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Dorsal root ganglion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786105/cannabinoid-win-55-212-2-mesylate-inhibits-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-expression-of-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons
#1
Rong Tan, Lijun Cao
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an established pain modulator in the peripheral nervous system. Elevated levels of TNF-α in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons reportedly is critical for neuropathic pain processing. It has been shown that the production of nitric oxide, a key player in the development and maintenance of nociception, depends on the expression of nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) and their activities. Accumulating evidence also supports an important role of cannabinoids in modulating neuropathic pain...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783906/bulleyaconitine-a-attenuates-hyperexcitability-of-dorsal-root-ganglion-neurons-induced-by-spared-nerve-injury-the-role-of-preferably-blocking-nav1-7-and-nav1-3-channels
#2
Man-Xiu Xie, Jie Yang, Rui-Ping Pang, Wei-An Zeng, Han-Dong Ouyang, Yan-Qing Liu, Xian-Guo Liu
Background Oral administration of Bulleyaconitine A, an extracted diterpenoid alkaloid from Aconitum bulleyanum plants, is effective for treating chronic pain in rats and in human patients, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Results As the hyperexcitability of dorsal root ganglion neurons resulting from the upregulation of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels has been proved critical for development of chronic pain, we tested the effects of Bulleyaconitine A on Nav channels in rat spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780163/heteromerization-of-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-and-cholecystokinin-b-receptor-through-the-third-transmembrane-domain-of-the-%C3%AE-opioid-receptor-contributes-to-the-anti-opioid-effects-of-cholecystokinin-octapeptide
#3
Yin Yang, Qian Li, Qi-Hua He, Ji-Sheng Han, Li Su, You Wan
Activation of the cholecystokinin type B receptor (CCKBR) by cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) inhibits opioid analgesia. Chronic opiate treatment leads to an increase in the CCK-8 concentration and thus enhances the antagonism of CCK-8 against opioid analgesia; the underlying molecular mechanisms remain of great interest. In the present study, we validated the colocalization of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and CCKBR in pain signal transmission-related spinal cord dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats...
May 21, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769557/nde1-positively-regulates-oligodendrocyte-morphological-differentiation
#4
Shoko Shimizu, Yugo Ishino, Masaya Tohyama, Shingo Miyata
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS), undergo morphological differentiation characterized by elaborated branched processes to enwrap neuronal axons. However, the basic molecular mechanisms underlying oligodendrocyte morphogenesis remain unknown. Herein, we describe the essential roles of Nuclear Distribution E Homolog 1 (NDE1), a dynein cofactor, in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation. In the mouse corpus callosum, Nde1 mRNA expression was detected in oligodendrocyte lineage cells at the postnatal stage...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768200/sensory-afferents-use-different-coding-strategies-for-heat-and-cold
#5
Feng Wang, Erik Bélanger, Sylvain L Côté, Patrick Desrosiers, Steven A Prescott, Daniel C Côté, Yves De Koninck
Primary afferents transduce environmental stimuli into electrical activity that is transmitted centrally to be decoded into corresponding sensations. However, it remains unknown how afferent populations encode different somatosensory inputs. To address this, we performed two-photon Ca2+ imaging from thousands of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in anesthetized mice while applying mechanical and thermal stimuli to hind paws. We found that approximately half of all neurons are polymodal and that heat and cold are encoded very differently...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766393/linear-feature-projection-based-real-time-decoding-of-limb-state-from-dorsal-root-ganglion-recordings
#6
Sungmin Han, Jun-Uk Chu, Jong Woong Park, Inchan Youn
Proprioceptive afferent activities recorded by a multichannel microelectrode have been used to decode limb movements to provide sensory feedback signals for closed-loop control in a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system. However, analyzing the high dimensionality of neural activity is one of the major challenges in real-time applications. This paper proposes a linear feature projection method for the real-time decoding of ankle and knee joint angles. Single-unit activity was extracted as a feature vector from proprioceptive afferent signals that were recorded from the L7 dorsal root ganglion during passive movements of ankle and knee joints...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760175/modulation-of-receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-sigma-increases-chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycan-degradation-through-cathepsin-b-secretion-to-enhance-axon-outgrowth
#7
Amanda Phuong Tran, Sapna Sundar, Meigen Yu, Bradley T Lang, Jerry Silver
Severed axon tips reform growth cones following spinal cord injury that fail to regenerate, in part, because they become embedded within an inhibitory extracellular matrix. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the major axon inhibitory matrix component that is increased within the lesion scar and in perineuronal nets around deafferented neurons. We have recently developed a novel peptide modulator (Intracellular Sigma Peptide or ISP) of the cognate receptor of CSPGs, protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTPσ), which has been shown to markedly improve sensorimotor function, micturition, and coordinated locomotor behavior in spinal cord contused rats...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755449/immunization-elicits-antigen-specific-antibody-sequestration-in-dorsal-root-ganglia-sensory-neurons
#8
Manojkumar Gunasekaran, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Andrew Shih, Gavin H Imperato, Meghan Addorisio, Gopal Kumar, Annette Lee, John F Graf, Dan Meyer, Michael Marino, Christopher Puleo, Jeffrey Ashe, Maureen A Cox, Tak W Mak, Chad Bouton, Barbara Sherry, Betty Diamond, Ulf Andersson, Thomas R Coleman, Christine N Metz, Kevin J Tracey, Sangeeta S Chavan
The immune and nervous systems are two major organ systems responsible for host defense and memory. Both systems achieve memory and learning that can be retained, retrieved, and utilized for decades. Here, we report the surprising discovery that peripheral sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of immunized mice contain antigen-specific antibodies. Using a combination of rigorous molecular genetic analyses, transgenic mice, and adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that DRGs do not synthesize these antigen-specific antibodies, but rather sequester primarily IgG1 subtype antibodies...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751848/differentiation-of-adipose-derived-stem-cells-into-schwann-cell-like-cells-through-intermittent-induction-potential-advantage-of-cellular-transient-memory-function
#9
Xun Sun, Yun Zhu, He-Yong Yin, Zhi-Yuan Guo, Feng Xu, Bo Xiao, Wen-Li Jiang, Wei-Min Guo, Hao-Ye Meng, Shi-Bi Lu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng
BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is a worldwide issue associated with severe social and economic burden. Autologous nerve grafting, the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve defects, still has a number of technical limitations. Tissue engineering technology is a novel therapeutic strategy, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising seed cells for nerve tissue engineering. However, the efficiency of traditional methods for inducing the differentiation of MSCs to Schwann cell-like cells (SCLCs) remains unsatisfactory...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746989/increased-expression-of-transcription-factor-sry-box-containing-gene-11-sox11-enhances-neurite-growth-by-regulating-neurotrophic-factor-responsiveness
#10
Michael P Jankowski, Lauren Miller, H Richard Koerber
The peripherally projecting axons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons readily regenerate after damage while their centrally projecting branches do not regenerate to the same degree after injury. One important reason for this inconsistency is the lack of pro-regeneration gene expression that occurs in DRG neurons after central injury relative to peripheral damage. The transcription factor SRY-Box containing gene 11 (Sox11) may be a crucial player in the regenerative capacity of axons as previous evidence has shown that it is highly upregulated after peripheral axon damage but not after central injury...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746988/connexin36-expression-in-primary-afferent-neurons-in-relation-tothe-axon-reflex-modality-coding-of-somatic-sensation
#11
J I Nagy, B D Lynn, J M M Senecal, K Stecina
Electrical coupling mediated by connexin36-containing gap junctions that form electrical synapses is known to be prevalent in the central nervous system, but such coupling was long ago reported also to occur between cutaneous sensory fibers. Here, we provide evidence supporting the capability of primary afferent fibers to engage in electrical coupling. In transgenic mice with enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) serving as a reporter for connexin36 expression, immunofluorescence labelling of eGFP was found in subpopulations of neurons in lumbar dorsal root and trigeminal sensory ganglia, and in fibers within peripheral nerves and tissues...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746890/use-of-a-capillary-alginate-gel-capgel%C3%A2-to-study-the-three-dimensional-development-of-sensory-nerves-reveals-the-formation-of-a-rudimentary-perineurium
#12
Wesley A Anderson, Alicia R Willenberg, Alexander J Bosak, Bradley J Willenberg, Stephen Lambert
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathies affect approximately 20 million people in the United States and often stem from other chronic conditions, such as diabetes. In vitro methodologies to facilitate the understanding and treatment of these disorders often lack the cellular and functional complexity required to accurately model peripheral neuropathies. In particular, they are often 2D and fail to faithfully reproduce the 3D in vivo microenvironment. NEW METHOD: Embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explants were inserted into laminin derivatized capillary alginate gel (Capgel™), a bioabsorbable, self-assembling biomaterial, possessing parallel microchannel architecture, and cultured to mimic normal nerve development, including Schwann cell myelination...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746445/a-cadaveric-study-investigating-the-mechanism-of-action-of-erector-spinae-blockade
#13
Jason Ivanusic, Yasutaka Konishi, Michael J Barrington
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Erector spinae block is an ultrasound-guided interfascial plane block first described in 2016. The objectives of this cadaveric dye injection and dissection study were to simulate an erector spinae block to determine if dye would spread anteriorly to the involve origins of the ventral and dorsal branches of the spinal nerves. METHODS: In 10 unembalmed human cadavers, 20 mL of 0.25% methylene blue dye was injected bilaterally into the plane between the fifth thoracic transverse process and erector spinae muscle...
May 10, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746088/structure-activity-studies-reveal-the-molecular-basis-for-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition-of-high-voltage-activated-calcium-channels-by-%C3%AE-conotoxin-vc1-1
#14
Mahsa Sadeghi, Bodil B Carstens, Brid P Callaghan, James T Daniel, Han Shen Tae, Tracey O'Donnell, Joel Castro, Stuart M Brierley, David J Adams, David J Craik, Richard J Clark
α-Conotoxins are disulfide-bonded peptides from cone snail venoms and are characterized by their affinity for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). Several α-conotoxins with distinct selectivity for nAChR subtypes have been identified as potent analgesics in animal models of chronic pain. However, a number of α-conotoxins have been shown to inhibit N-type calcium channel currents in rodent dissociated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons via activation of G protein-coupled GABAB receptors (GABABR). Therefore it is unclear whether activation of GABABR or inhibition of α9α10 nAChRs is the analgesic mechanism...
May 10, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742504/mir-142-3p-enhances-cell-viability-and-inhibits-apoptosis-by-targeting-cdkn1b-and-timp3-following-sciatic-nerve-injury
#15
Dong-Mei Wu, Xin Wen, Xin-Rui Han, Shan Wang, Yong-Jian Wang, Min Shen, Shao-Hua Fan, Juan Zhuang, Zi-Feng Zhang, Qun Shan, Meng-Qiu Li, Bin Hu, Chun-Hui Sun, Jun Lu, Yuan-Lin Zheng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MiRNAs are involved in phenotype modulation of neural cells after peripheral nerve injury. However, the roles of miRNAs on the survival of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons have not yet been fully understood. METHODS: In this study, the expression of miR-142-3p was measured in rat DRGs (L4-L6) during the initial 24 hours post sciatic nerve transection by microarray profiling and quantitative PCR. The functional assays including the cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle and apoptosis assays were performed in miR-142-3p mimic or inhibitor transfected cell lines...
May 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739827/hyperfiltration-in-ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-deleted-mice
#16
Naomi C Boisvert, Chet E Holterman, Jean-François Thibodeau, Rania Nasrallah, Eldjonai Kamto, Cesar H Comin, Luciano da F Costa, Anthony Carter, Richard L Hébert, Alexey Gutsol, Gregory O Cron, Baptiste Lacoste, Douglas A Gray, Chris R Kennedy
Neuronal ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that maintains intracellular ubiquitin pools and promotes axonal transport. Uchl1 deletion in mice leads to progressive axonal degeneration, affecting the dorsal root ganglion that harbours axons emanating to the kidney. Innervation is a crucial regulator of renal hemodynamics, though the contribution of neuronal UCHL1 to this is unclear. Immunofluorescence revealed significant neuronal UCHL1 expression in mouse kidney, including periglomerular axons...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738096/neuronal-intrinsic-regenerative-capacity-the-impact-of-microtubule-organization-and-axonal-transport
#17
REVIEW
Blanca Murillo, Mónica Mendes Sousa
In the adult vertebrate central nervous system, axons generally fail to regenerate. In contrast, peripheral nervous system axons are able to form a growth cone and regenerate upon lesion. Among the multiple intrinsic mechanisms leading to the formation of a new growth cone and to successful axon regrowth, cytoskeleton organization and dynamics is central. Here we discuss how multiple pathways that define the regenerative capacity converge into the regulation of the axonal microtubule cytoskeleton and transport...
May 8, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736615/bdnf-reduces-eef2-phosphorylation-and-enhances-novel-protein-synthesis-in-the-growth-cones-of-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#18
Osamu Hoshi, Ayana Sugizaki, Yuichiro Cho, Nobuyuki Takei
The local translation, which is regulated by extracellular stimuli such as guidance molecules, in growth cones of neurons provides a molecular mechanism for axonal development. In this study, we performed immunocytochemistry together with atomic force microscopy to investigate the localization of ribosomal proteins in the growth cones of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The immunoreactivity of ribosomal protein P0/1/2 and S6, and novel protein synthesis were observed in the central, sterically bulky region of growth cones...
May 7, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736614/mir-183-5p-alleviates-chronic-constriction-injury-induced-neuropathic-pain-through-inhibition-of-trek-1
#19
Dan-Ni Shi, Yi-Tao Yuan, Dan Ye, Lu-Mei Kang, Jing Wen, Hong-Ping Chen
MicroRNAs have been implicated in nerve injury and neuropathic pain. In the previous study we had shown that miR-96 can attenuate neuropathic pain through inhibition of Nav1.3. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-183, a same cluster member of microRNA with miR-96, in neuropathic pain and its potential mechanisms. We found that the expression level of miR-183-5p in dorsal root ganglion was decreased with the development of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI)...
May 7, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735961/administration-of-oxygen-ultra-fine-bubbles-improves-nerve-dysfunction-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-model
#20
Hozo Matsuoka, Kosuke Ebina, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Makoto Hirao, Toru Iwahashi, Takaaki Noguchi, Koji Suzuki, Shunsuke Nishimoto, Tsuyoshi Murase, Hideki Yoshikawa
Ultra-fine bubbles (<200 nm in diameter) have several unique properties and have been tested in various medical fields. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oxygen ultra-fine bubbles (OUBs) on a sciatic nerve crush injury (SNC) model rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 1.5 mL saline, OUBs diluted in saline, or nitrogen ultra-fine bubbles (NUBs) diluted in saline three times per week for 4 weeks in four groups: (1) control, (sham operation + saline); (2) SNC, (crush + saline); (3) SNC+OUB, (crush + OUB-saline); (4) SNC+NUB, (crush + NUB-saline)...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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