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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214433/anxiety-and-cannabis-related-problem-severity-among-dually-diagnosed-outpatients-the-impact-of-false-safety-behaviors
#1
Julia D Buckner, Michael J Zvolensky, Anthony H Ecker, Emily R Jeffries, Austin W Lemke, Kimberlye E Dean, Michael S Businelle, Matthew W Gallagher
Cannabis use disorder (CUD) co-occurs with anxiety disorders at high rates. Little is known about the mechanisms linking CUD and anxiety disorders. One theoretically-driven perspective is that individuals with anxiety disorders may be more apt to use FSBs (i.e., behaviors that may be effective in decreasing anxiety in the short-term, but can maintain and even exacerbate anxiety in the long-term), which can perpetuate cannabis use despite cannabis-related problems. The present study tested whether FSB use explained the relation of anxiety symptom severity with cannabis quantity and related problems among 77 adults with CUD and comorbid anxiety disorders seeking outpatient CUD treatment...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214377/reciprocal-translocation-of-small-numbers-of-inbred-individuals-rescues-immunogenetic-diversity
#2
Catherine E Grueber, Jolene T Sutton, Sol Heber, James V Briskie, Ian G Jamieson, Bruce C Robertson
Genetic rescue can reduce inbreeding depression and increase fitness of small populations, even when the donor populations are highly inbred. In a recent experiment involving two inbred island populations of the South Island robin, Petroica australis, reciprocal translocations improved microsatellite diversity and individual fitness. While microsatellite loci may reflect patterns of genome-wide diversity, they generally do not indicate the specific genetic regions responsible for increased fitness. We tested the effectiveness of this reciprocal translocation for rescuing diversity of two immunogenetic regions: toll-like receptor (TLR) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214367/population-genetic-structure-and-adaptation-of-malaria-parasites-on-the-edge-of-endemic-distribution
#3
Craig W Duffy, Hampate Ba, Samuel Assefa, Ambroise D Ahouidi, Yacine B Deh, Abderahmane Tandia, Freja C M Kirsebom, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, David J Conway
To determine whether the major human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exhibits fragmented population structure or local adaptation at the northern limit of its African distribution where the dry Sahel zone meets the Sahara, samples were collected from diverse locations within Mauritania over a range of ~ 1000 kilometres. Microsatellite genotypes were obtained for 203 clinical infection samples from eight locations, and Illumina paired-end sequences were obtained to yield high coverage genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for 65 clinical infection samples from four locations...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214343/high-resolution-ultrasound-visualization-of-the-deep-branch-of-the-ulnar-nerve
#4
Georg Riegler, Doris Lieba-Samal, Peter C Brugger, Christopher Pivec, Hannes Platzgummer, Martin Vierhapper, Gabriela Muschitz, Suren Jengojan, Gerd Bodner
INTRODUCTION: The value of imaging the deep branch of the ulnar nerve (DBUN) over its entire course has not been clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of visualizing the DBUN from its origin to the most distal point. METHODS: We performed high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) with high-frequency probes (18-22MhZ), HRUS-guided ink-marking, and consecutive dissection in 8 fresh cadaver hands. In both hands of 10 healthy volunteers (n=20), the cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured at 2 different locations (R1+R2)...
February 18, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214326/treatment-preferences-for-biologicals-in-psoriasis-experienced-patients-appreciate-sustainability
#5
Christian Kromer, Wiebke K Peitsch, Raphael Herr, Astrid Schmieder, Diana Sonntag, Marthe-Lisa Schaarschmidt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment satisfaction can be improved by integrating patients' preferences into shared decision-making. We recently investigated patients' preferences for attributes of biologicals, and showed high preferences for safety and efficacy. The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of treatment experience on these preferences. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Preferences for outcome (probability of 50 % and 90 % improvement, time until response, sustainability of success, probability of mild and severe adverse events, probability of ACR 20 response) and process attributes (treatment location, frequency, duration, and delivery method) were analyzed in 200 participants with moderate-to-severe psoriasis using conjoint analysis...
February 2017: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214293/ultra-high-frequency-ultrasound-of-fascicles-in-the-median-nerve-at-the-wrist
#6
Michael S Cartwright, Vanessa Baute, James B Caress, Francis O Walker
INTRODUCTION: An ultra high-frequency (70 MHz) ultrasound device has recently been approved for human use. This study was conducted to determine if this device facilitates counting of fascicles within the median nerve at the wrist. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers underwent imaging of the median nerve at the wrist bilaterally. The number of fascicles in each nerve was counted by two independent raters. RESULTS: The mean fascicle number was 22...
February 18, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214188/prevalence-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-among-71-435-women-in-jiangxi-province-china
#7
Tian-Yu Zhong, Ji-Chun Zhou, Rong Hu, Xiao-Na Fan, Xiao-Ying Xie, Zhao-Xia Liu, Min Lin, Yi-Guo Chen, Xiao-Mei Hu, Wei-Hua Wang, Long Li, Hua-Ping Xiao
Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an etiological factor for cervical cancer. Data on the prevalence and subtype distribution of HPV infection in Jiangxi Province are incomplete. In this study, we investigated HPV subtype distribution and prevalence in Jiangxi Province between August 1, 2010, and December 31, 2015. A total of 71,435 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 77 years were recruited. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected from each participant, and HPV screening was performed...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214157/causes-and-temporal-changes-in-nationally-collected-stillbirth-audit-data-in-high-resource-settings
#8
REVIEW
Tom Norris, Bradley N Manktelow, Lucy K Smith, Elizabeth S Draper
Few high-income countries have an active national programme of stillbirth audit. From the three national programmes identified (UK, New Zealand, and the Netherlands) steady declines in annual stillbirth rates have been observed over the audit period between 1993 and 2014. Unexplained stillbirth remains the largest group in the classification of stillbirths, with a decline in intrapartum-related stillbirths, which could represent improvements in intrapartum care. All three national audits of stillbirths suggest that up to half of all reviewed stillbirths have elements of care that failed to follow standards and guidance...
February 14, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214089/reliability-of-noncontrast-enhancing-tumor-as-a-biomarker-of-idh1-mutation-status-in-glioblastoma
#9
Arian Lasocki, Alpha Tsui, Frank Gaillard, Mark Tacey, Katharine Drummond, Stephen Stuckey
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutations in gliomas have been associated with a frontal lobe location and a greater proportion of noncontrast-enhancing tumour (nCET). The purpose of our study was to validate the utility of MRI imaging features in predicting IDH1 mutations in glioblastomas. Pre-operative MRIs of new glioblastoma patients, consisting of at least FLAIR and T1-weighted post-contrast sequences, were reviewed by a neuroradiologist based primarily on the VASARI feature set. IDH1 mutation testing was performed on all patients using immunohistochemistry...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214020/serum-uric-acid-concentrations-and-fructose-consumption-are-independently-associated-with-nash-in-children-and-adolescents
#10
Antonella Mosca, Valerio Nobili, Rita De Vito, Annalisa Crudele, Eleonora Scorletti, Alberto Villani, Anna Alisi, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent research has suggested that dietary fructose intake may increase serum uric acid (UA) concentrations. Both UA concentration and fructose consumption maybe also increase in NAFLD. It is not known whether dietary fructose consumption and UA concentration are independently associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with NASH in children and adolescents with proven NAFLD, and to test whether UA concentrations and fructose consumption are independently associated with NASH...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214013/lifetime-prevalence-and-incidence-of-sexual-victimization-of-adolescents-in-institutional-care
#11
Marc Allroggen, Thea Rau, Jeannine Ohlert, Jörg M Fegert
The frequency of sexual victimization in high-risk populations like adolescents in institutional care has hardly been studied. In this study, we report lifetime prevalence and incidence from a nationwide German sample including 322 adolescents (mean age 16.69 years, 43% female) from 20 residential care facilities and 12 boarding schools. Lifetime prevalence for severe sexual victimization (in and outside of institution) was 46.7% for girls and 8.0% for boys. Moreover, 5% of all adolescents experienced severe sexual victimization for the first time after they were admitted to the current institution (mean duration of stay in the current institution 3...
February 14, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213958/significance-of-a-negative-sinus-p-wave-in-lead-v2-of-the-clinical-electrocardiogram
#12
Rex N MacAlpin
BACKGROUND: A negative sinus P wave in lead V2 (NPV2 ) of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is rare when leads are positioned correctly. This study was undertaken to clarify the significance of an unusually high incidence of this anomaly found in ECGs at my institution. METHODS: One thousand four hundred thirty-five ECGs were randomly selected to determine the incidence and gender frequency in tracings showing positive (PPV2 ), and biphasic (BPV2 ) P waves in V2 , as well as NPV2 ...
February 18, 2017: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213861/peri-operative-allogeneic-blood-transfusion-and-outcomes-after-radical-cystectomy-a-population-based-study
#13
D Robert Siemens, Melanie T Jaeger, Xuejiao Wei, Francisco Vera-Badillo, Christopher M Booth
INTRODUCTION: To describe factors associated with peri-operative blood transfusion (PBT) at radical cystectomy (RC) for patients with bladder cancer and evaluate its association on both early and late outcomes. METHODS: Electronic records of treatment and surgical pathology reports were linked to the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry to identify all patients who underwent RC between 2000 and 2008. Modified Poisson regression model was used to determine the factors associated with PBT...
February 17, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213857/management-of-overactive-bladder-in-the-face-of-high-grade-prolapse
#14
REVIEW
Juan Guzman-Negron, Sandip Vasavada
Patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) may present with a large combination of symptoms including overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms such as urgency, frequency, and urgency incontinence. The explanation as to why these symptoms are more prevalent in POP patients is not clearly understood, but there seems to be an overall agreement that prolapse-induced bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may trigger bladder changes resulting in OAB symptoms. Presuming this to be true, many of the studies managing OAB in POP patients have focused on the surgical management of prolapse and its aftermath, which in many of the patients leads to improvement of OAB symptoms...
February 2017: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213830/recognition-memory-for-low-and-high-frequency-filtered-emotional-faces-low-spatial-frequencies-drive-emotional-memory-enhancement-whereas-high-spatial-frequencies-drive-the-emotion-induced-recognition-bias
#15
Michaela Rohr, Johannes Tröger, Nils Michely, Alarith Uhde, Dirk Wentura
This article deals with two well-documented phenomena regarding emotional stimuli: emotional memory enhancement-that is, better long-term memory for emotional than for neutral stimuli-and the emotion-induced recognition bias-that is, a more liberal response criterion for emotional than for neutral stimuli. Studies on visual emotion perception and attention suggest that emotion-related processes can be modulated by means of spatial-frequency filtering of the presented emotional stimuli. Specifically, low spatial frequencies are assumed to play a primary role for the influence of emotion on attention and judgment...
February 17, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213809/the-correlation-between-biofilm-production-and-catheter-related-blood-stream-infections-sustained-by-candida-a-case-control-study
#16
Grazia Brunetti, Valeria Visconti, Maria Cristina Ghezzi, Alessandra Giordano, Giammarco Raponi
Biofilm forming capacity of yeasts colonizing the intravenous devices is considered a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of Candida catheter-related bloodstream infections (CCRBSI). The biofilm production of strains of Candida spp. isolated both from the CVC and from the blood of patients with CCRBSI was compared to that of strains isolated from patients not having CCRBSI. Results, expressed in terms of Biofilm Index (BI), revealed that biofilm-producing strains were isolated in the CCRBSI group with a frequency significantly higher than in the non-CCRBSI group (χ(2) = 4...
February 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213666/patterns-of-abnormal-gastric-pacemaking-after-sleeve-gastrectomy-defined-by-laparoscopic-high-resolution-electrical-mapping
#17
Rachel Berry, Leo K Cheng, Peng Du, Niranchan Paskaranandavadivel, Timothy R Angeli, Terence Mayne, Grant Beban, Gregory O'Grady
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is increasingly being applied to treat obesity. LSG includes excision of the normal gastric pacemaker, which could induce electrical dysrhythmias impacting on post-operative symptoms and recovery, but these implications have not been adequately investigated. This study aimed to define the effects of LSG on gastric slow-wave pacemaking using laparoscopic high-resolution (HR) electrical mapping. METHODS: Laparoscopic HR mapping was performed before and after LSG using flexible printed circuit arrays (64-96 electrodes; 8-12 cm(2); n = 8 patients) deployed through a 12 mm trocar and positioned on the gastric serosa...
February 17, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213602/understanding-the-epidemiology-of-avoidable-significant-harm-in-primary-care-protocol-for-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#18
Brian G Bell, Stephen Campbell, Andrew Carson-Stevens, Huw Prosser Evans, Alison Cooper, Christina Sheehan, Sarah Rodgers, Christine Johnson, Adrian Edwards, Sarah Armstrong, Rajnikant Mehta, Antony Chuter, Ailsa Donnelly, Darren M Ashcroft, Joanne Lymn, Pam Smith, Aziz Sheikh, Matthew Boyd, Anthony J Avery
INTRODUCTION: Most patient safety research has focused on specialist-care settings where there is an appreciation of the frequency and causes of medical errors, and the resulting burden of adverse events. There have, however, been few large-scale robust studies that have investigated the extent and severity of avoidable harm in primary care. To address this, we will conduct a 12-month retrospective cross-sectional study involving case note review of primary care patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct electronic searches of general practice (GP) clinical computer systems to identify patients with avoidable significant harm...
February 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213520/cholesterol-up-regulates-neuronal-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-girk-channel-activity-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Anna N Bukiya, Serdar Durdagi, Sergei Noskov, Avia Rosenhouse-Dantsker
Hypercholesterolemia is a well-known risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are mostly unknown. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that cholesterol-driven effects on physiology and pathophysiology derive from its ability to alter the function of a variety of membrane proteins including ion channels. Yet, the effect of cholesterol on G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels expressed in the brain is unknown. GIRK channels mediate the actions of inhibitory brain neurotransmitters...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213516/rapid-regulation-of-sialidase-activity-in-response-to-neural-activity-and-sialic-acid-removal-during-memory-processing-in-rat-hippocampus
#20
Akira Minami, Yuko Meguro, Sayaka Ishibashi, Ami Ishii, Mako Shiratori, Saki Sai, Yuuki Horii, Hirotaka Shimizu, Hokuto Fukumoto, Sumika Shinba, Risa Taguchi, Tadanobu Takahashi, Tadamune Otsubo, Kiyoshi Ikeda, Takashi Suzuki
Sialidase cleaves sialic acids on the extracellular cell surface as well as inside the cell, and is necessary for normal long-term potentiation (LTP) at MF-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses and for hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. Here, we investigated in detail the role of sialidase in memory processing. Sialidase activity measured with 4MU-Neu5Ac or X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB was increased by high K(+)-induced membrane depolarization. Sialidase activity was also increased by chemical LTP induction with forskolin and activation of BDNF signaling, non-NMDARs or NMDARs...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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