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Regional research

Felix Brandl, Chun Meng, Claus Zimmer, Christian Sorg
BACKGROUND:  About two-thirds of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) suffer from depressive relapse, the mechanisms of which are still poorly understood. In recent years, analyses of the brain's connectome have increasingly been employed to identify potential biomarkers of depressive relapse. The term "connectome" refers to the map of all structural or functional connections in the brain. It can be investigated by structural or functional magnetic resonance imaging followed by graph theory-based analysis to characterize network topology on the global and regional level...
August 13, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Jennifer Zuk, Meaghan V Perdue, Bryce Becker, Xi Yu, Michelle Chang, Nora Maria Raschle, Nadine Gaab
Phonological processing has been postulated as a core area of deficit among children with dyslexia. Reduced brain activation during phonological processing in children with dyslexia has been observed in left-hemispheric temporoparietal regions. Musical training has shown positive associations with phonological processing abilities, but the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unspecified. The present research aims to distinguish neural correlates of phonological processing in school-age typically developing musically trained children, musically untrained children, and musically untrained children with dyslexia utilizing fMRI...
July 29, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Ruiqiao Bai, Jacqueline C K Lam, Victor O K Li
Over the last three decades, rapid industrialization in China has generated an unprecedentedly high level of air pollution and associated health problems. Given that China accounts for one-fifth of the world population and suffers from severe air pollution, a comprehensive review of the indicators accounting for the health costs in relation to air pollution will benefit evidence-based and health-related environmental policy-making. This paper reviews the conventional static and the new dynamic approach adopted for air pollution-related health cost accounting in China and analyzes the difference between the two in estimating GDP loss...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Mark C Kendall, Dominic V Pisano, Alexander D Cohen, Michelle Gorgone, Zachary L McCormick, Christopher J Malgieri
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To review research highlights of manuscripts published in 2017 that pertain to all aspects of the clinical practice of anesthesiology. DESIGN: Narrative review. SETTING: N/A. MATERIALS: The major themes addressed in this review include recent studies examining airway management, obstetrical and gynecological anesthesia, pediatric anesthesia, cardiac anesthesia, regional analgesia and pain management...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Megumi Hara, Tsuyoshi Hachiya, Yoichi Sutoh, Keitaro Matsuo, Yuichiro Nishida, Chisato Shimanoe, Keitaro Tanaka, Atsushi Shimizu, Keizo Ohnaka, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Isao Oze, Fumihiko Matsuda, Hidemi Ito, Sayo Kawai, Asahi Hishida, Rieko Okada, Tae Sasakabe, Akie Hirata, Rie Ibusuki, Yora Nindita, Norihiro Furusyo, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Nagato Kuriyama, Etsuko Ozaki, Haruo Mikami, Yohko Nakamura, Sadao Suzuki, Akihiro Hosono, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Kokichi Arisawa, Kiyonori Kuriki, Kaori Endoh, Naoyuki Takashima, Aya Kadota, Masahiro Nakatochi, Yukihide Momozawa, Michiaki Kubo, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai
PURPOSE: Although several genetic factors may play a role in leisure-time exercise behavior, there is currently no evidence of a significant genome-wide association, and candidate gene replication studies have produced inconsistent results. METHODS: We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association study on leisure-time exercise behavior using 13,980 discovery samples from the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) study, and 2,036 replication samples from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center-2 (HERPACC-2) study...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Katie Beadon, Raquel Guimarães-Costa, Jean-Marc Léger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) has specific clinical and electrophysiologic features but can be difficult to diagnose if cases are not typical. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) remains the core initial and long-term treatment. In this review, recent advances in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of MMN are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The pathology of MMN likely depends on immune-mediated attack of the nodes of Ranvier and paranodal regions leading to conduction block...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Sigmund Ytre-Hauge, Julie A Dybvik, Arvid Lundervold, Øyvind O Salvesen, Camilla Krakstad, Kristine E Fasmer, Henrica M Werner, Balaji Ganeshan, Erling Høivik, Line Bjørge, Jone Trovik, Ingfrid S Haldorsen
BACKGROUND: Improved methods for preoperative risk stratification in endometrial cancer are highly requested by gynecologists. Texture analysis is a method for quantification of heterogeneity in images, increasingly reported as a promising diagnostic tool in various cancer types, but largely unexplored in endometrial cancer. PURPOSE: To explore whether tumor texture parameters from preoperative MRI are related to known prognostic features (deep myometrial invasion, cervical stroma invasion, lymph node metastases, and high-risk histological subtype) and to outcome in endometrial cancer patients...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Hager Gaouda, Takashi Hamaji, Kayoko Yamamoto, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Masahiro Suzuki, Hideki Noguchi, Yohei Minakuchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Hisayoshi Nozaki, David Roy Smith
Plastid genomes are not normally celebrated for being large. But researchers are steadily uncovering algal lineages with big and, in rare cases, enormous plastid DNAs (ptDNAs), such as volvocine green algae. Plastome sequencing of five different volvocine species has revealed some of the largest, most repeat-dense plastomes on record, including that of Volvox carteri  (∼525 kb). Volvocine algae have also been used as models for testing leading hypotheses on organelle genome evolution (e.g., the mutational hazard hypothesis), and it has been suggested that ptDNA inflation within this group might be a consequence of low mutation rates and/or the transition from a unicellular to multicellular existence...
August 8, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Morgan R McPherson, Peng Wang, Ellen L Marsh, Robert B Mitchell, Daniel P Schachtman
Plant and soil microbiome studies are becoming increasingly important for understanding the roles microorganisms play in agricultural productivity. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide detail on how to rapidly sample soil, rhizosphere, and endosphere of replicated field trials and analyze changes that may occur in the microbial communities due to sample type, treatment, and plant genotype. The experiment used to demonstrate these methods consists of replicated field plots containing two, pure, warm-season grasses (Panicum virgatum and Andropogon gerardii) and a low-diversity grass mixture (A...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Stephen Ayo Adebowale
The researcher assessed trends and patterns of marital timing and child marriage (CM) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Four rounds of Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data-set were used (1990-2013). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Cox-regression model with time-dependent covariates (α = 0.05). CM (<18 years) falls consistently from 63.8% in 1990 to 56.3% in 2013. The hazard ratio of CM was 1.24 (CI =1.19-1.28, p < .001), 1.24 (CI =1.19-1.29, p < .001), and 1...
August 13, 2018: Health Care for Women International
Ronak H Jani, Marion A Hughes, Zachary E Ligus, Alexandra Nikas, Raymond F Sekula
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Glossopharyngeal neuralgia causes extreme paroxysmal pain in the posterior pharynx, tonsillar region, base of tongue, or deep ear, that is, the distribution of the glossopharyngeal nerve. Some cases of glossopharyngeal neuralgia are associated with neurovascular conflict, usually by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Such symptomatic compression occurs only in proximal, centrally myelinated portions of the glossopharyngeal nerve near the brainstem. Microvascular decompression provides effective and durable pain relief for properly selected patients with medically refractory glossopharyngeal neuralgia...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Danya A Fox, Nazrul Islam, Shazhan Amed
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To access care, pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients living in British Columbia (BC), Canada, travel to the sole tertiary pediatric hospital (BC Children's Hospital; BCCH), or they receive community care from pediatric endocrinologists and/or pediatricians. We sought to determine whether HbA1C and patient reported outcomes were associated with (i) distance to clinic and (ii) tertiary vs. community care. METHODS: Patients were recruited from T1D clinics across BC...
August 12, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Selma M Mourad, Cate Curtis, Guy Gudex, Margaret Merrilees, John Peek, Lynn Sadler
BACKGROUND: The Patient-Centred Questionnaire-Infertility (PCQ-Infertility) has proven to be a reliable instrument to assess the extent of patient-centredness of fertility care in European countries. AIMS: To validate the PCQ-Infertility in New Zealand (NZ) and to compare results with international experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional 46-item questionnaire study among 409 women undergoing publicly funded fertility care (intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilisation / intracytoplasmic sperm injection) in three fertility clinics in the Northern Auckland region was performed between October 2015 and September 2016...
August 13, 2018: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Reuben J Pengelly, Andrew Collins
Motivation: Efforts to establish reference genome sequences by de novo sequence assembly have to address the difficulty of linking relatively short sequence contigs to form much larger chromosome assemblies. Efficient strategies are required to span gaps and establish contig order and relative orientation. We consider here the use of linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps of sequenced contigs and the utility of LD for ordering, orienting and positioning linked sequences. LD maps are readily constructed from population data and have at least an order of magnitude higher resolution than linkage maps providing the potential to resolve difficult areas in assemblies...
August 7, 2018: Bioinformatics
Richard J Edwards, Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Timothy G Amos, Denis O'Meally, Mark F Richardson, Tonia L Russell, Marcelo Vallinoto, Miguel Carneiro, Nuno Ferrand, Marc R Wilkins, Fernando Sequeira, Lee A Rollins, Edward C Holmes, Richard Shine, Peter A White
Background: The cane toad (Rhinella marina formerly Bufo marinus) is a species native to Central and South America that has spread across many regions of the globe. Cane toads are known for their rapid adaptation and deleterious impacts on native fauna in invaded regions. However, despite an iconic status, there are major gaps in our understanding of cane toad genetics. The availability of a genome would help to close these gaps and accelerate cane toad research. Findings: We report a draft genome assembly for R...
August 7, 2018: GigaScience
B Vageesh Padiyar, S M Azeem Mohiyuddin, A Sagayaraj, Shuaib Merchant
Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of supraclavicular artery flap in reconstruction of defects following resection of buccal mucosa cancer. Methods: Twenty-five patients who presented to R.L Jalappa Hospital and Research centre and diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa staged T2 and above were included in our study. All patients underwent wide excision of tumour and neck dissection. Six patients underwent hemi-mandibulectomy while 4 patients underwent marginal mandibulectomy depending on extent of the tumour along with neck dissection...
June 2018: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Shanan Mahal, Sorabh Datta, Virendrasinh Ravat, Priya Patel, Bipin Saroha, Rikinkumar S Patel
Objective This study aimed to determine the differences in hospitalization outcomes among patients admitted for congestive cardiac failure (CCF) with underlying subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Methods This retrospective case-control study used data from the nationwide inpatient sample (NIS) for the years 2012-2014. We identified cases with CCF as the primary diagnosis and SCH as the secondary diagnosis using validated ICD-9-CM codes and controls with CCF only. The differences in hospitalization outcomes and hospital characteristics were quantified using the multinomial logistic regression model (adjusted odds ratio (aOR))...
June 8, 2018: Curēus
Jean-Philippe Bürckert, William J Faison, Danielle E Mustin, Axel R S X Dubois, Regina Sinner, Oliver Hunewald, Anke Wienecke-Baldacchino, Anne Brieger, Claude P Muller
With the advent of high-throughput sequencing (HTS), profiling immunoglobulin (IG) repertoires has become an essential part of immunological research. Advances in sequencing technology enable the IonTorrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) to cover the full-length of IG mRNA transcripts. Nucleotide insertions and deletions (indels) are the dominant errors of the PGM sequencing platform and can critically influence IG repertoire assessments. Here, we present a PGM-tailored IG repertoire sequencing approach combining error correction through unique molecular identifier (UID) barcoding and indel detection through ImMunoGeneTics (IMGT), the most commonly used sequence alignment database for IG sequences...
July 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Mohammad Irfan Akhtar, Karima Karam, Fauzia Anis Khan
Context: The South Asian region is comprised of eight countries, i.e., Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Nepal, and Maldives. There is dearth of literature documenting anesthesia research in this region. Aim: The aim of this audit was to look at research productivity in the region by examining the volume and the type of anesthesia publication in five high-index anesthesia journals. Settings and Design: The study design was a survey of literature in the top five high-impact anesthesiology journals carried out at a tertiary care hospital...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Tebit E Kwenti
Malaria and HIV, two of the world's most deadly diseases, are widespread, but their distribution overlaps greatly in sub-Saharan Africa. Consequently, malaria and HIV coinfection (MHC) is common in the region. In this paper, pertinent publications on the prevalence, impact, and treatment strategies of MHC obtained by searching major electronic databases (PubMed, PubMed Central, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, and Scopus) were reviewed, and it was found that the prevalence of MHC in SSA was 0.7%-47.5% overall...
2018: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
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