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Cancer, Oncology, Carcinoma

F Ruatta, L Derosa, B Escudier, E Colomba, A Guida, G Baciarello, Y Loriot, K Fizazi, L Albiges
BACKGROUND: Bone metastases (BMs) are associated with significant morbidity and shorter survival in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Our purpose was to identify prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) in RCC patients with BMs. METHODS: Data from patients with BMs from RCC treated at Gustave Roussy between April 1992 and March 2016 were retrospectively collected. Age, sex, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-Performance Status, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) risk groups, histology, number and site of bone lesions, concomitant metastases (presence and sites), therapy for BMs (radical resection or palliative surgery, radiotherapy and other local and systemic treatments) and time from diagnosis to BMs were analysed...
December 11, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Vasu Tumati, Lawrence Hoang, Baran D Sumer, John M Truelson, Larry L Myers, Saad Khan, Randall S Hughes, Lucien Nedzi, David J Sher
BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the oncologic impact of delays to surgery, radiotherapy, and completion of therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: The impact of biopsy to surgery (BTS) time, surgery to start of radiation time (STSR), and radiation treatment time (RTT) on locoregional recurrence (LRR), distant metastases (DMs), and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) was examined. The cumulative incidences (CI) of LRR, DMs, and CSM were examined using Fine-Gray testing...
December 13, 2018: Head & Neck
Nobuhiro Yamakawa, Tadaaki Kirita, Masahiro Umeda, Souichi Yanamoto, Yoshihide Ota, Mitsunobu Otsuru, Masaya Okura, Hiroshi Kurita, Shin-Ichi Yamada, Takumi Hasegawa, Tomonao Aikawa, Takahide Komori, Michihiro Ueda
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some patients with early-stage oral cancer have a poor prognosis owing to the delayed neck metastasis (DNM). Tumor budding is reportedly a promising prognostic marker in many cancers. Moreover, the tissue surrounding a tumor is also considered to play a prognostic role. In this study, we evaluated whether tumor budding and adjacent tissue at the invasive front can be potential novel predictors of DNM in early tongue cancer. METHODS: In total, 337 patients with early-stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Pengfei Diao, Yue Song, Han Ge, Yaping Wu, Jin Li, Wei Zhang, Yanling Wang, Jie Cheng
Deregulated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) have been critically implicated in tumorigenesis and serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Here we sought to develop a prognostic lncRNA signature in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Original RNA-seq data of 499 HNSCC samples were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas database, which was randomly divided into training and testing set. Univariate Cox regression survival analysis, robust likelihood-based survival model and random sampling iterations were applied to identify prognostic lncRNA candidates in the training cohort...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Darin Gopaul, Dilip Panjwani, Robert F Stephens, Michael Lock
Purpose To evaluate acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity and the biochemical control of pure hypofractionated radiotherapy (without acceleration) for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and materials This phase II prospective trial evaluated low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received hypofractionated radiotherapy. Fifty-three patients with low-risk prostate cancer received 50 Gy in 15 fractions, 156 patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer received 60 Gy in 20 fractions over eight weeks...
October 9, 2018: Curēus
Antuani Rafael Baptistella, Klisman Drescher Hilleshein, Caroline Beal, Juliana S Brambatti, Ruggero Caron, Shaline Ferla Baptistella, Radamés Ádamo Zuquello, Carina Rossoni, Gabriel Manfro
Although the mortality rate of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been decreasing over the last 30 years, there has been a significant increase in the frequency of diagnosis of this type of cancer in several countries. Beyond the classic prognostic factors, such as TNM stage, there is a lack of predictive factors for recurrence and treatment response. A retrospective analysis of patients with OPSCC treated at the Oncology Department of the Santa Terezinha University Hospital between 2007 and 2012 was performed, with the aim of identifying new prognostic factors...
December 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Leonardo Gomes da Fonseca, Guilherme Nader Marta, Maria Ignez Freitas Melro Braghiroli, Aline Lopes Chagas, Flair Jose Carrilho, Paulo Marcelo Hoff, Jorge Sabbaga
BACKGROUND: Before the targeted therapies era, cytotoxic chemotherapy (CCT) was an option for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even with the lack of supporting evidence. Since the last decade, sorafenib has been established as the first-line therapy. Although new agents are being incorporated, CCT is still considered in regions where new drugs are not available or for patients who progressed through the approved therapies and remain in good clinical condition. We aimed to describe our experience regarding the use of CCT as second-line treatment after sorafenib...
December 13, 2018: BMC Cancer
Cahajlová Radka, Kollerová Jana
BACKGROUND: Brain metastases are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality of patients with oncological disease. In non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), the risk of CNS secondary development is 30-50%. An unusual diagnostic and therapeutic problem is the finding of suspicious pituitary lesions. Obtaining a differential diagnosis relies on evaluating the clinical course of the disease (visual disturbances, diabetes insipidus (DI), weakness etc.), and performing endocrinological examinations and imaging analyses (CT, but mainly MRI)...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Bartoš Vladimír
BACKGROUND: The tumor-to-tumor metastasis is exclusively rare finding, in which one malignant neoplasia metastasizes to another tumor of different origin. CASE: The author describes an 68-year-old woman, who was found to have a solitary tumor in the right kidney, as well as multiple tumor nodules in the liver. She underwent a radical nephrectomy. A histology of lesion in the kidney revealed a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) harboring multiple metastatic foci of another adenocarcinoma...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Dostálek Lukáš, Pavlišta David, Mašata Jaromír
BACKGROUND: Total 19% of patients diagnosed with breast cancer are younger than 50 years. Many of these patients will have postponed pregnancy into later life and many clinicians, who take care of these patients with mutations in tumor-suppressor genes, such as BRCA2, BRCA1, CHEK2, and others, recommend that it is better not to have a child than take the risk of developing a relapse. However, this recommendation can significantly reduce quality of life. AIM: The purpose of this article was to answer the most common questions that clinicians are confronted with when dealing with breast cancer patients who express a desire to have a child later in life...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Min Li, Ying Yang
Background: As one of the most invasive cutaneous carcinomas among all types of skin cancer, malignant melanoma remains a severe challenge in oncology and plastic surgery. Selective small-molecule inhibitors of V600E-mutant B-Raf (vemurafenib, for instance) have demonstrated satisfactory therapeutic efficacy in melanoma patients. However, acquired resistance during the period of drug administration has limited their clinical application. Materials and methods: In the present study, human melanoma cells with the B-RafV600E mutation were treated with the indicated concentrations of vemurafenib, quaternized chitosan, or a combination of vemurafenib and quaternized chitosan...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Karthik N Rao, Mohan Jagade, Vitthal D Kale, Devkumar Rengaraja, Amol Hekare
Tongue is one of the most common subsites involved by oral cancer. Improved surgical care and adjuvant therapy, along with better rehabilitation has significantly improved long-term survival and quality of life in patients with oral cancer. Primary surgical treatment is the preferred modality of treatment in cancers of the oral tongue. Although the surgical techniques have remained unchanged, various devices have been used to aid primary tumour resection, with a view to reduce bleeding and scarring. The purpose of this study is to compare resection of oral tongue tumours using ultrasonic coagulation device with conventional electrodiathermy...
December 2018: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Cesare Piazza, Alberto Grammatica, Nausica Montalto, Alberto Paderno, Francesca Del Bon, Piero Nicolai
BACKGROUND: Oral tongue/floor of mouth squamous cell carcinoma (OTFMSCC) with a depth of invasion (DOI) > 10 mm involves extrinsic muscles and lingual neurovascular/lymphatic bundles. "Compartmental" hemiglossopelvectomy (CHGP) was developed to improve loco-regional control by "en bloc" removal of tumor and its pathways of spread. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study on 45 CHGPs performed at a single institution for OTFMSCC with a DOI > 10 mm at CT/MR...
December 11, 2018: Head & Neck
Jung Bum Choi, Seul Gi Lee, Min Jhi Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Eun Jeong Ban, Cho Rok Lee, Jandee Lee, Sang-Wook Kang, Jong Ju Jeong, Kee-Hyun Nam, Woong Youn Chung, Cheong Soo Park
BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines advocate unilateral thyroidectomy for low-risk 1-cm to 4-cm differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). This study was designed to examine the association between the extent of thyroidectomy and oncologic outcomes in patients with 1-cm to 4-cm DTC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From April 1978 to December 2011, 16 057 patients with DTC underwent thyroidectomy at Yonsei University Hospital. Among them, 5266 (32.8%) patients were classified as having 1-cm to 4-cm DTC and were enrolled in this study...
December 10, 2018: Head & Neck
Li Yin, Yahao Wang, Xueqiang Guo, Cunshuan Xu, Guoying Yu
Background: Liver -cell proliferation occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver regeneration (LR). The development and progression of HCC and LR have many similar molecular pathways with very different results. In simple terms, LR is a controllable process of organ recovery and function reconstruction, whereas liver cancer is uncontrollable. Do they share common key pathways and genes? Methods: In this study, the dynamic transcriptome profile at ten time points (0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 72, 120, and 168 hours) during LR in rats after two-thirds hepatectomy and eight stages (normal, cirrhosis without HCC, cirrhosis, low-grade dysplastic, high-grade dysplastic, and very early, early advanced, and very advanced HCC) representing a stepwise carcinogenic process from preneoplastic lesions to end-stage HCC were analyzed in detail...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Puja S Venkat, Neil Parikh, Phillip Beron
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Radiation has long been a primary treatment modality in locally advanced gynecologic carcinomas and a tool for palliation of metastatic disease. Here we review advances in imaging and radiation technologies and the corresponding clinical evolution of the role for radiation oncology in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in MRI are impacting diagnosis, radiation target delineation, planning, treatment delivery, and response assessment...
December 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lu Wang, Yanmin Zhang, Qing Zhang, Gaoyuan Zhu, Zhimin Zhang, Chunqi Duan, Tao Lu, Weifang Tang
Despite various applications of kinase inhibitors in oncology and inflammatory diseases, the emergence of resistance still remains the major barrier to achieve long-term remission in cancer treatment. With the aim of overcoming the resistance induced by type IIB BRaf V600E selective inhibitor vemurafenib, and further ameliorating the antiproliferative activity, a novel type IIA Pan-Raf inhibitors Ia-Io based on pyrrolo[2,3-d] pyrimidine scaffold were designed and evaluated in this work. Herein, we tried to improve the cellular potency of the target compounds by increasing their solubility...
November 16, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Vincent Grégoire, Cai Grau, Michel Lapeyre, Philippe Maingon
Target volume selection and delineation for both the primary tumor and the lymph nodes are critical steps in the treatment of head and neck tumors with Intensity Modulated Radiation therapy (IMRT). These steps should be based on a probabilistic approach, which is that selection and delineation will be considered as optimal when reaching the best compromise between a too tight volume that could be associated to an unacceptable rate of local recurrence, and a too large volume, which could be associated to an unacceptable rate of treatment morbidity...
December 2018: Oral Oncology
Harley A Williams, Nahid Punjani, Obaidullah Khan, Nicholas E Power
INTRODUCTION: Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SmCC) is a rare and aggressive genitourinary malignancy. The paucity of clinical trials and outcome data provide no standard treatment guidelines. Accordingly, patient prognosis is poor. Our goal was to present the first comprehensive in-depth analysis of SmCC in a tertiary Canadian centre. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients diagnosed with primary SmCC at the London Regional Cancer Program between January 1990 and 2016...
December 3, 2018: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
S A Reza Nouraei, Edwin B Dorman, Andrew Macann, David E Vokes
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the outcome of treating glottic dysplasia and early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) photoangiolytic laser ablation. METHODS: Patient demographics, comorbidities, and tumor characteristics were recorded. Perceptual, patient-reported, and objective voice outcomes were assessed. Use of treatment modalities in addition to the KTP laser, development of locoregional or metastatic SCC, and overall survival were recorded...
December 11, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
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