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Dorsal root ganglion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097492/activation-of-trpm2-and-trpv1-channels-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-by-nadph-oxidase-and-protein-kinase-c-molecular-pathways-a-patch-clamp-study
#1
Mustafa Nazıroğlu
Despite considerable research, the mechanisms of neuropathic pain induced by excessive oxidative stress production and overload calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) remain substantially unidentified. The transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels are activated with different stimuli including oxidative stress. TRPM2 and TRPV1 have been shown to be involved in induction of neuropathic pain. However, the activation mechanisms of TRPM2 and TRPV1 via NADPH oxidase and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways are poorly understood...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096474/junb-regulates-angiogenesis-and-neurovascular-parallel-alignment-in-mouse-embryonic-skin
#2
Yasuo Yoshitomi, Takayuki Ikeda, Hidehito Saito, Yoshino Yoshitake, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Toshihisa Hatta, Nobuo Kato, Hideto Yonekura
Blood vessels and nerve fibers are often closely arranged in parallel throughout the body. Therefore, neurovascular interactions have been suggested to be important for the development of vascular networks. However, the molecular mechanisms and genes regulating this process remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the genes that are activated in endothelial cells (ECs) following interactions with neurons during vascular development. Microarray analyses of human primary microvascular ECs co-cultured with mouse primary dorsal root ganglion cells showed that JunB is strongly upregulated in ECs by neurovascular interactions...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096400/defining-recovery-neurobiology-of-injured-spinal-cord-by-synthetic-matrix-assisted-hmsc-implantation
#3
Alexander E Ropper, Devang K Thakor, InBo Han, Dou Yu, Xiang Zeng, Jamie E Anderson, Zaid Aljuboori, Soo-Woo Kim, Hongjun Wang, Richard L Sidman, Ross D Zafonte, Yang D Teng
Mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from adult tissues offer tangible potential for regenerative medicine, given their feasibility for autologous transplantation. MSC research shows encouraging results in experimental stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and neurotrauma models. However, further translational progress has been hampered by poor MSC graft survival, jeopardizing cellular and molecular bases for neural repair in vivo. We have devised an adult human bone marrow MSC (hMSC) delivery formula by investigating molecular events involving hMSCs incorporated in a uniquely designed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid scaffold, a clinically safe polymer, following inflammatory exposures in a dorsal root ganglion organotypic coculture system...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092651/long-lasting-antinociceptive-effects-of-green-light-in-acute-and-chronic-pain-in-rats
#4
Mohab M Ibrahim, Amol Patwardhan, Kerry B Gilbraith, Aubin Moutal, Xiaofang Yang, Lindsey A Chew, Tally Largent-Milnes, T Philip Malan, Todd W Vanderah, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Treatments for chronic pain are inadequate, and new options are needed. Nonpharmaceutical approaches are especially attractive with many potential advantages including safety. Light therapy has been suggested to be beneficial in certain medical conditions such as depression, but this approach remains to be explored for modulation of pain. We investigated the effects of light-emitting diodes (LEDs), in the visible spectrum, on acute sensory thresholds in naive rats as well as in experimental neuropathic pain...
February 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089870/large-dense-core-vesicle-exocytosis-from-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-is-regulated-by-neuropeptide-y
#5
Anneka Bost, Ali H Shaib, Yvonne Schwarz, Barbara A Niemeyer, Ute Becherer
Peptidergic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons transmit sensory and nociceptive information from the periphery to the central nervous system. Their synaptic activity is profoundly affected by neuromodulatory peptides stored and released from large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs). However, the mechanism of peptide secretion from DRG neurons is poorly understood. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM), we visualized individual LDCVs loaded with fluorescent neuropeptide Y (NPY) and analyzed their stimulation-dependent release...
January 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079752/changes-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-gene-expression-in-response-to-spinal-cord-stimulation
#6
Dana M Tilley, David L Cedeño, Courtney A Kelley, Margaret DeMaegd, Ramsin Benyamin, Ricardo Vallejo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to influence pain-related genes in the spinal cord directly under the stimulating electrodes. There is limited information regarding changes occurring at the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). This study evaluates gene expression in the DRG in response to SCS therapy. METHODS: Rats were randomized into experimental or control groups (n = 6 per group). Experimental animals underwent spared-nerve injury, implantation of lead, and continuous SCS (72 hours)...
January 11, 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075461/resistance-of-interleukin-6-to-the-extracellular-inhibitory-environment-promotes-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Gang Yang, Wen-Yuan Tang
Interleukin-6 (IL)-6 was originally discovered as a factor that contributes to the secondary pathological and inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) following injury. However, accumulating evidence suggests that IL-6 is also involved in functional and structural recovery following CNS injury by promoting axonal sprou-ting. This suggests a potential dual role of IL-6 in CNS injury. However, the definitive function of IL-6 in neural injury and the corresponding underlying mechanisms are still topics of controversy...
February 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073317/activation-of-kcnq-channels-suppresses-spontaneous-activity-in-drg-neurons-and-reduces-chronic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Zizhen Wu, Lin Li, Fuhua Xie, Junhui Du, Yan Zuo, Jeffrey A Frost, Susan M Carlton, Edgar T Walters, Qing Yang
A majority of people who have sustained spinal cord injury (SCI) experience chronic pain after injury, and this pain is highly resistant to available treatments. Contusive SCI in rats at T10 results in hyperexcitability of primary sensory neurons, which contributes to chronic pain. KCNQ channels are widely expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, are important for controlling their excitability, and their activation has proven effective in reducing pain in peripheral nerve injury and inflammation models...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069497/a-modified-collagen-scaffold-facilitates-endogenous-neurogenesis-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#9
Caixia Fan, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Yannan Zhao, Hui Liang, Bin Wang, Sufang Han, Xiaoran Li, Bai Xu, Nuo Wang, Sumei Liu, Weiwei Xue, Jianwu Dai
Due to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar deposition, spinal cord injury (SCI) ultimately results in permanent neurological dysfunction. Neuronal regeneration of neural stem cells (NSCs) residing in the spinal cord could be an ideal strategy for replenishing the lost neurons and restore function. However, many myelin-associated inhibitors in the SCI microenvironment limit the ability of spinal cord NSCs to regenerate into neurons. Here, a linearly ordered collagen scaffold was used to prevent scar deposition, guide nerve regeneration and carry drugs to neutralize the inhibitory molecules...
January 6, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059947/sensitivity-of-computed-tomography-compared-with-that-of-magnetic-resonance-myelography-in-the-presurgical-diagnosis-of-foraminal-or-extraforaminal-entrapment-at-the-lumbosacral-junction
#10
Sung Ho Lee, Sang-Ho Lee, Soo-Beom Kim, Eun Soo Park, Soo-Nyung Kim, Ki-Hyoung Moon
STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the sensitivities of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance myelography (MRM) in the presurgical diagnosis of foraminal or extraforaminal entrapment of the L5 nerve. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: CT is more clinically available than MRM. Foraminal or extraforaminal entrapment at the lumbosacral junction may cause L5 radiculopathy but is difficult to diagnose...
January 4, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049756/a-role-for-prolyl-isomerase-pin1-in-the-phosphorylation-dependent-modulation-of-prrxl1-function
#11
Ricardo Soares-Dos-Reis, Ana Sofia Pessoa, Ana Filipa Dias, Miguel Falcão, Mariana Raimundo Matos, Rui Vitorino, Filipe Almeida Monteiro, Deolinda Lima, Carlos Reguenga
Prrxl1 encodes for a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor essential for the correct establishment of the dorsal root ganglion - spinal cord nociceptive circuitry during development. Prrxl1 -null mice display gross anatomical disruption of this circuitry, which translates to a markedly diminished sensitivity to noxious stimuli. Here, by the use of an Immunoprecipitation-Mass Spectrometry approach, we identify 5 highly conserved phosphorylation sites (T110, S119, S231, S233, S251) in PRRXL1 primary structure...
January 3, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046293/su-f-t-631-linear-accelerator-based-frameless-extracranial-radiosurgery-for-treatment-of-occipital-neuralgia-for-non-surgical-candidates
#12
T Denton, J Howe, A Spalding
PURPOSE: Occipital neuralgia is a condition wherein pain is transmitted by the occipital nerves. Non-invasive therapies generally alleviate symptoms; however, persistent or recurring pain may require invasive procedures. Repeated invasive procedures upon failure are considered higher risk and are often contraindicated due to compounding inherent risk. SRS has not been explored as a treatment option largely due to the extracranial nature of the target (as opposed to the similar, more established trigeminal neuralgia), but advances in linear-accelerator frameless-based SRS now present an opportunity to evaluate the novel potential of this modality for this application...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033582/diosgenin-ameliorates-development-of-neuropathic-pain-in-diabetic-rats-involvement-of-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#13
Zahra Kiasalari, Tayebeh Rahmani, Narges Mahmoudi, Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad, Mehrdad Roghani
Neuropathic pain is one of the prevalent complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Oxidative stress and inflammation are the principal determinants for its development. Pharmacological interventions targeted at alleviating or suppressing these pathways are clinically promising. Diosgenin is a natural steroidal saponin with anti-diabetic and multiple protective properties. This study was designed to study the efficacy of chronic diosgenin administration on alleviation of hyperalgesia in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats...
December 26, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030470/dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-yielded-higher-treatment-success-rate-for-crps-and-causalgia-at-3-and-12-months-randomized-comparative-trial
#14
Timothy R Deer, Robert M Levy, Jeffrey Kramer, Lawrence Poree, Kasra Amirdelfan, Eric Grigsby, Peter Staats, Allen W Burton, Abram H Burgher, Jon Obray, James Scowcroft, Stan Golovac, Leonardo Kapural, Richard Paicius, Christopher Kim, Jason Pope, Thomas Yearwood, Sam Samuel, W Porter McRoberts, Hazmer Cassim, Mark Netherton, Nathan Miller, Michael Schaufele, Edward Tavel, Timothy Davis, Kristina Davis, Linda Johnson, Nagy Mekhail
Animal and human studies indicate that electrical stimulation of DRG neurons may modulate neuropathic pain signals.ACCURATE, a pivotal, prospective, multi-center, randomized-comparative effectiveness trial, was conducted in 152 subjects diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or causalgia in the lower extremities. Subjects received neurostimulation of the DRG or dorsal column (SCS). The primary endpoint was a composite of safety and efficacy at 3 months and subjects were assessed through 12 months for long term outcomes and adverse events...
December 23, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025412/effects-of-17%C3%AE-estradiol-on-leptin-signaling-in-anterior-pituitary-of-ovariectomized-rats
#15
Chunhua Yin, Lumei Kang, Cong Lai, Jing Zhou, Bin Shi, Lei Zhang, Hongping Chen
Leptin is secreted predominantly by adipocytes and exerts its role mainly by interaction with the long form of leptin receptor (LEPR_V2). It has been identified that LEPR_V2 is widely distributed in various tissues, including the anterior pituitary. Cross-talk between leptin and estrogens has been indentified. Estrogen is known to modulate the tissue-specific expression of LEPR_V2 and leptin in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, a model of postmenopausal condition. Our previous data showed that 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulated the expression of LEPR_V2 protein and mRNA in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in an estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-dependent manner...
December 26, 2016: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025021/inflammatory-pain-related-traits-of-sensory-drg-neurons-innervating-the-hip-joints
#16
Takayuki Nakajima, Seiji Ohtori, Junichi Nakamura, Takane Suzuki, Yasuchika Aoki, Atsuya Watanabe, Makoto Takazawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Hip pain is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which contains two types of neurons with differential sensitivity to neurotrophic factors. If either type predominantly innervates the hip joint, it may represent a good target for hip joint pain treatment. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the left hip joint of rats (n = 10) by using complete Freund's adjuvant. Fluoro-Gold (FG) was applied to the hip joint after 7 days, and T12-L6 DRGs were double-stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and isolection-IB4 1 week later...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012171/mir-15b-mediates-oxaliplatin-induced-chronic-neuropathic-pain-through-bace1-downregulation
#17
Naomi Ito, Atsushi Sakai, Noriko Miyake, Motoyo Maruyama, Hirotoshi Iwasaki, Koichi Miyake, Takashi Okada, Atsuhiro Sakamoto, Hidenori Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although oxaliplatin is an effective anti-cancer platinum compound, it can cause painful chronic neuropathy, and its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Although microRNAs have been increasingly recognised as important modulators in a variety of pain conditions, their involvement in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Oxaliplatin-induced chronic neuropathic pain was induced in rats by intraperitoneal oxaliplatin injections (2 mg kg(-1) ) for 5 consecutive days...
December 23, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009062/cytokine-therapy-mediated-neuroprotection-in-a-friedreich-s-ataxia-mouse-model
#18
Kevin C Kemp, Nadia Cerminara, Kelly Hares, Juliana Redondo, Amelia J Cook, Harry R Haynes, Bronwen R Burton, Mark Pook, Richard Apps, Neil J Scolding, Alastair Wilkins
OBJECTIVES: Friedreich's ataxia is a devastating neurological disease currently lacking any proven treatment. We studied the neuro-protective effects of the cytokines granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and stem cell factor in a humanised murine model of Friedreich's ataxia. METHODS: Mice received monthly subcutaneous infusions of cytokines while also being assessed at monthly time points using an extensive range of behavioural motor performance tests. After 6 months of treatment, neurophysiological evaluation of both sensory and motor nerve conduction was performed...
December 23, 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008963/characterization-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-cultured-on-silicon-micro-pillar-substrates
#19
Tihana Repić, Katarina Madirazza, Ezgi Bektur, Damir Sapunar
Our study focuses on characterization of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons cultured on silicon micro-pillar substrates (MPS) with the ultimate goal of designing micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) for successful electrophysiological recordings of DRG neurons. Adult and neonatal DRG neurons were cultured on MPS and glass coverslips for 7 days in vitro. DRG neuronal distribution and morphometric analysis, including neurite alignment and length, was performed on MPS areas with different pillar width and spacing. We showed that MPS provide an environment for growth of adult and neonatal DRG neurons as permissive as control glass surfaces...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005489/mr-neurography-of-brachial-plexus-at-3-0-t-with-robust-fat-and-blood-suppression
#20
Xinzeng Wang, Crystal Harrison, Yogesh K Mariappan, Karthik Gopalakrishnan, Avneesh Chhabra, Robert E Lenkinski, Ananth J Madhuranthakam
Purpose To develop and evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) neurography of the brachial plexus with robust fat and blood suppression for increased conspicuity of nerves at 3.0 T in clinically feasible acquisition times. Materials and Methods This prospective study was HIPAA compliant, with institutional review board approval and written informed consent. A low-refocusing-flip-angle three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequence was modified to acquire both in-phase and out-of-phase echoes, required for chemical shift (Dixon) reconstruction, in the same repetition by using partial echoes combined with modified homodyne reconstruction with phase preservation...
December 22, 2016: Radiology
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