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Regional research

Tinashe Chiurugwi, Stuart Kemp, Wayne Powell, Lee T Hickey
This review explores how speed breeding protocols that hasten plant growth and development could be applied to shorten breeding cycles and accelerate research activities in orphan crops. There is a growing need for the agri-food sector to sustainably produce larger quantities of higher-quality food, feed and fuel using fewer resources, within the context of changing agroclimatic conditions. Meeting this challenge will require the accelerated development and dissemination of improved plant varieties and substantial improvement of agricultural practices...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Francesca Ferrari, Francesco Clemente, Christian Cipriani
The control and the execution of motor tasks are largely influenced by proprioceptive feedback, i.e. the information about the position and movement of the body. In 1972, it was discovered that a vibratory stimulation applied non-invasively to a muscle or a tendon induces a movement illusion consistent with the elongation of the vibrated muscle/tendon. Although this phenomenon was reported by several studies, it is still unclear how to reliably reproduce it because of the many different features of the stimulation altering the sensation (e...
October 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Sanna Toppila-Salmi, Heikki Rihkanen, Martti Arffman, Kristiina Manderbacka, Ilmo Keskimaki, Maija L Hytönen
OBJECTIVES: Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) is a common operation typically performed due to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There are limited data on the nationwide ESS rate and factors contributing to its regional variation. The aim was to evaluate factors causing variation of ESS rate. DESIGN: Cross-sectional nationwide observational study. SETTING: A ll patients undergoing ESS in Finland 2013-2015. POPULATION: Nationwide Finnish population aged 15 years or over...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Hwon Heo, Juyeong Jo, Jae In Jung, Young-Min Han, Seongsoo Lee, Song Rae Kim, Seung-Hae Kwon, Kil-Nam Kim, Byung Joon Hwang, Yun Kee, Byoung Dae Lee, Dongmin Kang, Song Her
Bioluminescence imaging has proven to be a highly sensitive technique for assessing in vitro transcriptional activity toward understanding gene regulation patterns; however, application of this technique is limited for brain research. In particular, the poor spatiotemporal resolution is a main hurdle for monitoring the dynamic changes of transcriptional activity in specific regions of the brain during longitudinal analysis of living animals. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we modified a lentivirus-based luciferase glucocorticoid receptor (GR) reporter by inserting destabilizing sequence genes, and then the reporter was stereotaxically injected in the mouse infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC)...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Onur Asan, Farion Cooper Ii, Sneha Nagavally, Rebekah J Walker, Joni S Williams, Mukoso N Ozieh, Leonard E Egede
BACKGROUND: Emerging health technologies are increasingly being used in health care for communication, data collection, patient monitoring, education, and facilitating adherence to chronic disease management. However, there is a lack of studies on differences in the preference for using information exchange technologies between patients with chronic and nonchronic diseases and factors affecting these differences. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper is to understand the preferences and use of information technology for information exchange among a nationally representative sample of adults with and without 3 chronic disease conditions (ie, cardiovascular disease [CVD], diabetes, and hypertension) and to assess whether these preferences differ according to varying demographic variables...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Ryan H Sandefer, Bonnie L Westra, Saif S Khairat, David S Pieczkiewicz, Stuart M Speedie
BACKGROUND: The use of personal health care management (PHM) is increasing rapidly within the United States because of implementation of health technology across the health care continuum and increased regulatory requirements for health care providers and organizations promoting the use of PHM, particularly the use of text messaging (short message service), Web-based scheduling, and Web-based requests for prescription renewals. Limited research has been conducted comparing PHM use across groups based on chronic conditions...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
T Gagné, A Y Omorou, J Kivits, F Alla, L Minary
BACKGROUND: Targeted interventions among vulnerable youth populations represent an important approach to the reduction of health inequalities. We must, however, ensure that impacts are not unequally distributed according to the range of resources available to them. We explore these concerns among youth in vocational training to be enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention by describing (1) their socio-economic profile and (2) the association between their socioeconomic characteristics, their smoking practices, and key factors that could be targeted in interventions...
October 16, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
John C Begeny, Rebecca A Levy, Rahma Hida, Kate Norwalk, Stacey Field, Haruna Suzuki, Manuel Soriano-Ferrer, Ann Scheunemann, Mary Guerrant, Amanda Clinton, Catalina Aguirre Burneo
Although the discipline of school and educational psychology is arguably international (e.g., relevant research and practice is evident in more than 80 countries), there has been limited research examining the international scholarship published in school and educational psychology journals. Such an assessment is important because it provides one important metric for better understanding the field's level of internationalization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate every article (N = 4456) published from 2002 to 2016 across eight school and educational psychology journals that publish international scholarship...
October 2018: Journal of School Psychology
Xiaodong Guan, Huajie Hu, Chunxia Man, Luwen Shi
BACKGROUND: Essential medicines are those drugs that satisfy the priority health care needs of the population and help with functioning healthcare systems. Although many countries have formulated an essential medicine list, almost half of the global population still lack regular access to essential medicines. Research about the initiation of National Essential Medicines Policy in Chinese secondary and tertiary hospitals is inadequate, and the long-term effect on access after the reform is still unknown...
October 19, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Xiaofeng Liu, Min Wang, Yufeng Qin, Xuan Shi, Peiqing Cong, Yaosheng Chen, Zuyong He
BACKGROUND: Targeted DNA integration is widely used in basic research and commercial applications because it eliminates positional effects on transgene expression. Targeted integration in mammalian cells is generally achieved through a double crossover event between the genome and a linear donor containing two homology arms flanking the gene of interest. However, this strategy is generally less efficient at introducing larger DNA fragments. Using the homology-independent NHEJ mechanism has recently been shown to improve efficiency of integrating larger DNA fragments at targeted sites, but integration through this mechanism is direction-independent...
October 19, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Meng-Yang Liu, Qi-Huan Li, Ying-Jie Zhang, Yuan Ma, Yue Liu, Wei Feng, Cheng-Bei Hou, Endawoke Amsalu, Xia Li, Wei Wang, Wei-Min Li, Xiu-Hua Guo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is still one of the most serious infectious diseases in the mainland of China. So it was urgent for the formulation of more effective measures to prevent and control it. METHODS: The data of reported TB cases in 340 prefectures from the mainland of China were extracted from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention (CISDCP) during January 2005 to December 2015. The Kulldorff's retrospective space-time scan statistics was used to identify the temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of reported TB in the mainland of China by using the discrete Poisson probability model...
October 20, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Jacopo Famiglietti, Matteo Guerci, Carlo Proserpio, Pieter Ravaglia, Mario Motta
The paper describes the general structure of the PMT_01 tool developed to assess the environmental impacts of different dairy products as Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheeses of Lombardy Region (Po Valley - Northern Italy) and High Quality fresh pasteurized milk in a cradle-to-distribution center gate approach. Based on the PEF Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) methodology, the authors aim to provide a useful instrument for technicians and researchers in the evaluation of the environmental load of dairy products, allowing the process-hotspots identification through 16 different impact categories...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Annika Svanbäck, Michelle L McCrackin, Dennis P Swaney, Helena Linefur, Bo G Gustafsson, Robert W Howarth, Christoph Humborg
The separation between crop- and livestock production is an important driver of agricultural nutrient surpluses in many parts of the world. Nutrient surpluses can be symptomatic of poor resource use efficiency and contribute to environmental problems. Thus, it is important not only to identify where surpluses can be reduced, but also the potential policy tools that could facilitate reductions. Here, we explored linkages between livestock production and nutrient flows for the Baltic Sea catchment and discuss management practices and policies that influence the magnitude of nutrient surpluses...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Tinotenda Mangadze, Tatenda Dalu, P William Froneman
Biological monitoring programmes have gained popularity around the world particularly in southern Africa as they are fast, integrative and cost-effective approaches for assessing the effects of environmental stressors on aquatic ecosystems. This article reviews current efforts that have been made to use bioindicators (i.e. macroinvertebrates, diatoms and fish) in monitoring water resources and to summarise the challenges in employing these biological monitoring tools in southern Africa. In South Africa, macroinvertebrate (South African Scoring System (SASS)) and diatom based indices (e...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Tengfei Yu, Qi Feng, Jianhua Si, Haiyang Xi, Anthony P O'Grady, Elizabeth A Pinkard
Knowledge of forest water use is crucial to water resources managers, especially in arid environments. Flood irrigation has sometimes been used to ameliorate forest decline, however, there has only been limited research on vegetation responses to these interventions. We undertook a study to quantify evapotranspiration (ET) and its components, transpiration (T) and evaporation (E), of two Populus euphratica Oliv. stands (MA: middle-aged and OA: old-aged) with and without flood irrigation in the lower Heihe River Basin of NW China...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jingjing Xiong, Zhen Wang, Xue Ma, Huizhen Li, Jing You
Extensive use of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs) worldwide calls for further knowledge on their environmental occurrence and risk. The present study highlighted the need for more research on long-term exposure of NNIs in aquatic environment, which is important but remains elusive. Time weighted average concentrations of five commonly used NNIs in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China were measured using newly developed polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Acetamiprid (from 18.8 ± 1.9 to 157 ± 31 ng/L; mean ± standard deviation), clothianidin (from 14...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Dornbos, Melanie Warren, Robert B Crawford, Norbert Kaminski, David W Threadgill, John Joseph LaPres
2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental pollutant that can cause various toxic effects, including chloracne, metabolic syndrome, and immune suppression. Most of the toxicity associated with TCDD is mediated through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Recent research has suggested the presence of a wide-range of interindividual variability in TCDD-mediated suppression of the Immunoglobulin-M (IgM) response across the human population. In an attempt to identify putative modifiers of AHR-mediated immunosuppression beyond the AHR, B cells were isolated from a panel of genetically diverse mouse strain to scan for modulators that drive inter-strain differences in TCDD-mediated suppression of the IgM response...
October 19, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Changhong Yang, Jiarui Li, Qixi Wu, Xiaoxu Yang, August Yue Huang, Jie Zhang, Adam Yongxin Ye, Yanmei Dou, Linlin Yan, Wei-Zhen Zhou, Lei Kong, Meng Wang, Chen Ai, Dechang Yang, Liping Wei
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with strong genetic contributions. To provide a comprehensive resource for the genetic evidence of ASD, we have updated the Autism KnowledgeBase (AutismKB) to version 2.0. AutismKB 2.0 integrates multiscale genetic data on 1379 genes, 5420 copy number variations and structural variations, 11 669 single-nucleotide variations or small insertions/deletions (SNVs/indels) and 172 linkage regions. In particular, AutismKB 2.0 highlights 5669 de novo SNVs/indels due to their significant contribution to ASD genetics and includes 789 mosaic variants due to their recently discovered contributions to ASD pathogenesis...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Scott S Hughes, Christopher W Haberle, Shannon E Kobs Nawotniak, Alexander Sehlke, W Brent Garry, Richard C Elphic, Samuel J Payler, Adam H Stevens, Charles S Cockell, Allyson L Brady, Jennifer L Heldmann, Darlene S S Lim
Field research target regions within two basaltic geologic provinces are described as Earth analogues to Mars. Regions within the eastern Snake River Plain of Idaho and the Big Island of Hawaii, the United States, provinces that represent analogues of present-day and early Mars, respectively, were evaluated on the basis of geologic settings, rock lithology and geochemistry, rock alteration, and climate. Each of these factors provides rationale for the selection of specific targets for field research in five analog target regions: (1) Big Craters and (2) Highway lava flows at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve, Idaho, and (3) Mauna Ulu low shield, (4) Kīlauea Iki lava lake, and (5) Kīlauea caldera in the Kīlauea Volcano summit region and the East Rift Zone of Hawaii...
October 19, 2018: Astrobiology
Aida Soim, Scott C Sheridan, Syni-An Hwang, Wan-Hsiang Hsu, Sarah C Fisher, Gary M Shaw, Marcia L Feldkamp, Paul A Romitti, Jennita Reefhuis, Peter H Langlois, Marilyn L Browne, Shao Lin
BACKGROUND: Limited epidemiologic research exists on the association between weather-related extreme heat events (EHEs) and orofacial clefts (OFCs). We estimated the associations between maternal exposure to EHEs in the summer season and OFCs in offspring and investigated the potential modifying effect of body mass index on these associations. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study among mothers who participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study for whom at least 1 day of their first two post-conception months occurred during summer...
October 19, 2018: Birth Defects Research
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