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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444523/a-novel-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-optogenetics-representation-of-various-disease-stages-by-modulating-the-illumination-parameter
#1
Eun Jung Lee, Hyung Ho Yoon, Eun Suk Park, Joongkee Min, Sang Ryong Jeon
BACKGROUND: The classic animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD) using neurotoxin can only simulate fixed stages of the disease by causing irreversible damage to the nigrostriatal system. OBJECTIVES: To develop an optogenetic PD model that can modulate the severity of disease by optical stimulation by introducing the halorhodopsin (NpHR) gene into the substantia nigra compacta. METHODS: Fifteen rats received injections of engineered AAV with NpHR-YFP gene into the substantia nigra...
February 14, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444438/commonly-occurring-cell-subsets-in-high-grade-serous-ovarian-tumors-identified-by-single-cell-mass-cytometry
#2
Veronica D Gonzalez, Nikolay Samusik, Tiffany J Chen, Erica S Savig, Nima Aghaeepour, David A Quigley, Ying-Wen Huang, Valeria Giangarrà, Alexander D Borowsky, Neil E Hubbard, Shih-Yu Chen, Guojun Han, Alan Ashworth, Thomas J Kipps, Jonathan S Berek, Garry P Nolan, Wendy J Fantl
We have performed an in-depth single-cell phenotypic characterization of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) by multiparametric mass cytometry (CyTOF). Using a CyTOF antibody panel to interrogate features of HGSOC biology, combined with unsupervised computational analysis, we identified noteworthy cell types co-occurring across the tumors. In addition to a dominant cell subset, each tumor harbored rarer cell phenotypes. One such group co-expressed E-cadherin and vimentin (EV), suggesting their potential role in epithelial mesenchymal transition, which was substantiated by pairwise correlation analyses...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444273/prevalence-and-determinants-in-cytology-testing-for-cervical-cancer-screening-in-spain-2006-14
#3
Ana I Cobo-Cuenca, María-Aurora Rodríguez-Borrego, Pedro Hidalgo-Lópezosa, Pedro M Rodríguez-Muñoz, Manuela Martins, Juan M Carmona-Torres
Background: Cervical cancer has decreased in developed countries thanks to cytology screening programmes. The aims of this study were To analyse the frequency and evolution of performing cytology tests and to determine the variables that influence their use. Methods: Cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized women who participated in the national health survey (2006, 2011/12) and the European Health Survey in Spain (2009, 2014). Study variables: cytology-testing, time since last cytology-test, reason for performing the test, age, nationality, marital status, social status, education level and place of residence...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444256/dose-effect-of-patient-care-team-communication-via-secure-portal-messaging-on-glucose-and-blood-pressure-control
#4
Eboni G Price-Haywood, Qingyang Luo, Dominique Monlezun
Objectives: Organizational strategies for implementing eHealth tools influence patient and provider use of portal technology. This study examines whether the intensity of bidirectional secure portal messaging is associated with improved clinical outcomes. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of 101 019 patients with diabetes or hypertension (11 138 active portal users) who received primary care within the Ochsner Health System between 2012 and 2014...
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444238/vitamin-d-receptor-restricts-th2-biased-inflammation-in-the-heart
#5
Jiangping Song, Xiao Chen, Liang Cheng, Man Rao, Kai Chen, Ningning Zhang, Jian Meng, Mengmeng Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Ping-Chang Yang
Background and aims: The aberrant immune responses play a critical role in the pathogenesis of myocarditis. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) has immune regulatory functions. This study aims to investigate the role of VDR in the restricting the immune inflammation in the heart. Methods: The human heart samples were obtained from the heart transplantation. T helper (Th)2 and Th1 responses in the heart tissue were characterized by histology and immune assay. VDR-/- mice and Rag2-/- mice were used in the experiments to test the role of VDR in the maintaining the homeostasis in the heart...
February 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444188/switching-and-loss-of-cellular-cytokine-producing-capacity-characterize-in-vivo-viral-infection-and-malignant-transformation-in-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-infection
#6
Huseini Kagdi, Maria Antonietta Demontis, Juan Carlos Ramos, Graham P Taylor
Adult T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATL) arises from chronic non-malignant human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection which is characterized by high plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines whereas ATL is characterized by high plasma anti-inflammatory (IL-10) concentrations. The poor prognosis of ATL is partly ascribed to disease-associated immune suppression. ATL cells have a CD4+CCR4+CD26-CD7- immunophenotype but infected cells with this immunophenotype ('ATL-like' cells) are also present in non-malignant HTLV-1 infection...
February 14, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444142/roots-of-symptom-free-leguminous-cover-crop-and-living-mulch-species-harbor-diverse-fusarium-communities-that-show-highly-variable-aggressiveness-on-pea-pisum-sativum
#7
Adnan Šišić, Jelena Baćanović-Šišić, Petr Karlovsky, Raphaël Wittwer, Florian Walder, Enio Campiglia, Emanuele Radicetti, Hanna Friberg, Jörg Peter Baresel, Maria R Finckh
Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444138/voxel-level-quantification-of-11c-curb-a-radioligand-for-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-using-high-resolution-positron-emission-tomography
#8
Pablo M Rusjan, Dunja Knezevic, Isabelle Boileau, Junchao Tong, Romina Mizrahi, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle
[11C]CURB is a novel irreversible radioligand for imaging fatty acid amide hydrolase in the human brain. In the present work, we validate an algorithm for generating parametric map images of [11C]CURB acquired with a high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) scanner. This algorithm applies the basis function method on an irreversible two-tissue compartment model (k4 = 0) with arterial input function, i.e., BAFPIC. Monte Carlo simulations are employed to assess bias and variability of the binding macroparameters (Ki and λk3) as a function of the voxel noise level and the range of basis functions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444109/population-structure-of-the-npgs-senegalese-sorghum-collection-and-its-evaluation-to-identify-new-disease-resistant-genes
#9
Hugo E Cuevas, Louis K Prom, Giseiry Rosa-Valentin
Sorghum germplasm from West and Central Africa is cultivated in rainy and high humidity regions and is an important source of resistance genes to fungal diseases. Mold and anthracnose are two important biotic constraints to sorghum production in wet areas worldwide. Here, 158 National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) accessions from Senegal were evaluated for agronomic traits, anthracnose, and grain mold resistance at two locations, and genetically characterized according to 20 simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 221 alleles were amplified with an average of 11 alleles per locus...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444069/optical-spectral-sweep-comb-liquid-flow-rate-sensor
#10
Changyu Shen, Xiaokang Lian, Vishnu Kavungal, Chuan Zhong, Dejun Liu, Yuliya Semenova, Gerald Farrell, Jacques Albert, John F Donegan
In microfluidic chip applications, the flow rate plays an important role. Here we propose a simple liquid flow rate sensor by using a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) as the sensing element. As the water flows in the vicinity of the TFBG along the fiber axis direction, the TFBG's spectrum changes due to its contact with water. By comparing the time-swept spectra of the TFBG in water to that of the TFBG with water flowing over it, a spectral sweep comb was formed, and the flow rate can be detected by selecting a suitable sweeping frequency...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444068/multi-distance-diffuse-optical-spectroscopy-with-a-single-optode-via-hypotrochoidal-scanning
#11
Matthew B Applegate, Darren Roblyer
Frequency-domain diffuse optical spectroscopy (FD-DOS) is an established technique capable of determining optical properties and chromophore concentrations in biological tissue. Most FD-DOS systems use either manually positioned, handheld probes or complex arrays of source and detector fibers to acquire data from many tissue locations, allowing for the generation of 2D or 3D maps of tissue. Here, we present a new method to rapidly acquire a wide range of source-detector (SD) separations by mechanically scanning a single SD pair...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444016/phase-synchronous-undersampling-in-nonlinear-spectroscopy
#12
Lukas Bruder, Marcel Binz, Frank Stienkemeier
We introduce the concept of phase-synchronous undersampling in nonlinear spectroscopy. The respective theory is presented and validated experimentally in a phase-modulated quantum beat experiment by sampling high phase modulation frequencies with low laser repetition rates. The advantage of undersampling in terms of signal quality and reduced acquisition time is demonstrated, and breakdown conditions are identified. The presented method is particularly beneficial for experimental setups with limited signal/detection rates...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443994/adaptive-pumping-for-spectral-control-of-broadband-second-harmonic-generation
#13
Yanqi Qiao, Yajun Peng, Yuanlin Zheng, Fangwei Ye, Xianfeng Chen
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is always a significant frequency conversion process in nonlinear optics for many great applications but can be limited when broadband spectral laser sources are involved, e.g., femtosecond pulses. The conversion efficiency can be high, but the spectral control is hard because of the phase-matching (PM) limitation. Recently, a random quasi-phase-matching (QPM) scheme was proposed to make use of highly nonlinear materials that are difficult to be phase matched under traditional configurations...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443920/gradient-type-magnetoelectric-current-sensor-with-strong-multisource-noise-suppression
#14
Mingji Zhang, Siu Wing Or
A novel gradient-type magnetoelectric (ME) current sensor operating in magnetic field gradient (MFG) detection and conversion mode is developed based on a pair of ME composites that have a back-to-back capacitor configuration under a baseline separation and a magnetic biasing in an electrically-shielded and mechanically-enclosed housing. The physics behind the current sensing process is the product effect of the current-induced MFG effect associated with vortex magnetic fields of current-carrying cables (i...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443914/using-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-in-postfire-vegetation-survey-campaigns-through-large-and-heterogeneous-areas-opportunities-and-challenges
#15
José Manuel Fernández-Guisuraga, Enoc Sanz-Ablanedo, Susana Suárez-Seoane, Leonor Calvo
This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443795/posterior-precortical-vitreous-pockets-in-high-myopia-observed-by-enhanced-vitreous-imaging-of-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography
#16
Xiaohan Wang, Mengxi Shen, Ruoshi Wang, Yanping Zhou, Tong Li, Meichun Xiao, Minlu Song, Xiaodong Sun, Fenghua Wang
PURPOSE: To observe the vitreous in highly myopic eyes with posterior precortical vitreous pockets (PPVPs) using enhanced vitreous imaging of spectral domain optical coherence tomography. METHODS: Fifty-two highly myopic eyes with PPVPs of 36 patients were included in this study. All subjects underwent enhanced vitreous imaging optical coherence tomography. The size of PPVPs was measured, and the frequency of imaging features was recorded. RESULTS: Nine imaging features of the vitreous in highly myopic eyes with PPVPs were found...
February 13, 2018: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443068/design-and-characterization-methodology-for-efficient-wide-range-tunable-mems-filters
#17
Hasan Goktas
Here, we demonstrate the advantages of the laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) over conventional techniques (the network analyzer), as well as the techniques to create an application-based microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) filter and how to use it efficiently (i.e., tuning the tuning-capability and avoiding both failure and stiction). LDV enables crucial measurements that are impossible with the network analyzer, such as higher mode detection (highly sensitive biosensor application) and resonance measurement for very small devices (fast prototyping)...
February 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443047/application-of-chronic-stimulation-to-study-contractile-activity-induced-rat-skeletal-muscle-phenotypic-adaptations
#18
Yuho Kim, Jonathan M Memme, David A Hood
Skeletal muscle is a highly adaptable tissue, as its biochemical and physiological properties are greatly altered in response to chronic exercise. To investigate the underlying mechanisms that bring about various muscle adaptations, a number of exercise protocols such as treadmill, wheel running, and swimming exercise have been used in the animal studies. However, these exercise models require a long period of time to achieve muscle adaptations, which may be also regulated by humoral or neurological factors, thus limiting their applications in studying the muscle-specific contraction-induced adaptations...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443017/assessment-of-dna-contamination-in-rna-samples-based-on-ribosomal-dna
#19
Seyyed Hamidreza Hashemipetroudi, Ghorbanali Nematzadeh, Gholamreza Ahmadian, Ahad Yamchi, Markus Kuhlmann
One method extensively used for the quantification of gene expression changes and transcript abundances is reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). It provides accurate, sensitive, reliable, and reproducible results. Several factors can affect the sensitivity and specificity of RT-qPCR. Residual genomic DNA (gDNA) contaminating RNA samples is one of them. In gene expression analysis, non-specific amplification due to gDNA contamination will overestimate the abundance of transcript levels and can affect the RT-qPCR results...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442955/generation-of-elliptically-polarized-terahertz-waves-from-antiferromagnetic-sandwiched-structure
#20
Sheng Zhou, Qiang Zhang, Shu-Fang Fu, Xuan-Zhang Wang, Yu-Ling Song, Xiang-Guang Wang, Xiu-Rong Qu
The generation of elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave of an antiferromagnetic (AF)/dielectric sandwiched structure in the terahertz range is studied. The frequency and external magnetic field can change the AF optical response, resulting in the generation of elliptical polarization. An especially useful geometry with high levels of the generation of elliptical polarization is found in the case where an incident electromagnetic wave perpendicularly illuminates the sandwiched structure, the AF anisotropy axis is vertical to the wave-vector and the external magnetic field is pointed along the wave-vector...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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