P Soblechero, F J Duque, B Macías-García, P Ruiz, C Zaragoza, R Barrera
BACKGROUND: Oral administration of glucocorticoid alters serum cystatin C (sCysC) concentration in humans. OBJECTIVE: To determine if oral administration of prednisone alters sCysC in dogs without pre-existing renal disease. ANIMALS: Forty six dogs were included: 10 dogs diagnosed with steroid responsive meningitis arteritis (SRMA; group A), 20 dogs diagnosed of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH; group B), and 16 healthy control dogs (group C)...
November 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Lara A Boland, Vanessa R Barrs
Practical relevance: Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is a relatively uncommon endocrinopathy of older cats, with a mean age at diagnosis of 10 years. In addition to pituitary-dependent and adrenal-dependent hypercortisolism, clinical signs of HAC can result from adrenal sex steroid-producing tumours. Clinical challenges: While HAC in cats has many similarities to canine HAC, there are key differences in presentation, diagnosis and response to therapy. Most, but not all, cats with HAC have concurrent diabetes mellitus, which is often insulin resistant...
September 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Vladimir Jekl, Karel Hauptman, Zdenek Knotek
The number of exotic companion pet rodents seen in veterinary practices is growing very rapidly. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association's surveys, more than 2,093,000 pet rodents were kept in US households in 2007 and in 2012 it was more than 2,349,000 animals. This article summarizes the most important evidence-based knowledge in exotic pet rodents (diagnostics of the hyperadrenocorticism in guinea pigs, pituitary tumors in rats, urolithiasis in guinea pigs, use of itopride as prokinetics, use of deslorelin acetate in rodents, cause of dental disease, and prevention of mammary gland tumors in rats)...
September 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
D D Miceli, O P Pignataro, V A Castillo
Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are two diseases that can occur concurrently in dogs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the coexistence of HAC and DM, and the risk factors involved that could contribute to the development of DM in dogs with HAC. A total of 235 dogs with HAC were studied and, according to their fasting glycemia, they were divided into three groups: <5.6mmol/L, between 5.6 and 10.08mmol/L and >10.08mmol/L. The following parameters were evaluated: age, gender, cause of HAC, body condition, glycemia, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urinary cortisol:creatinin ratio (UCCR) and survival time...
July 25, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
Janelle M Belanger, Thomas P Bellumori, Danika L Bannasch, Thomas R Famula, Anita M Oberbauer
BACKGROUND: Gonadectomy, or neutering, is a very common surgery for dogs having many positive effects on behavior, health, and longevity. There are also certain risks associated with neutering including the development of orthopedic conditions, cognitive decline, and a predisposition to some neoplasias. This study was designed specifically to identify if a correlation exists between neuter status and inherited conditions in a large aggregate cohort of dogs representing many different breeds...
2017: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
Stefanie Hoffrogge, Lena Fels, Marion Schmicke, Reinhard Mischke
In a 12-year-old male Labrador Retriever, presented due to other disease symptoms, clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism (polyuria, polydipsia, abdominal distention, muscle atrophy) were an incidental finding. Abnormal laboratory results and sonographic findings of the adrenal glands, but negative low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests with low basal cortisol concentrations, a negative andrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test and exclusion of iatrogenic hyperadrenocorticism, suggested an atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC)...
June 20, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
C M Johnson, P H Kass, T A Cohen, E C Feldman
BACKGROUND: Standard protocols for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation testing (ACTHst) often involve intravenous (IV) injection of corticotropin. ACTH might be unintentionally injected into the perivascular (PV) space. OBJECTIVE: To compare stimulation test results after IV and PV injections of ACTH. ANIMALS: Twenty privately owned dogs were studied: 10 healthy and 10 with trilostane-treated naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism (HAC)...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
V De Marco, K S M Noronha, T C Casado, E R Nakandakare, J C Florio, E Z Santos, C Gilor
BACKGROUND: Bezafibrate (BZF) is effective in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in human patients, but there are no data on its use in dogs. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of BZF in hyperlipidemic dogs and its efficacy in decreasing serum triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (CHO) concentrations. ANIMALS: Forty-six dogs, 26 females and 20 males, mean (±SD) age of 9 (±3) years, with TG ≥150 mg/dL (33 dogs also were hypercholesterolemic [>300 mg/dL])...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
K M Fowler, L A Frank, F Morandi, J C Whittemore
The purpose of this study was to evaluate extension of the low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) test from 8 h to 12 h to detect possible hypercortisolemia associated with atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC). Twelve client-owned dogs were enrolled in the study: 6 healthy dogs (group 1) and 6 dogs with suspected AHAC (group 2). Baseline EDTA plasma samples were collected for endogenous ACTH determination using an immunoradiometric assay. Serum samples were collected before and at 4, 8, 10, and 12 h post-administration of 0...
July 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Cheryl J Wong, Michael Koch, Erica L Behling-Kelly
Thrombosis is a serious complication of many canine diseases and may be related to decreased fibrinolytic potential. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is the key regulator of fibrinolysis with increased levels demonstrated in states of pro-thrombosis and abnormal lipid metabolism. Our objective was to develop and validate a canine PAI-1 activity assay and test whether dogs with hyperadrenocorticism or diabetes mellitus that are hyperlipidemic/dyslipidemic have increased plasma PAI-1 activity. Functionally active PAI-1 in the plasma sample was incubated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), allowing the formation of a 1:1 stoichiometric inactive complex...
April 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
S Schmid, A Hodshon, S Olin, I Pfeiffer, S Hecht
Familial narcolepsy secondary to breed-specific mutations in the hypocretin receptor 2 gene and sporadic narcolepsy associated with hypocretin ligand deficiencies occur in dogs. In this report, a pituitary mass is described as a unique cause of narcolepsy-cataplexy in a dog. A 6-year-old male neutered Dachshund had presented for acute onset of feeding-induced cataplexy and was found to have a pituitary macrotumor on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cerebral spinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels were normal, indicating that tumor effect on the ventral lateral nucleus of the hypothalamus was not the cause of the dog's narcolepsy-cataplexy...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
K-H Kim, S-M Han, K-O Jeon, H-T Kim, Q Li, M-O Ryu, W-J Song, S-C Park, H-Y Youn
BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cholestatic disease, including gallbladder mucocele (GBM), has been reported in dogs with naturally occurring pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: Differences exist in the clinical features of dogs with PDH and concurrent cholestatic disease, and also is the management of these dogs with trilostane. ANIMALS: Sixty-five client-owned dogs with naturally occurring PDH. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational case series...
March 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
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