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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778993/risk-profile-for-drowning-deaths-in-children-in-the-indian-state-of-bihar-results-from-a-population-based-study
#1
Rakhi Dandona, G Anil Kumar, Sibin George, Amit Kumar, Lalit Dandona
BACKGROUND: We report on incidence of drowning deaths and related contextual factors in children from a population-based study in the Indian state of Bihar which estimated the causes of death using verbal autopsy (VA). METHODS: Interviews were conducted for deaths in 1-14 years population that occurred from January 2012 to March 2014 in 109 689 households (87.1% participation) in 1017 clusters representative of the state. The Population Health Metrics Research Consortium shortened VA questionnaire was used for interview and cause of death was assigned using the SmartVA automated algorithm...
May 19, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778871/linking-fish-tolerance-to-water-quality-criteria-for-the-assessment-of-environmental-flows-a-practical-method-for-streamflow-regulation-and-pollution-control
#2
Changsen Zhao, Shengtian Yang, Junguo Liu, Changming Liu, Fanghua Hao, Zhonggen Wang, Huitong Zhang, Jinxi Song, Simon M Mitrovic, Richard P Lim
The survival of aquatic biota in stream ecosystems depends on both water quantity and quality, and is particularly susceptible to degraded water quality in regulated rivers. Maintenance of environmental flows (e-flows) for aquatic biota with optimum water quantity and quality is essential for sustainable ecosystem services, especially in developing regions with insufficient stream monitoring of hydrology, water quality and aquatic biota. Few e-flow methods are available that closely link aquatic biota tolerances to pollutant concentrations in a simple and practical manner...
May 15, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778219/survival-of-cyanobacteria-in-rivers-following-their-release-in-water-from-large-headwater-reservoirs
#3
Nicholas Williamson, Tsuyoshi Kobayashi, David Outhet, Lee C Bowling
Cyanobacterial survival following their release in water from major headwaters reservoirs was compared in five New South Wales rivers. Under low flow conditions, cyanobacterial presence disappeared rapidly with distance downstream in the Cudgegong and Hunter Rivers, whereas the other three rivers were contaminated for at least 300 km. Cyanobacterial survival is likely to be impacted by the geomorphology of each river, especially the extent of gravel riffle reaches (cells striking rocks can destroy them) and by the different turbulent flow conditions it produces within each...
May 2018: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778083/performance-of-single-pass-and-by-pass-multi-step-multi-soil-layering-systems-for-low-c-n-ratio-polluted-river-water-treatment
#4
Cai-Jie Wei, Wei-Zhong Wu
Two kinds of hybrid two-step multi-soil-layering (MSL) systems loaded with different filter medias (zeolite-ceramsite MSL-1 and ceramsite-red clay MSL-2) were set-up for the low-(C/N)-ratio polluted river water treatment. A long-term pollutant removal performance of these two kinds of MSL systems was evaluated for 214 days. By-pass was employed in MSL systems to evaluate its effect on nitrogen removal enhancement. Zeolite-ceramsite single-pass MSL-1 system owns outstanding ammonia removal capability (24 g NH4 + -Nm-2 d-1 ), 3 times higher than MSL-2 without zeolite under low aeration rate condition (0...
May 7, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777830/occurrence-spatial-distribution-and-seasonal-variation-of-emerging-trace-organic-pollutants-in-source-water-for-shanghai-china
#5
Sainan Sun, Yanan Chen, Yujin Lin, Dong An
The long-term low concentrations of trace "contaminants of emerging concern" (CECs) can have potential toxic effects on human health and serious risks to the ecological environment. This study investigated the occurrence, spatial distributions, and seasonal variations of 65 target CECs, including 35 pesticides, 17 antibiotics, 7 microcystins, 5 estrogens, and 1 plasticizers in Shanghai's source water. The detected pesticides and antibiotics of sulfonamides and macrolides were relatively ubiquitous in source water of Shanghai, with levels decreasing in the following order: pesticides (average (avg...
May 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777194/the-bony-labyrinth-of-toothed-whales-reflects-both-phylogeny-and-habitat-preferences
#6
Loïc Costeur, Camille Grohé, Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández, Eric Ekdale, Georg Schulz, Bert Müller, Bastien Mennecart
The inner ear of toothed whales (odontocetes) is known to have evolved particular shapes related to their abilities to echolocate and move under water. While the origin of these capacities is now more and more examined, thanks to new imaging techniques, little is still known about how informative inner ear shape could be to tackle phylogenetic issues or questions pertaining to the habitat preferences of extinct species. Here we show that the shape of the bony labyrinth of toothed whales provides key information both about phylogeny and habitat preferences (freshwater versus coastal and fully marine habitats)...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776535/multi-residue-analysis-of-pesticides-in-surface-water-by-liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
J Casado, D Santillo, P Johnston
A quantitative targeted screening method for the determination of residues of a broad group of more than 250 pesticides in surface water samples was developed and validated. Substances were isolated from the sample matrix by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced polymeric sorbents (HLB), and analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) - Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Compounds were quantified in full scan acquisition mode, while accurate data dependant MS2 analysis was simultaneously triggered for the unambiguous identification of the targeted substances...
September 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775944/alterations-of-cytochrome-p450-and-the-occurrence-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-tilapia-caged-in-the-reservoirs-of-the-igua%C3%A3-u-river
#8
F Y Yamamoto, G D Diamante, M S Santana, D R Santos, R Bombardeli, C C Martins, C A Oliveira Ribeiro, D Schlenk
Environmental chemicals originating from human activities, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), may interfere with the endocrine system of aquatic organisms. The effect of these chemicals on biota and human populations is of high public concern but remains poorly understood, especially in aquatic environments of South America. The aim of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of POPs and the related effects in caged male tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in four cascading reservoirs of the Iguaçu River, Southern Brazil...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775481/widespread-anatoxin-a-detection-in-benthic-cyanobacterial-mats-throughout-a-river-network
#9
Keith Bouma-Gregson, Raphael M Kudela, Mary E Power
Benthic algae fuel summer food webs in many sunlit rivers, and are hotspots for primary and secondary production and biogeochemical cycling. Concerningly, riverine benthic algal assemblages can become dominated by toxic cyanobacteria, threatening water quality and public health. In the Eel River in Northern California, over a dozen dog deaths have been attributed to cyanotoxin poisonings since 2000. During the summers of 2013-2015, we documented spatial and temporal patterns of cyanotoxin concentrations in the watershed, showing widespread distribution of anatoxin-a in benthic cyanobacterial mats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775107/heavy-metals-contamination-and-accumulation-in-submerged-macrophytes-in-an-urban-river-in-china
#10
Guangqiu Lu, Bei Wang, Cuiping Zhang, Shuying Li, Jiliang Wen, Guoli Lu, Chunrong Zhu, Yuanqing Zhou
Deteriorating urban water quality has attracted considerable attention in China. We investigated the contamination levels and distribution of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Yuxi River water and sediments, and assessed the heavy metal accumulation capability of five species of submerged macrophytes: Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, Potamogeton pectinatus L., Hydrilla verticillata (L. f.) Royle, Myriophyllum spicatum L., and Potamogeton crispus L. Samples were collected from upstream and downstream locations in different season...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775103/shoot-litter-breakdown-and-zinc-dynamics-of-an-aquatic-plant-schoenoplectus-californicus
#11
Silvana Arreghini, Laura de Cabo, Roberto José María Serafini, Alicia Fabrizio de Iorio
Decomposition of plant debris is an important process in determining the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. The aims were to find a mathematic model fitting the decomposition process of Schoenoplectus californicus shoots containing different Zn concentrations; compare the decomposition rates; and assess metal accumulation/mobilization during decomposition. A litterbag technique was applied with shoots containing three levels of Zn: collected from an unpolluted river (RIV) and from experimental populations at low (LoZn) and high (HiZn) Zn supply...
July 3, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772512/distribution-and-speciation-of-mercury-affected-by-humic-acid-in-mariculture-sites-at-the-pearl-river-estuary
#12
Lingyun Ding, Kaiyun Zhao, Lijuan Zhang, Peng Liang, Shengchun Wu, Ming Hung Wong, Huchun Tao
At the Pearl River Estuary of southern China, mercury and its environmental problems have long been a great concern. This study investigated the distribution and speciation of mercury compounds that are significantly influenced by the increasing content of humic acid (HA, a model natural organic matter) in this region. The inorganic mercury and methyl mercury, being adsorbed and converted at different HA levels, were studied in sediments and surface water at both mariculture and their reference sites. In mariculture sediments with higher HA content (up to 4...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772008/transient-response-of-the-northwestern-iberian-upwelling-regime
#13
Nuno Gonçalo Ferreira Cordeiro, Jesus Dubert, Rita Nolasco, Eric Desmond Barton
The hydrography and dynamics of NW Iberian margin were explored for July 2009, based on a set of in situ and remote sensing observations. Zonal sections of standard CTD casts, towed CTD (SeaSoar), Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and Lagrangian surveys were made to characterize cycles of upwelling and relaxation in this region. Two periods of northerly winds, bounded by relaxation periods, were responsible for the formation of an upwelling front extending to the shelf edge. An equatorward flow was quickly set up on the shelf responding to the northerly wind pulses...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770938/evaluating-a-5-year-metal-contamination-remediation-and-the-biomonitoring-potential-of-a-freshwater-gastropod-along-the-xiangjiang-river-china
#14
Deliang Li, Jie Pi, Ting Zhang, Xiang Tan, Dylan J Fraser
Effective remediation of heavy metal pollution in aquatic systems is desired in many regions, but it requires integrative assessments of sediments, water, and biota that can serve as robust biomonitors. We assessed the effects of a 5-year metal contamination remediation along the Xiangjiang River, China, by comparing concentrations of trace metals in water and surface sediments between 2010-2011 and 2016. We also explored the trace metal biomonitoring potential of a freshwater gastropod (Bellamya aeruginosa)...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770934/total-and-methyl-mercury-seasonal-particulate-fluxes-in-the-water-column-of-a-large-lake-lake-geneva-switzerland
#15
Elena Gascón Díez, Neil D Graham, Jean-Luc Loizeau
Concentrations and fluxes of total and methylmercury were determined in surface sediments and associated with settling particles at two sites in Lake Geneva to evaluate the sources and dynamics of this toxic contaminant. Total mercury concentrations measured in settling particles were different throughout the seasons and were greatly influenced by the Rhone River particulate inputs. Total mercury concentrations closer to shore (NG2) ranged between 0.073 ± 0.001 and 0.27 ± 0.01 μg/g, and between 0...
May 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766315/validation-and-determination-of-nine-pfcs-in-surface-water-and-sediment-samples-using-uplc-qtof-ms
#16
B O Fagbayigbo, B O Opeolu, O S Fatoki, O S Olatunji
In this study, an analytical method for the routine determination of nine perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-QTOF-MS), was developed, validated, and used for their assay in surface water and sediments. The method yielded good linearity with a correlation coefficient (R2 ) ranging between 0.991 and 0.999 for all the compounds investigated. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.02 and 0.08 ng/l, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763871/simulating-climate-change-and-socio-economic-change-impacts-on-flows-and-water-quality-in-the-mahanadi-river-system-india
#17
Li Jin, Paul G Whitehead, Harvey Rodda, Ian Macadam, Sananda Sarkar
Delta systems formed by the deposition of sediments at the mouths of large catchments are vulnerable to sea level rise and other climate change impacts. Deltas often have some of the highest population densities in the world and the Mahanadi Delta in India is one of these, with a population of 39 million. The Mahanadi River is a major river in East Central India and flows through Chattisgarh and Orissa states before discharging into the Bay of Bengal. This study uses an Integrated Catchment Model (INCA) to simulate flow dynamics and water quality (nitrogen and phosphorus) and to analyze the impacts of climate change and socio-economic drivers in the Mahanadi River system...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761039/fine-grained-compositional-analysis-of-port-everglades-inlet-microbiome-using-high-throughput-dna-sequencing
#18
Lauren O'Connell, Song Gao, Donald McCorquodale, Jay Fleisher, Jose V Lopez
Background: Similar to natural rivers, manmade inlets connect inland runoff to the ocean. Port Everglades Inlet (PEI) is a busy cargo and cruise ship port in South Florida, which can act as a source of pollution to surrounding beaches and offshore coral reefs. Understanding the composition and fluctuations of bacterioplankton communities ("microbiomes") in major port inlets is important due to potential impacts on surrounding environments. We hypothesize seasonal microbial fluctuations, which were profiled by high throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and analysis...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760056/effects-of-the-hippopotamus-on-the-chemistry-and-ecology-of-a-changing-watershed
#19
Keenan Stears, Douglas J McCauley, Jacques C Finlay, James Mpemba, Ian T Warrington, Benezeth M Mutayoba, Mary E Power, Todd E Dawson, Justin S Brashares
Cross-boundary transfers of nutrients can profoundly shape the ecology of recipient systems. The common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius , is a significant vector of such subsidies from terrestrial to river ecosystems. We compared river pools with high and low densities of H. amphibius to determine how H. amphibius subsidies shape the chemistry and ecology of aquatic communities. Our study watershed, like many in sub-Saharan Africa, has been severely impacted by anthropogenic water abstraction reducing dry-season flow to zero...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759202/a-new-extraction-phase-based-on-a-polymer-inclusion-membrane-for-the-detection-of-chlorpyrifos-diazinon-and-cyprodinil-in-natural-water-samples
#20
Ruben Vera, Sara Insa, Clàudia Fontàs, Enriqueta Anticó
A simple and effective method for the detection of three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon and cyprodinil) is developed using a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) prior to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). Analytes are extracted from natural water samples using a 3 cm2 PIM made of the polymer, cellulose triacetate (CTA), and the plasticizer, nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE). Addition of the plasticizer to the CTA matrix is found to be necessary for the extraction of pesticides. After extraction, analytes are recovered from the membrane with 1 mL of acetonitrile and injected into the GC-MS system...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
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