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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823132/a-short-term-supranutritional-vitamin-e-supplementation-alleviated-respiratory-alkalosis-but-did-not-reduce-oxidative-stress-in-heat-stressed-pigs
#1
Fan Liu, Pietro Celi, Surinder Singh Chauhan, Jeremy James Cottrell, Brian Joseph Leury, Frank Rowland Dunshea
Objective: Heat stress (HS) triggers oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to study whether a short-term supranutritional amount of dietary vitamin E (VE) can mitigate oxidative stress and respiratory alkalosis in heat-stressed pigs. Methods: A total of 24 pigs were given either a control diet (17 IU/kg VE) or a high VE (200 IU/kg VE; HiVE) diet for 14 d, then exposed to thermoneutral (TN; 20°C, 45% humidity) or HS (35°C, 35-45% humidity, 8 h daily) conditions for 7 d...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823059/influence-of-dextrins-on-the-production-of-spiramycin-and-impurity-components-by-streptomyces-ambofaciens
#2
Kaiya Yao, Shuhong Gao, Yanjie Wu, Zhen Zhao, Wen Wang, Quangui Mao
Spiramycin is a 16-membered macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens and used in human medicine for the treatment of various respiratory tract and genital infections. Several impurities were detected in spiramycin-fermentation broth, especially impurities D and F, which decreased the separation-extraction yield and increased production cost. Dextrins, as the main carbon source, influence the accumulation of spiramycin and impurities. In this work, two types of dextrin from vendor Y and Z were compared to study their influences on spiramycin production...
August 19, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822986/insights-in-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis-nitric-oxide-may-induce-mitochondrial-dysfunction-of-oligodendrocytes
#3
Minghong Lan, Xiaoyi Tang, Jie Zhang, Zhongxiang Yao
Demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), are kinds of common diseases in the central nervous system (CNS), and originated from myelin loss and axonal damage. Oligodendrocyte dysfunction is the direct reason of demyelinating lesions in the CNS. Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the pathological process of demyelinating diseases. Although the neurotoxicity of NO is more likely mediated by peroxynitrite rather than NO itself, NO can impair oligodendrocyte energy metabolism through mediating the damaging of mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial membrane and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes...
August 21, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822926/human-exposure-to-hydrogen-sulphide-concentrations-near-wastewater-treatment-plants
#4
Ana Flavia Locateli Godoi, Anderson Marlon Grasel, Gabriela Polezer, Andrew Brown, Sanja Potgieter-Vermaak, Débora Camargo Scremim, Carlos I Yamamoto, Ricardo Henrique Moreton Godoi
The hydrogen sulphide (H2S) levels from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Curitiba, Brazil have been quantified for the first time. H2S generated by anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in WWTPs is a cause for concern because it is an air pollutant, which can cause eye and respiratory irritation, headaches, and nausea. Considering the requirement for WWTPs in all communities, it is necessary to assess the concentrations and effects of gases such as H2S on populations living and/or working near WWTPs...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822887/the-changing-diagnostic-pathway-for-lung-cancer-patients-in-shanghai-china
#5
REVIEW
Tao Jiang, Shengxiang Ren, Xuefei Li, Chunxia Su, Caicun Zhou, Mary O'Brien
Accumulating evidence suggest that patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and specific genomic alterations including epidermal growth factor receptor and microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase could significantly benefit from molecular-targeted therapies compared with chemotherapy. Recently, immunotherapy based on programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand (PD-L1) blockade prolong survival in patients with advanced NSCLC, especially in those patients with positive expression of PD-L1 and when used in the first-line setting...
August 17, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822818/phrenic-long-term-facilitation-following-intrapleural-ctb-sap-induced-respiratory-motor-neuron-death
#6
Nicole L Nichols, Taylor A Craig, Miles A Tanner
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1(G93A) rats...
August 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822788/taking-on-a-new-significance
#7
EDITORIAL
The Lancet Respiratory Medicine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822787/global-regional-and-national-deaths-prevalence-disability-adjusted-life-years-and-years-lived-with-disability-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-asthma-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#8
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are common diseases with a heterogeneous distribution worldwide. Here, we present methods and disease and risk estimates for COPD and asthma from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2015 study. The GBD study provides annual updates on estimates of deaths, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a summary measure of fatal and non-fatal disease outcomes, for over 300 diseases and injuries, for 188 countries from 1990 to the most recent year...
August 16, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822762/rab11a-is-required-for-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-induced-autophagy-to-promote-viral-replication
#9
Kai Wang, Shuaifeng Li, Tesfaye Worku, Xingjie Hao, Liaohan Yang, Shujun Zhang
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the leading virus known to cause massive economic loss in pig industry worldwide. In our previous study, transcriptional profiling of PRRSV-infected lung tissue of Tongcheng and landrane pigs, which have highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) susceptibility differences, showed differential expression of Rab11a. The small GTPase Rab11a regulates intracellular membrane trafficking events involved in autophagy. However, the involvement of convergence of endosomal Rab11a and autophagy pathways during PRRSV infection is still unclear...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822736/-rhinovirus-underestimated-pathogens-in-patients-during-the-neonatal-period
#10
S Zacharie, A Vabret, B Guillois, C Dupont, J Brouard
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, developments in virological tools have led to the easy detection of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses (E/RV). Their detection is very frequent in cases of airway involvement in children and their demonstrated causality. But the morbidity of E/RV in the neonatal period is unknown due to lack of epidemiological data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of these infections in hospitalized neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the virology specimens of all neonates hospitalized at the Caen University Hospital between 2006 and 2011...
August 16, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822726/recurrent-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#11
Ziad Nehme, Emily Andrew, Resmi Nair, Stephen Bernard, Karen Smith
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the burden of recurrent out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) episodes in initial survivors of OHCA. We sought to investigate the frequency of recurrent OHCA, describe time-to-event trends, and establish baseline predictors of occurrence. METHODS: Between January 2000 and June 2015, we included consecutive OHCA survivors to hospital discharge from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. Patient identifiers were used to match index and recurrent episodes of OHCA, and death records from a government database...
August 16, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822673/the-financial-impact-of-a-hospital-based-care-coordination-program-for-children-with-special-health-care-needs
#12
Janine M Petitgout
Care coordination programs are important in caring for medically complex pediatric patients, particularly for children with special health care needs. This study is a retrospective financial analysis of a hospital-based care coordination program involving one procedural subgroup of children with special health care needs: those receiving pediatric tracheostomy. Hospital records were reviewed for patients who received a tracheostomy at a large Midwestern U.S. hospital from 1999 through 2015. The population was divided into two subgroups: patients who received a tracheostomy before the development of a care coordination program and patients who received a tracheostomy after enrollment in the care coordination program...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822646/the-crucial-role-of-maternal-care-providers-as-vaccinators-for-pregnant-women
#13
Maria Luz Vilca, Susanna Esposito
Vaccination during pregnancy is increasingly being recognised internationally a useful means of preventing illness in pregnant women and their newborns. It has been used since the 1960s, when it was found that tetanus vaccine was highly effective in preventing neonatal tetanus, but interest has greatly increased over the last few years. As new data become available showing the numerous benefits of maternal immunisation and its potential for improving maternal and neonatal health in relation to a number of infectious conditions, it is being increasingly incorporated into the national vaccination programmes around the world...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822643/genetic-background-impacts-vaccine-induced-reduction-of-pneumococcal-colonization
#14
Kirsten Kuipers, Saskia van Selm, Fred van Opzeeland, Jeroen D Langereis, Lilly M Verhagen, Dimitri A Diavatopoulos, Marien I de Jonge
Vaccination has been one of the most successful strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by respiratory infections. Recent evidence suggests that differences in the host genetic background and environmental factors may contribute to heterogeneity in the immune response to vaccination. During pre-clinical testing, vaccines are often evaluated in a single mouse inbred strain, which may not translate well to the heterogeneous human population. Here, we examined the influence of host genetic background on vaccine-induced protection against pneumococcal colonization in two commonly used inbred mouse strains, i...
August 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822601/training-in-multiple-breath-washout-testing-for-respiratory-physiotherapists
#15
Katherine O'Neill, J Stuart Elborn, Michael M Tunney, Philip O'Neill, Stephen Rowan, Susan Martin, Judy M Bradley
INTRODUCTION: The development of multiple breath washout (MBW) testing in respiratory disease highlights the need for increased awareness amongst respiratory physiotherapists and a potential opportunity for professional development in the use of an important outcome measure for clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: To rationalise how MBW may be a useful assessment tool for respiratory physiotherapists and to describe a local MBW training and certification programme for physiotherapists...
April 25, 2017: Physiotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822543/dairy-calf-management-a-comparison-of-practices-and-producer-attitudes-among-conventional-and-organic-herds
#16
J A Pempek, G M Schuenemann, E Holder, G G Habing
Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822504/is-smog-innocuous-air-pollution-and-cardiovascular-disease
#17
EDITORIAL
Sundeep Mishra
Air pollution is a significant environmental and health hazard. Earlier studies had examined the adverse health effects associated with short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter on respiratory disease. However, later studies demonstrated that was actually cardiovascular disease that accounted for majority of mortality. Furthermore, it was not gaseous pollutants like oxides of nitrate, sulfur, carbon mono-oxide or ozone but the particulate matter or PM, of fine or coarse size (PM2.5 and PM10) which was linearly associated with mortality; PM2...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822450/-evaluating-the-efficacy-of-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-and-impulse-oscillometry-in-screening-out-cough-variant-asthma-from-patients-with-subacute-cough
#18
S Fang, S Y Chen, X He, Q X Shen, H Z Fan, X P Wu, Z K Fang, H P Yu
Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and impulse oscillometry (IOS) in screening out cough variant asthma (CVA) from patients with subacute cough. Methods: Patients with subacute cough were included from the outpatient department of Respiratory Medicine of Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University from May to October in 2016. Based on "the guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cough (2015 edition)" , patients were classified into CVA group, and non CVP group with other causes of subacute cough...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822449/-cytokine-profiles-of-cd4-t-memory-cells-in-asthma-and-their-relationship-with-asthma-severity
#19
C L Du, K Xu, Z H Min, D D Li, H L Yuan, C Liu, Z H Chen
Objective: To study the phenotype of memory CD4(+) T cells in peripheral blood of asthmatics and its relationship with asthma severity. Methods: From Dec 2014 to Aug 2015, thirty-three asthmatics, twenty-six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and twenty-two healthy volunteers were enrolled in Respiratory Clinics of Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from peripheral blood. Cell surface markers (CD45RO, CRTH2, CD62L, and CCR7) and intracellular protein[interleukin (IL)-5, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ]staining was performed using flow-cytometric techniques...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822447/-seasonal-characteristics-of-patients-hospitalized-for-asthma-exacerbation-in-china
#20
J T Lin, B Xing, H P Tang, L Yang, Y D Yuan, Y H Gu, P Chen, X J Liu, J Zhang, H G Liu, C Z Wang, W Zhou, D J Sun, Y Q Chen, Z C Chen, M Huang, Q C Lin, C P Hu, X H Yang, J M Huo, X W Ye, X Zhou, P Jiang, W Zhang, Y J Huang, L M Dai, R Y Liu, S X Cai, J Y Xu, J Y Zhou
Objective: To study the seasonal characteristics of patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation in China. Methods: This was a retrospective study which involved patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation in 29 hospitals throughout mainland China during 2013-2014. The number of patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation in each hospital was calculated, as well as the ratio of asthmatic patients to all the hospitalized patients. The analysis by month was conducted. The number and ratio of asthmatic patients in the northern and southern cities were calculated respectively...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
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