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Regional research

Alisa K Zimmermann, Fiona Barnett
Accredited Exercise Physiologists (AEPs) prescribe exercise and physical activity interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). During initial consultations, AEPs face the challenge of collecting enough information to facilitate behaviour change and adherence to treatment recommendations. The objective of this research is to explore the initial consultation practices of AEPs with clients living with T2DM and resultant recommendations provided to clients to promote long-term adherence...
December 6, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Rahul Malhotra, Mary Ann C Bautista, Andre Matthias Müller, Su Aw, Gerald Choon Huat Koh, Yin-Leng Theng, Stephen James Hoskins, Chek Hooi Wong, Chunyan Miao, Wee-Shiong Lim, Chetna Malhotra, Angelique Chan
The juxtaposition of a young city-state showing relative maturity as a rapidly aging society suffuses the population aging narrative in Singapore and places the "little red dot" on the spotlight of international aging. We first describe population aging in Singapore, including the characteristic events that shaped this demographic transition. We then detail the health care and socioeconomic ramifications of the rapid and significant shift to an aging society, followed by an overview of the main aging research areas in Singapore, including selected population-based data sets and the main thrust of leading aging research centers/institutes...
December 4, 2018: Gerontologist
Franco Romaní, Jimmy Carreazo Pariasca, Jackelin Aguilar Madrid, Daniel Espinoza Herrera
Traditionally, research institutions have focused their efforts on generating scientific knowledge and disseminating it through traditional mechanisms such as scientific publications. Recently, several Latin American countries, through entities dedicated to the promotion of Science, Technology, and Innovation, are promoting the development of scientific culture in the general population, through various strategies of dissemination, popularization, or scientific appropriation. The National Institute of Health has implemented strategies of scientific divulgation, such as programs of educational visits in museums, divulgation in social networks and events of scientific divulgation...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Mónica Rondón-Cotacio, Alberto Tobón-Castaño
OBJECTIVE.: To describe the activities of the malaria diagnostic network and its quality control in the Colombian-Peruvian border to characterize the functioning of the epidemiological surveillance system. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Descriptive study with a research focus on implementation. We visited border communities with health care centers or volunteers trained to diagnose malaria. The visited sites were georeferenced to know their distribution. With information from departmental public health laboratories, the quality component was analyzed and compliance with the national guidelines for malaria diagnostic networks in the border area of the two countries was evidenced...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Joyce Lopes, Andréa Clemente Palmier, Marcos Azeredo Furquim Werneck, Antônio Thomaz Gonzaga da Matta-Machado, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de Abreu
This study describes the structure of oral health services in primary health care in Brazil and the instruments available for the provision of oral health care and to compare the number of instruments according to organizational characteristics of health services and among the macroregions. Of the 23,251 oral health teams (OHTs) in the Public Health System, 17,513 (75.3%) participated in this study. Trained researchers observed the structures of the health services and determined the presence of and whether a sufficient quantity of 36 dental instruments existed...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Edlamar Kátia Adamy, Denise Antunes de Azambuja Zocche, Carine Vendruscolo, José Luis Guedes Dos Santos, Miriam de Abreu Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To present the validation of a theoretical model through conversation circles in a qualitative research guided by the Grounded Theory. METHOD: Study carried out from a thesis developed in a reference hospital in the south region of Brazil. Two conversation circles happened, with participation of representatives of the "Training Prism", in the months of October and November, 2016. RESULTS: The conversation circle enabled an in depth dialogic approach of the subject of research, broadening the vision on the phenomenon and on the research...
November 2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Salvatore Mastrangelo, Filippo Biscarini, Marco Tolone, Barbara Auzino, Marco Ragatzu, Andrea Spaterna, Roberta Ciampolini
The evaluation of genetic variability is a useful research tool for the correct management of selection and conservation strategies in dog breeds. In addition to pedigree genealogies, genomic data allow a deeper knowledge of the variability and genetic structure of populations. To date, many dog breeds, such as small regional breeds, still remain uncharacterized. Braque Français type Pyrénées (BRA) is a dog breed originating from a very old type of gun-dog used for pointing the location of game birds to hunters...
2018: PloS One
Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Ludivine Launay, Elodie Guillaume, Guy Launoy, Henrique Barros
Socioeconomic inequalities are major health determinants. To monitor and understand them at local level, ecological indexes of socioeconomic deprivation constitute essential tools. In this study, we describe the development of the updated version of the European Deprivation Index for Portuguese small-areas (EDI-PT), describe its spatial distribution and evaluate its association with a general health indicator-all-cause mortality in the period 2009-2012. Using data from the 2011 European Union-Statistics on Income and Living Conditions Survey (EU-SILC), we obtained an indicator of individual deprivation...
2018: PloS One
Davis C Woodworth, Adelle Dagher, Adam Curatolo, Monisha Sachdev, Cody Ashe-McNalley, Bruce D Naliboff, Jennifer S Labus, J Richard Landis, Jason J Kutch, Emeran A Mayer, Richard S Lee, Marsha A Moses, Benjamin M Ellingson
The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network has yielded neuroimaging and urinary biomarker findings that highlight unique alterations in brain structure and in urinary proteins related to tissue remodeling and vascular structure in patients with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS). We hypothesized that localized changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements might be associated with corresponding changes in urinary protein levels in UCPPS. To test this hypothesis, we created statistical parameter maps depicting the linear correlation between DTI measurements (fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) and urinary protein quantification (MMP2, MMP9, NGAL, MMP9/NGAL complex, and VEGF) in 30 UCPPS patients from the MAPP Research Network, after accounting for clinical covariates...
2018: PloS One
Michael R Hamblin
The prognosis for severe burns has improved significantly over the past 50 years. Meanwhile, burns have become an affliction mainly affecting the less well-developed regions of the world. Early excision and skin grafting has led to major improvements in therapeutic outcomes. Areas covered: The purpose of this article is to survey the use of pharmacotherapy to treat different pathophysiological complications of burn injury. The author, herein, discusses the use of drug treatments for a number of systemic metabolic disturbances including hyperglycemia, elevated catabolism, and gluconeogenesis...
December 5, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
S R Seyedalizadeh Ganji, A A Rassafi
Road traffic accidents are critical public issue in developing countries, and they annually waste a significant amount of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In order to urgently consider how this problem is related to the current policies, a proper safety evaluation of regional programmes in crash reduction is fundamental to the governments. The current research aims to employ a double-frontier Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model to assess the productivity of Iranian regional safety programmes in reducing the number of road fatalities...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
D J Hepple, J W Durrand, O Bouamra, P Godfrey
The deployment of physician-led pre-hospital enhanced care teams capable of critical care interventions at the scene of injury may confer a survival benefit to victims of major trauma. However, the evidence base for this widely adopted model is disputed. Failure to identify a clear survival benefit has been attributed to several factors, including an inherently more severely injured patient group who are attended by these teams. We undertook a novel retrospective analysis of the impact of a regional enhanced care team on observed vs...
December 5, 2018: Anaesthesia
Xiaowen Gao, Dongchun Guo, Mingxing Kou, Guiling Xing, Andong Zha, Xiuqin Yang, Xibiao Wang, Shengwei Di, Jiancheng Cai, Buyue Niu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) gene and piglet diarrhea. In this study, the mRNA expression of the CTLA4 gene increased significantly in IPEC-J2 cells after Escherichia coli K88 infection. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the 5' flanking region (SNPs g.107281989C>T) and 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR; SNPs g.107288753C>A) were identified, and they were in linkage disequilibrium in both Min pigs and the Landrace population...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Susan Jerger, Markus F Damian, Cassandra Karl, Hervé Abdi
Purpose: Successful speech processing depends on our ability to detect and integrate multisensory cues, yet there is minimal research on multisensory speech detection and integration by children. To address this need, we studied the development of speech detection for auditory (A), visual (V), and audiovisual (AV) input. Method: Participants were 115 typically developing children clustered into age groups between 4 and 14 years. Speech detection (quantified by response times [RTs]) was determined for 1 stimulus, /buh/, presented in A, V, and AV modes (articulating vs...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Agnieszka Dekowska, Jolanta Niezgoda, Barbara Sokołowska
PCR-RFLP targeting of the 16S rDNA and rpoB genes, as well as the vdc region, was applied to identify and differentiate between the spoilage and non-spoilage Alicyclobacillus species. Eight reference strains and 75 strains isolated from spoiled juices, juice concentrates, drinks, its intermediates, and fresh apples were subject to study. Hin6I restriction patterns of the 16S rDNA gene enabled distinguishing between all the species analyzed, while the rpoB gene and vdc gene cluster analysis also revealed that there were two major types among the A...
2018: BioMed Research International
Kathryn E Lancaster, Angela Hetrick, Antoine Jaquet, Adebola Adedimeji, Lukoye Atwoli, Donn J Colby, Angel M Mayor, Angela Parcesepe, Jennifer Syvertsen
As universal testing and treatment for HIV, or 'treat all', expands across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), substance use will likely have a negative impact on the success of scale-up efforts for antiretroviral treatment (ART). Overwhelming evidence highlights the negative impact of substance use on HIV care and treatment outcomes. Yet, as many countries in SSA expand ART, evidence of the extent of substance use, and its impact in the region, is more limited. Stigma, and the psychoactive effects of substance use, are barriers to seeking HIV treatment and adhering to ART regimens for persons with heavy alcohol use or substance use...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
Karen Fairlie-Clarke, Mark Barbour, Chelsey Wilson, Shehla U Hridi, Debbie Allan, Hui-Rong Jiang
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a well-recognized immunomodulatory cytokine which plays critical roles in tissue function and immune-mediated diseases. The abundant expression of IL-33 in brain and spinal cord prompted many scientists to explore its unique role in the central nervous system (CNS) under physiological and pathological conditions. Indeed emerging evidence from over a decade's research suggests that IL-33 acts as one of the key molecular signaling cues coordinating the network between the immune and CNS systems, particularly during the development of neurological diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nicholas J Petrosino, Amin Zandvakili, Linda L Carpenter, Noah S Philip
Over half of those diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD), and rates are even higher among military veterans. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) may be a safe and efficacious treatment for PTSD, both with and without comorbid MDD. Still, the mechanism of action of TMS is not fully understood, and it remains unclear which stimulation techniques (e.g., target regions, pulse strength/frequency, waveform) optimize treatment for these patients. Recent research indicated that a patient's unique individualized alpha frequency (IAF) may be used to guide brain stimulation treatment, and emerging data suggests that stimulation synchronized to the IAF may be efficacious for MDD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Katina Roumbedakis, Marie Drábková, Tomáš Tyml, Carlo di Cristo
Although interest in several areas of cephalopod research has emerged over the last decades (e.g., neurobiology, aquaculture, genetics, and welfare), especially following their 2010 inclusion in the EU Directive on the use of animals for experimental purposes, knowledge regarding the parasites of cephalopods is lacking. Cephalopods can be intermediate, paratenic, or definitive hosts to a range of parasites with a wide variety of life cycle strategies. Here, we briefly review the current knowledge in cephalopod parasitological research, summarizing the main parasite groups that affect these animals...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Monika M Stojek, Lauren B McSweeney, Sheila A M Rauch
Prolonged exposure (PE) is an empirically supported efficacious treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this focused review, we briefly review the neurobiological networks in PTSD relevant to PE, discuss the theoretical basis of PE, review the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of PE and identify the enhancements that can be applied to increase treatment response and retention. Based on the reviewed studies, it is clear that PTSD results in disrupted network of interconnected regions, and PE has been shown to increase the connectivity within and between these regions...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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