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Dorsal root ganglion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521343/tarlov-cyst-causing-sacral-insufficiency-fracture
#1
Ross C Puffer, Marcus J Gates, William Copeland, William E Krauss, Jeremy Fogelson
BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Tarlov cysts, also known as perineural cysts, have been described as meningeal dilations of the spinal nerve root sheath between the peri- and endoneurium at the dorsal root ganglion. Most often they are found in the sacrum involving the nerve roots. Normally asymptomatic, they have been reported to present with radiculopathy, paresthesias, and even urinary or bowel dysfunction. Sacral insufficiency has not been a well-documented presentation. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The patient is a 38-year-old female who started to develop left low back pain and buttock pain that rapidly progressed into severe pain with some radiation down the posterior aspect of her left leg...
June 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518122/dorsal-root-ganglion-injection-and-dorsal-root-crush-injury-as-a-model-for-sensory-axon-regeneration
#2
Menghon Cheah, James W Fawcett, Melissa R Andrews
Achieving axon regeneration after nervous system injury is a challenging task. As different parts of the central nervous system (CNS) differ from each other anatomically, it is important to identify an appropriate model to use for the study of axon regeneration. By using a suitable model, we can formulate a specific treatment based on the severity of injury, the neuronal cell type of interest, and the desired spinal tract for assessing regeneration. Within the sensory pathway, DRG neurons are responsible for relaying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517492/practical-considerations-of-linear-accelerator-based-frameless-extracranial-radiosurgery-for-treatment-of-occipital-neuralgia-for-nonsurgical-candidates
#3
Travis R Denton, Lisa B E Shields, Jonathan N Howe, Todd S Shanks, Aaron C Spalding
Occipital neuralgia generally responds to medical or invasive procedures. Repeated invasive procedures generate increasing complications and are often contraindicated. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has not been reported as a treatment option largely due to the extracranial nature of the target as opposed to the similar, more established trigeminal neuralgia. A dedicated phantom study was conducted to determine the optimum imaging studies, fusion matrices, and treatment planning parameters to target the C2 dorsal root ganglion which forms the occipital nerve...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515697/trpa1-channels-modify-trpv1-mediated-current-responses-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#4
Takayoshi Masuoka, Makiko Kudo, Yuka Yamashita, Junko Yoshida, Noriko Imaizumi, Ikunobu Muramatsu, Matomo Nishio, Takaharu Ishibashi
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel is highly expressed in a subset of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia of experimental animals, responsible for nociception. Many researches have revealed that some TRPV1-positive neurons co-express the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel whose activities are closely modulated by TRPV1 channel. However, it is less investigated whether the activities of TRPV1 channel are modulated by the presence of TRPA1 channel in primary sensory neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511287/generation-and-characterization-of-highly-purified-canine-schwann-cells-from-spinal-nerve-dorsal-roots-as-potential-new-candidates-for-transplantation-strategies
#5
Nicole Steffensen, Annika Lehmbecker, Ingo Gerhauser, Yimin Wang, Regina Carlson, Andrea Tipold, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Veronika M Stein
Schwann cells (SCs) are promising candidates for transplantation-strategies in the central nervous system by promoting axonal regeneration. The dog represents a translational model for human spinal cord injury (SCI) for studies with new repair strategies after intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH). To overcome the necessity for an additional surgical procedure, for the first time a protocol for isolation, and purification of canine SCs from spinal-nerve-biopsies during standard hemilaminectomy in IVDH affected paraplegic dogs for potential transplantation was developed...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508747/voltage-gated-na-currents-in-human-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#6
Xiulin Zhang, Birgit T Priest, Inna Belfer, Michael S Gold
Available evidence indicates voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) in peripheral sensory neurons are essential for the pain and hypersensitivity associated with tissue injury. However, our understanding of the biophysical and pharmacological properties of the channels in sensory neurons is largely based on the study of heterologous systems or rodent tissue, despite evidence that both expression systems and species differences influence these properties. Therefore, we sought to determine the extent to which the biophysical and pharmacological properties of VGSCs were comparable in rat and human sensory neurons...
May 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508316/trpc-channels-and-neuron-development-plasticity-and-activities
#7
Yilin Tai, Yichang Jia
In this chapter, we mainly focus on the functions of TRPC channels in brain development, including neural progenitor proliferation, neurogenesis, neuron survival, axon guidance, dendritic morphology, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity. We also notice emerging advances in understanding the functions of TRPC channels in periphery, especially their functions in sensation and nociception in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Because TRPC channels are expressed in all major types of glial cells, which account for at least half of total cells in the brain, TRPC channels may act as modulators for glial functions as well...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505604/nrf2-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-modulation-by-plumbagin-attenuates-functional-behavioural-and-biochemical-deficits-in-rat-model-of-neuropathic-pain
#8
Vijay Arruri, Prashanth Komirishetty, Aparna Areti, Siva Kumar Naik Dungavath, Ashutosh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Plumbagin is known to exhibit a broad range of biological activities including anti-cancer, antimicrobial and has been widely used traditionally. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) inhibitory and Nuclear factor (erythroid derived-2) like-2 (Nrf2) modulatory activities of Plumbagin have been reported already. In nerve injury model of neuropathy in rats, the role of NF-κB upregulation and declined antioxidant defence has been well recognized...
February 27, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505030/association-between-neurotrophic-factor-expression-and-pain-related-behavior-induced-by-nucleus-pulposus-applied-to-rat-nerve-root
#9
Shinobu Seki, Miho Sekiguchi, Shin-Ichi Konno
STUDY DESIGN: An experimental animal study OBJECTIVE.: To investigate the relationship between pain-related behavior and the expression of neurotrophic factors in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal cord (SC) using a nucleus pulposus (NP) rat model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Neurotrophic factors are released from activated glial cells and are associated with pain-related behavior. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophic factor that is induced by inflammation...
April 12, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498403/mus-musculus-microrna-449a-ameliorates-neuropathic-pain-by-decreasing-the-level-of-kcnma1-and-trpa1-and-increasing-the-level-of-tpte
#10
Shan Lu, Sichao Ma, Yunyun Wang, Tao Huang, Zhihua Zhu, Guoqing Zhao
Neuropathic pain is a nerve disorder characterized by the dysregulation of ion channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. MicroRNAs (miRs) may be associated with the molecular mechanisms underlying the altered levels of ion channels; however, the molecular mechanisms remain widely unknown. To investigate these mechanisms, the present study conducted a genomic analysis of miR between a unilateral spared nerve injury (SNI) model and sham control. Differentially expressed miRs between the SNI and sham groups were selected for transfection of DRG cells, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array analysis was subsequently performed...
May 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492437/continuous-intrathecal-infusion-of-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-attenuates-nerve-ligation-induced-pain-in-rats
#11
Sheng-Jie Shiue, Hsien-Yu Peng, Chung-Ren Lin, Shih-Wei Wang, Ruey-Horng Rau, Jen-Kun Cheng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R/CB2R) are known to play important roles in pain transmission. In this study, we investigated the effects of continuous intrathecal infusion of CB1/2R agonists in the L5/6 spinal nerve ligation pain model. METHODS: Under isoflurane anesthesia, rats received nerve ligation and intrathecal catheter connected to an infusion pump. After surgery, saline (1 μL/h), CB1/2R agonist WIN55,212-2, CB1R agonist ACEA, or CB2R agonist AM1241 (1 μmol/h) was given intrathecally for 7 days...
May 10, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490466/ret-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#12
Kechen Ban, Shu Feng, Longjiang Shao, Michael Ittmann
Purpose: Large diameter perineural prostate cancer is associated with poor outcomes. GDNF, with its co-receptor GFRα1, binds RET and activates downstream pro-oncogenic signaling. Since both GDNF and GFRα1 are secreted by nerves, we examined the role of RET signaling in prostate cancer. <p>Experimental Design: Expression of RET, GDNF and/or GFRα1 was assessed. The impact of RET signaling on proliferation, invasion and soft agar colony formation, perineural invasion and growth in vivo was determined...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486758/stimulation-of-the-l2-l3-dorsal-root-ganglia-induces-effective-pain-relief-in-the-low-back
#13
Frank Huygen, Liong Liem, William Cusack, Jeffery Kramer
INTRODUCTION: Chronic low back pain affects millions of people worldwide and can arise through a variety of clinical origins. In the case of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS), previous surgical procedures can contribute to low back pain that is often unresponsive to intervention. Although spinal cord stimulation can be an effective treatment modality, it does not provide sufficient pain relief for some intractable cases. Recently, alternative neuromodulation options have been developed, including dorsal root ganglion (DRG) stimulation...
May 9, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486232/osthole-a-coumadin-analog-from-cnidium-monnieri-l-cusson-ameliorates-nucleus-pulposus-induced-radicular-inflammatory-pain-by-inhibiting-the-activation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-in-rats
#14
Hai-Xuan Wu, Yi-Min Wang, Hui Xu, Ming Wei, Qiu-Lan He, Mei-Na Li, Lai-Bao Sun, Ming-Hui Cao
AIM: This study was aimed at assessing the role of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) in mechanical allodynia resulting from lumbar disc herniation (LDH) and exploring the osthole's anti-nociceptive effect on ERK activation. METHODS: Radicular pain was generated by applying nucleus pulposus (NP) to the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Allodynia was measured using Von Frey filaments to calculate the mechanical pain threshold. Phosphorylated ERK and total ERK protein in the lumbar spinal dorsal horn was detected by using the Western blot technique...
May 10, 2017: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485773/curcumin-alleviates-lumbar-radiculopathy-by-reducing-neuroinflammation-oxidative-stress-and-nociceptive-factors
#15
L Xiao, M Ding, A Fernandez, P Zhao, L Jin, X Li
Current non-surgical treatments for lumbar radiculopathy [e.g. epidural steroids and Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antagonists] are neither effective nor safe. As a non-toxic natural product, curcumin possesses an exceptional anti-inflammatory profile. We hypothesised that curcumin alleviates lumbar radiculopathy by attenuating neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and nociceptive factors. In a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) culture, curcumin effectively inhibited TNF-α-induced neuroinflammation, in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and COX-2...
May 9, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483977/uncoupling-of-unc5c-with-polymerized-tubb3-in-microtubules-mediates-netrin-1-repulsion
#16
Qiangqiang Shao, Tao Yang, Huai Huang, Farrah Alarmanazi, Guofa Liu
Modulation of microtubule (MT) dynamics is a key event of cytoskeleton remodeling in the growth cone (GC) during axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Our previous studies have shown that the direct interaction of netrin receptor DCC and DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3, a neuron-specific MT subunit in the brain, is required for netrin-1-mediated axon outgrowth, branching and attraction. Here, we show that uncoupling of polymerized TUBB3 with netrin-1 repulsive receptor UNC5C is involved in netrin-1-mediated axonal repulsion...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481389/comparison-of-the-effects-of-curcumin-tramadol-and-surgical-treatments-on-neuropathic-pain-induced-by-chronic-constriction-injury-in-rat
#17
Dilek Ceyhan, Atacan Emre Kocman, Engin Yildirim, Orhan Ozatik, Sule Aydin, Kose Aydan
AIM: Nerve entrapment syndromes are the most common causes of neuropathic pain. Surgical decompression is preferred method of treatment. The goal of the study was to compare the efficacy of curcumin, tramadol and chronic constriction release treatment (CCR), individually or together, in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty male-rats were divided into eight study groups. Group 1 was the sham group. Group 2 was the control group with established chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
April 4, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469666/anatomical-distributional-defects-in-mutant-genes-associated-with-dominant-intermediate-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-type-c-in-an-adenovirus-mediated-mouse-model
#18
SeoJin Lee, Sandesh Panthi, Hyun Woo Jo, Jaeyoung Cho, Min-Sik Kim, Na Young Jeong, In Ok Song, Junyang Jung, Youngbuhm Huh
Dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type C (DI-CMTC) is a dominantly inherited neuropathy that has been classified primarily based on motor conduction velocity tests but is now known to involve axonal and demyelination features. DI-CMTC is linked to tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (YARS)-associated neuropathies, which are caused by E196K and G41R missense mutations and a single de novo deletion (153-156delVKQV). It is well-established that these YARS mutations induce neuronal dysfunction, morphological symptoms involving axonal degeneration, and impaired motor performance...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469663/estrogen-affects-neuropathic-pain-through-upregulating-n-methyl-d-aspartate-acid-receptor-1-expression-in-the-dorsal-root-ganglion-of-rats
#19
Chao Deng, Ya-Juan Gu, Hong Zhang, Jun Zhang
Estrogen affects the generation and transmission of neuropathic pain, but the specific regulatory mechanism is still unclear. Activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) plays an important role in the production and maintenance of hyperalgesia and allodynia. The present study was conducted to determine whether a relationship exists between estrogen and NMDAR1 in peripheral nerve pain. A chronic sciatic nerve constriction injury model of chronic neuropathic pain was established in rats. These rats were then subcutaneously injected with 17β-estradiol, the NMDAR1 antagonist D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5), or both once daily for 15 days...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468001/sensory-neurons-in-the-human-geniculate-ganglion
#20
Tadasu Sato, Yu Yamaguma, Yu Sasaki, Noriyuki Kanda, Nobuyuki Sasahara, Souichi Kokubun, Takehiro Yajima, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
The geniculate ganglion (GG) contains visceral and somatic sensory neurons of the facial nerve. In this study, the number and cell size of sensory neurons in the human GG were investigated. The estimated number of GG neurons ranged from 1,580 to 2,561 (mean ± SD = 1,960 ± 364.6). The cell size of GG neurons ranged from 393.0 to 2,485.4 μm2 (mean ± SD = 1,067.4 ± 99.5 μm2). Sensory neurons in the GG were significantly smaller in size than those in the dorsal root (range = 326.6-5343.4 μm2, mean ± SD = 1,683...
May 4, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
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