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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679838/medico-legal-investigation-in-an-explicable-case-of-congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-due-to-a-rare-variant-of-the-phox2b-gene
#1
Francesco Ventura, Rosario Barranco, Tiziana Bachetti, Paolo Nozza, Ezio Fulcheri, Antonella Palmieri, Isabella Ceccherini
The heterozygous PHOX2B gene mutation is related to congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS). It is characterized by defective autonomous nervous system development leading to inadequate breathing response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, leading to hypoventilation especially during non-REM sleep, but also during waking in the more severe cases. Herein we report a case of sudden death in a 28-day-old child. The mother reported the infant was found lying on her own bed in the prone position. The infant was wearing a romper and lying in her crib without any blanket or other objects...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679701/the-role-of-%C3%AE-2-integrin-associated-heparin-binding-protein-release-in-ards
#2
Yang Liu, Shaolin Ma, Xuebin Wang, Yajing Feng, Shouqin Zhang, Sheng Wang, Xiangyu Zhang
AIMS: PMNs (polymorphonuclear neutrophil) play important roles in early stage of inflammation induced ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome). Both HBP (Heparin-Binding Protein) released from active PMNs and β2 integrins on the surface of PMNs are involved in vascular leakage. The role and relationship of HBP and β2 integrins on ARDS still requires study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We established ARDS model using C57BL/6 mice with cecal ligation and puncture and eliminating HBP and β2 integrin with respective antibodies...
April 18, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679681/inhibition-of-protein-kinase-a-and-girk-channel-reverses-fentanyl-induced-respiratory-depression
#3
Xiaonan Liang, Zheng Yong, Ruibin Su
Opioid-induced respiratory depression is a major obstacle to improving the clinical management of moderate to severe chronic pain. Opioids inhibit neuronal activity via various pathways, including calcium channels, adenylyl cyclase, and potassium channels. Currently, the underlying molecular pathway of opioid-induced respiratory depression is only partially understood. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of opioid-induced respiratory depression in vivo by examining the effects of different pharmacological agents on fentanyl-induced respiratory depression...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679606/regulatory-pitfalls-and-opportunities-when-repurposing-for-inhalation-therapy
#4
Svetlana Lyapustina
This article reviews regulatory considerations for companies wishing to develop drugs for delivery via the respiratory tract (e.g., by oral inhalation or intranasally) using molecules previously approved for a different therapeutic indication and/or a different delivery route. Conceptually, such repurposing has many medical and business advantages, but turning promising ideas into real products requires overcoming a number of practical challenges. Obtaining regulatory approval to market a candidate product comes at the end of a product development, but being aware of the regulatory requirements is necessary before the development even starts...
April 18, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679597/management-of-dyspnea-in-the-terminally-ill
#5
REVIEW
Lara Pisani, Nicholas S Hill, Angela Maria Grazia Pacilli, Massimiliano Polastri, Stefano Nava
The genesis of dyspnea involves the activation of several mechanisms that are mediated and perceived depending on previous experiences, values, emotions and beliefs. Breathlessness may become unbearable, especially in terminally ill patients, whether afflicted by respiratory, cardiac or cancer-related disorders, due to a final stage of a chronic process, an acute event or both. Compared to pain, palliation of dyspnea has received relatively little attention in clinical practice and the medical literature. This is particularly true when the breathlessness is associated with acute respiratory failure since most of the studies on pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of respiratory distress have excluded such patients...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679596/observational-studies-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-effectiveness-in-copd-lessons-learned
#6
Samy Suissa, Pierre Ernst
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials at times investigate findings suggested by observational studies. For example, the TORCH trial, which did not show a mortality reduction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was motivated by some observational studies that suggested considerable reductions in mortality with these drugs. Reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. METHODS: We searched the literature to identify all observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, investigating the effectiveness of ICS on major outcomes in COPD patients, including death and hospitalization for COPD...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679518/new-insights-in-the-use-of-pleural-ultrasonography-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-pleural-disease
#7
Giampietro Marchetti, Sabrina Arondi, Francesca Baglivo, Sara Lonni, Federico Quadri, Alberto Valsecchi, Nicola Venturoli, Paolo Ceruti
The use of transthoracic ultrasound has acquired a wide consensus among respiratory physicians during the last few years. The developing of portable and easily available devices favorites patient's bedside evaluation. Transthoracic ultrasound provides rapid, real-time and low-cost diagnostic information, allowing image-guided chest interventions and reducing procedural risks. The different acoustic impedance between aerated and not aerated organs produces artifacts known as A lines, B lines, sliding sign, lung point, etc...
April 21, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679508/motion-compensated-image-reconstruction-vs-post-reconstruction-correction-in-respiratory-binned-spect-with-standard-and-reduced-dose-acquisitions
#8
Chao Song, Yongyi Yang, Wenyuan Qi, Miles N Wernick, P Hendrik Pretorius, Michael A King
PURPOSE: Cardiac perfusion images in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can suffer from respiratory motion blur. We investigated a reconstruction approach for correcting respiratory motion in respiratory-binned acquisitions and assessed the benefit of this approach in both standard dose and reduced dose. METHODS: We modeled the acquired data from different respiratory bins by a joint probability distribution which was parameterized with respect to a common reference bin...
April 21, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679489/data-driven-motion-correction-will-replace-motion-tracking-devices-in-molecular-imaging-guided-radiation-therapy-treatment-planning
#9
Adam Kesner, Tinsu Pan, Habib Zaidi
The last decade has seen abundant literature demonstrating the advantages of hybrid imaging modalities combining morphological and molecular imaging in clinical oncology. Commercial systems merging SPECT and CT, PET and CT or PET and MRI are now widely used in the clinic and have had significant impact on patient management. Ultimately, molecular imaging-guided radiotherapy holds the promise of improved definition of tumor target volumes. However, respiratory motion management remains one of the main challenges of this technique...
April 21, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679463/cdp-choline-protects-liver-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-preserving-mitochondrial-function-and-reducing-oxidative-stress
#10
Cecilia Zazueta, Mabel Buelna-Chontal, Arturo Macías-López, Nadia G Román-Anguiano, Héctor González-Pacheco, Natalia Pavón, Rashidi Springall, Alberto Aranda-Frausto, Rafael Bojalil, Alejandro Silva-Palacios, Rodrigo Velázquez-Espejel, Sonia Galvan Arzate, Francisco Correa
CDP-choline (citicoline) participates as intermediary in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an essential component of cellular membranes. Citicoline treatment has shown beneficial effects in cerebral ischemia, but its potential to diminish reperfusion damage in liver has not been explored. In this work, we evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of citicoline and its possible association with inflammatory/oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, as they are main cellular features of reperfusion damage...
April 20, 2018: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679387/the-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-carfentanil-after-recreational-exposure-a-case-report
#11
Uvaraj Uddayasankar, Colin Lee, Curtis Oleschuk, Gregg Eschun, Robert E Ariano
Carfentanil and related fentanyl analogues have been linked to a number of overdose deaths from drug users in several cities across North America. Diagnosis of carfentanil exposure requires a very high index of clinical suspicion, especially because available laboratory narcotic screens do not detect this agent. We describe a 34-year-old male admitted with depressed level of consciousness and in respiratory failure after recreational exposure to a white powder later inferred to contain carfentanil. Urine and whole blood samples were obtained for conventional preliminary drug screen immunoassays for unknown exposures; in addition to utilizing high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for quantification of carfentanil and its metabolite...
April 20, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679366/blood-group-and-incidence-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Bożena Mroczek, Zygmunt Sitko, Agnieszka Sujewicz, Weronika Wolińska, Iwona Karpeta-Pawlak, Donata Kurpas
Chronic respiratory diseases are determined by genetic predisposition, and environmental and socioeconomic variables. One genetic factor underlying susceptibility to such diseases can be the ABO blood group system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that there would be a relationship between the blood group and risk of developing asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We reviewed medical history files of patients with the diagnosis of COPD or asthma, including those suffering from a cancerous disease accompanied by asthma or COPD, hospitalized from January 2016 to July 2017...
April 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679365/influence-of-gaseous-pollutants-on-copd-exacerbations-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-comorbidities
#13
Michal Zielinski, Mariusz Gasior, Dariusz Jastrzebski, Aneta Desperak, Dariusz Ziora
Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are a serious public health issue. Ambient pollution and meteorological factors are considered among precipitating factors. There are few data concerning the impact of ambient pollutants other than particulates on COPD exacerbations. Among gaseous pollutants four main groups of substances are primarily monitored: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3 ). In this study, 12,889 hospitalizations in the years 2006-2014 due to exacerbations of COPD in patients having a co-existing cardiovascular pathology were retrospectively analyzed...
April 21, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679309/effect-of-downhill-walking-on-next-day-muscle-damage-and-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-young-subjects
#14
Airi Nakayama, Wataru Aoi, Maki Takami, Nariyuki Hirano, Yumi Ogaya, Sayori Wada, Akane Higashi
This study aimed to investigate the effect of downhill walking on muscle damage and glucose metabolism in healthy subjects. All ten healthy young men and women (age, 24.0 ± 1.4 years) performed rest, uphill walking, and downhill walking trials. In the exercise trials, uphill (+ 5%) or downhill (- 5%) treadmill walking was performed at 6 km/h for 30 min. On the next day, muscle soreness was significantly higher in the downhill trial than in the uphill trial (P < 0.01). Respiratory metabolic performance did not differ between trials...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679183/effects-of-respiratory-and-applied-muscle-tensing-interventions-on-responses-to-a-simulated-blood-draw-among-individuals-with-high-needle-fear
#15
Jennifer M Kowalsky, Robert Conatser, Thomas Ritz, Christopher R France
Fear of blood and needles increases risk for presyncopal symptoms. Applied muscle tension can prevent or attenuate presyncopal symptoms; however, it is not universally effective. This study examined the effects of applied muscle tension, a respiratory intervention, and a no treatment control condition, on presyncopal symptoms and cerebral oxygenation, during a simulated blood draw with individuals highly fearful of needles. Participants (n = 95) completed questionnaires, physiological monitoring, and two trials of a simulated blood draw with recovery...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679154/effectiveness-of-a-mandibular-advancement-device-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#16
Rocío Marco Pitarch, Marina Selva García, Javier Puertas Cuesta, Jaime Marco Algarra, Enrique Fernández Julian, Antonio Fons Font
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a mandibular advancement device in a sample of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients by the evaluation of respiratory and neurophysiologic parameters and clinical symptoms. Second, the influence of certain predictor factors related with the patient and the intraoral device, were considered in the final response with this treatment option. METHODS: Forty-one patients constituted the final sample. Outcomes were measured using polysomnography, Epworth sleepiness scale and an analogue visual snoring scale, before treatment and once the device was properly titrated...
April 20, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678945/ers-ecdc-statement-european-union-standards-for-tuberculosis-care-2017-update
#17
G B Migliori, G Sotgiu, S Rosales-Klintz, R Centis, L D'Ambrosio, I Abubakar, G Bothamley, J A Caminero, D M Cirillo, M Dara, G de Vries, S Aliberti, A T Dinh-Xuan, R Duarte, F Midulla, I Solovic, D Subotic, M Amicosante, A M Correira, A Cirule, G Gualano, H Kunst, F Palmieri, V Riekstina, S Tiberi, R Verduin, M J van der Werf
The International Standards for Tuberculosis (TB) Care define the essential level of care for managing patients who have or are presumed to have TB, or are at increased risk of developing the disease. The resources and capacity in the European Union and the European Economic Area (EU/EEA) permit higher standards of care to secure quality and timely TB diagnosis, prevention and treatment. On this basis, the European Union Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ESTC) were published in 2012 as standards specifically tailored to the EU-setting...
April 20, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678944/the-clinical-significance-of-oropharyngeal-cultures-in-young-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Oded Breuer, Daan Caudri, Lauren Akesson, Sarath Ranganathan, Stephen M Stick, André Schultz
In children with cystic fibrosis (CF) the associations between oropharyngeal swabs (OPS) for detection of Pseudomonas and lung disease has not been evaluated.OPS and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were obtained annually in children with CF from 2005 to 2017. OPS test characteristics were calculated using BAL as gold standard. Results were related to lung inflammation (BAL neutrophil elastase, interleukin-8), structural lung disease (chest CT PRAGMA-CF scores), respiratory exacerbations, and future detection of Pseudomonas on BAL...
April 20, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678900/prevention-of-exacerbations-in-patients-with-stable-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-therapies
#19
Abd Moain Abu Dabrh, Adam T Hill, Claudia C Dobler, Noor Asi, Wigdan H Farah, Qusay Haydour, Zhen Wang, Khalid Benkhadra, Larry J Prokop, Mohammad Hassan Murad
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies are used to treat stable bronchiectasis of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) aetiology. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the evidence of the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options in patients with stable non-CF bronchiectasis with a focus on reducing exacerbations. STUDY SELECTION: Multiple databases were searched through September 2017...
April 20, 2018: BMJ evidence-based medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678874/mitochondrial-morphological-and-functional-reprogramming-following-cd137-4-1bb-co-stimulation
#20
Alvaro Teijeira, Sara Labiano, Saray Garasa, Inaki Etxeberria, Eva Santamaria, Ana Rouzaut, Michel Enamorado, Arantza Azpilikueta, Susana Inoges, Elixabet Bolanos-Mateo, Maria Angela Aznar, Alfonso R Sanchez-Paulete, David Sancho, Ignacio Melero
T and NK lymphocytes express CD137 (4-1BB), a costimulatory receptor of the TNFR family whose function is exploitable for cancer immunotherapy. Mitochondria regulate the function and survival of T lymphocytes. Herein, we show that CD137 costimulation provided by agonist mAb and CD137L (4-1BBL) induced mitochondria enlargement that resulted in enhanced mitochondrial mass and transmembrane potential in human and mouse CD8+ T cells. Such mitochondrial changes increased T-cell respiratory capacities and were critically dependent on mitochondrial fusion protein OPA-1 expression...
April 20, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
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