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Dorsal root ganglion

De-An Qin, Jie-Fu Song, Li-Ping Song, Gui-Sheng Feng
Background Pain management for multiple bone metastases is complex and often requires multidisciplinary treatment. We herein describe patient-centered multidisciplinary pain management for metastatic cancer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 61-year-old woman with multiple bone metastases of uterine cervical cancer developed intractable low back pain. After external beam radiotherapy failed, we performed lumbar spinal intralesional curettage, pedicle screw fixation, and nerve decompression. However, the neuralgia persisted...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
A M Illias, A C Gist, H Zhang, A K Kosturakis, P M Dougherty
Activation of innate immune mechanisms within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and spinal dorsal horn has been shown to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain including paclitaxel-related chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Here we tested whether similar mechanisms are generalizable to oxaliplatin-induced CIPN. After a single intraperitoneal injection of 3mg/kg oxaliplatin, mechanical withdrawal threshold and the expression of C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and its receptor, CCR2 in the DRG were measured by behavioral testing and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, respectively...
March 15, 2018: Pain
Joselle M McCracken, Sheng Xu, Adina Badea, Kyung-In Jang, Zheng Yan, David J Wetzel, Kewang Nan, Qing Lin, Mengdi Han, Mikayla A Anderson, Jung Woo Lee, Zijun Wei, Matt Pharr, Renhan Wang, Jessica Su, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jonathan V Sweedler, John A Rogers, Ralph G Nuzzo
Complex 3D organizations of materials represent ubiquitous structural motifs found in the most sophisticated forms of matter, the most notable of which are in life-sustaining hierarchical structures found in biology, but where simpler examples also exist as dense multilayered constructs in high-performance electronics. Each class of system evinces specific enabling forms of assembly to establish their functional organization at length scales not dissimilar to tissue-level constructs. This study describes materials and means of assembly that extend and join these disparate systems-schemes for the functional integration of soft and biological materials with synthetic 3D microscale, open frameworks that can leverage the most advanced forms of multilayer electronic technologies, including device-grade semiconductors such as monocrystalline silicon...
September 2017: Advanced Biosystems
Ying Wang, Chenyang Feng, Haoying He, Jinjin He, Jun Wang, Xiaomin Li, Shasha Wang, Wei Li, Jiuzhou Hou, Tong Liu, Dong Fang, Song-Qiang Xie
Vincristine is one of the most common anticancer drugs clinically employed in the treatment of various malignancies. A major side effect associated with vincristine is the development of neuropathic pain, which is not readily relieved by available analgesics. Although efforts have been made to identify the pathogenesis of vincristine-induced neuropathic pain, the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a neuropathic pain model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of vincristine sulfate...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Emmanuel Weyne, Johanna L Hannan, Thomas Gevaert, Yodi Soebadi, Hotaka Matsui, Fabio Castiglione, Koenraad van Renterghem, Dirk De Ridder, Frank Van der Aa, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Maarten Albersen
BACKGROUND: Previously, we found that the neuropeptide galanin was strongly upregulated soon after bilateral cavernous nerve injury (BCNI) and that galanin and its receptors were expressed in nitrergic erectile innervation. Galanin has been observed to exert neuroregenerative effects in dorsal root ganglion neurons, but evidence for these effects in the major pelvic ganglion (MPG) after BCNI is lacking. AIM: To evaluate the neurotropic effects of galanin receptor agonists and antagonists in vitro in nitrergic neurons and MPG and in vivo in rats after BCNI...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Rodrigo López-Leal, Paula Diaz, Felipe A Court
Sensory neurons from dorsal root ganglion efficiently regenerate after peripheral nerve injuries. These neurons are widely used as a model system to study degenerative mechanisms of the soma and axons, as well as regenerative axonal growth in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter describes techniques associated to the study of axonal degeneration and regeneration using explant cultures of dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons in vitro in the presence or absence of Schwann cells. Schwann cells are extremely important due to their involvement in tissue clearance during axonal degeneration as well as their known pro-regenerative effect during regeneration in the peripheral nervous system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vania W Almeida, Margaret L Bates, Mary Bartlett Bunge
The transmission electron microscope (TEM) enables a unique and valuable examination of cellular and extracellular elements in tissue in situ, in cultured cells, or in pellets derived from suspensions of cells or other materials such as nanoparticles. Here we focus on the preparation of cultured Schwann cells or Schwann cell-containing dorsal root ganglion cultures. To gain as life-like as possible views of the cellular details, it is imperative to achieve excellent preservation of the cellular structure. The steps in the preparation of cultures described in this chapter represent the results of many years of accumulated TEM images to find the best methods of preservation for Schwann cells, myelin, and basal lamina components...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Brianna Marie Lutz, Shaogen Wu, Xiyao Gu, Fidelis E Atianjoh, Zhen Li, Brandon M Fox, David M Pollock, Yuan-Xiang Tao
Sickle cell disease is associated with acute painful episodes and chronic intractable pain. Endothelin-1, a known pain inducer, is elevated in the blood plasma of both sickle cell patients and mouse models of sickle cell disease. We show here that the levels of endothelin-1 and its endothelin type A receptor are increased in the dorsal root ganglia of a mouse model of sickle cell disease. Pharmacologic inhibition or neuron-specific knockdown of endothelin type A receptors in primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion alleviated basal and post-hypoxia evoked pain hypersensitivities in sickle cell mice...
March 15, 2018: Haematologica
Dasa Cizkova, Veronika Cubinkova, Tomas Smolek, Adriana-Natalia Murgoci, Jan Danko, Katarina Vdoviakova, Filip Humenik, Milan Cizek, Jusal Quanico, Isabelle Fournier, Michel Salzet
It was recently shown that the conditioned medium (CM) of mesenchymal stem cells can enhance viability of neural and glial cell populations. In the present study, we have investigated a cell-free approach via CM from rat bone marrow stromal cells (MScCM) applied intrathecally (IT) for spinal cord injury (SCI) recovery in adult rats. Functional in vitro test on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) primary cultures confirmed biological properties of collected MScCM for production of neurosphere-like structures and axon outgrowth...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Rong-Ming Lyu, Alan Cowan, Ying Zhang, Yi-Hung Chen, Siok L Dun, Jaw-Kang Chang, Nae J Dun, Jin Jun Luo
In this brief review we summarize the current fndings relative to the discovery of a small peptide ligand, phoenixin (PNX). Using a bioinformatic approach, two novel peptides PNX-14 and PNX-20 containing 14 and 20 amino acids, respectively, were isolated from diverse tissues including the brain, heart, lung and stomach. Mass spectrometry analysis identified a major and minor peak corresponding to PNX-14 and PNX-20, in rat or mouse spinal cord extracts. With the use of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum, phoenixin immunoreactivity (irPNX) was detected in discrete areas of the rodent brain including several hypothalamic subnuclei and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Tanziyah Muqeem, Biswarup Ghosh, Vitor Pinto, Angelo C Lepore, Manuel Covarrubias
Presynaptic voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons are thought to regulate nociceptive synaptic transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. However, the Kv channel subtypes responsible for this critical role have not been identified. The Kv3.4 channel is particularly important because it is robustly expressed in DRG nociceptors, where it regulates action potential (AP) duration. Furthermore, Kv3.4 dysfunction is implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain in multiple pain models...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mohammed Issa, Christopher J Gilligan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Spine
Kevin C Kemp, Kelly Hares, Juliana Redondo, Amelia J Cook, Harry R Haynes, Bronwen R Burton, Mark A Pook, Claire M Rice, Neil J Scolding, Alastair Wilkins
OBJECTIVES: Friedreich's ataxia is an incurable inherited neurological disease caused by frataxin deficiency. Here we report the neuro-reparative effects of myeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in a humanised murine model of the disease. METHODS: Mice received a transplant of fluorescently-tagged sex mis-matched bone marrow cells expressing wild-type frataxin and were assessed at monthly intervals using a range of behavioural motor performance tests...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Nirupa D Jayaraj, Bula J Bhattacharyya, Abdelhak A Belmadani, Dongjun Ren, Craig A Rathwell, Sandra Hackelberg, Brittany E Hopkins, Herschel R Gupta, Richard J Miller, Daniela M Menichella
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is an intractable complication of diabetes that affects 25% of patients. PDN is characterized by neuropathic pain and small-fiber degeneration, accompanied by dorsal root ganglion (DRG) nociceptor hyperexcitability and loss of their axons within the skin. The molecular mechanisms underlying DRG nociceptor hyperexcitability and small-fiber degeneration in PDN are unknown. We hypothesize that chemokine CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is central to this mechanism, as we have shown that CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling is necessary for the development of mechanical allodynia, a pain hypersensitivity behavior common in PDN...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Masaki Kobayashi, Douglas W Zochodne
Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) continues to be generally considered as a "microvascular" complication of diabetes mellitus alongside nephropathy and retinopathy. The microvascular hypothesis, however, may be tempered by the concept that diabetes directly targets dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. This neuron specific concept, supported by accumulating evidence, might account for important features of DPN, such as its early sensory neuron degeneration. Diabetic sensory neurons develop neuronal atrophy alongside a series of mRNA changes related to declines in structural proteins, increases in heat shock protein (HSP), increases in the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), declines in growth factor signaling and other changes...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Yang Yang, Lan Luo, Xueting Cai, Yuan Fang, Jiaqi Wang, Gang Chen, Jie Yang, Qian Zhou, Xiaoyan Sun, Xiaolan Cheng, Huaijiang Yan, Wuguang Lu, Chunping Hu, Peng Cao
Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy (OIPN) is a severe, dose-limiting toxicity associated with cancer chemotherapy. The efficacy of antioxidant administration in OIPN is debatable, as the promising preliminary results obtained with a number of antioxidants have not been confirmed in larger clinical trials. Besides its antioxidant activity, the transcription factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a key contributor to OIPN...
March 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yu-Na Im, Yu-Dong Lee, Jeong-Soo Park, Hae-Kyoung Kim, Suhn-Young Im, Hwa-Ryung Song, Hern-Ku Lee, Myung-Kwan Han
Many itch mediators activate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), and trigger itch via activation of GPCR-mediated signaling pathways. GPCRs are desensitized by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The aim of this study is to explore the role of GRKs in itch response and the linkage between GRKs and glutamine (Gln), an amino acid previously demonstrated as an itching reliever. Itch responses were evoked by histamine, chloroquine (CQ), and dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced contact dermatitis (CD). Phosphorylation and protein expression were detected by immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Zachariah J Sperry, Kyounghwan Na, Saman S Parizi, Hillel J Chiel, John Seymour, Euisik Yoon, Tim M Bruns
The dorsal root ganglia (DRG) are promising nerve structures for sensory neural interfaces because they provide centralized access to primary afferent cell bodies and spinal reflex circuitry. In order to harness this potential, new electrode technologies are needed which take advantage of the unique properties of DRG, specifically the high density of neural cell bodies at the dorsal surface. Here we report initial <i>in vivo</i> results from the development of a flexible non-penetrating polyimide electrode array interfacing with the surface of ganglia...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Rafael Taeho Han, Han-Byul Kim, Young-Beom Kim, Kyungmin Choi, Gi Yeon Park, Pa Reum Lee, JaeHee Lee, Hye Young Kim, Chul-Kyu Park, Youngnam Kang, Seog Bae Oh, Heung Sik Na
Recent studies have provided several lines of evidence that peripheral administration of oxytocin induces analgesia in human and rodents. However, the exact underlying mechanism of analgesia still remains elusive. In the present study, we aimed to identify which receptor could mediate the analgesic effect of intraperitoneal injection of oxytocin and its cellular mechanisms in thermal pain behavior. We found that oxytocin-induced analgesia could be reversed by d(CH2 )5 [Tyr(Me)2 ,Dab5 ] AVP, a vasopressin-1a (V1a) receptor antagonist, but not by desGly-NH2 -d(CH2 )5 [DTyr2 , Thr4 ]OVT, an oxytocin receptor antagonist...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Ricardo González-Ramírez, Elizabeth Martínez-Hernández, Alejandro Sandoval, Kimberly Gómez-Mora, Ricardo Felix
It is well known that the CaV α2 δ auxiliary subunit regulates the density of high voltage-activated Ca2+ channels in the plasma membrane and that alterations in their functional expression might have implications in the pathophysiology of diverse human diseases such as neuropathic pain. However, little is known concerning the transcriptional regulation of this protein. We previously characterized the promoter of CaV α2 δ, and here we report its regulation by the transcription factor Egr-1. Using the neuroblastoma N1E-115 cells, we found that Egr-1 interacts specifically with its binding site in the promoter, affecting the transcriptional regulation of CaV α2 δ...
March 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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