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Cancer, Oncology, Carcinoma

Davide Arcaniolo, Celeste Manfredi, Luca Cindolo, Michele Marchioni, Eduardo P Zukovski, Vincenzo Mirone, Uzoma A Anele, Georgi Guruli, Baruch Mayer Grob, Marco De Sio, Riccardo Autorino
The aim of the present study is to systematically review current evidence regarding the association between perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) and oncological outcomes of patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing nephrectomy procedures. A computerized bibliographic search was conducted to identify pertinent studies. The Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (PICO) study design approach was used to define study eligibility according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) criteria...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Ryan D Ward, Hajime Tanaka, Steven C Campbell, Erick M Remer
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common cancer that is increasing in incidence because of the increased prevalence of risk factors, including tobacco use, hypertension, and obesity, and the improved detection of these tumors due to increased use of imaging. Localized renal cancer now accounts for more than 60%-70% of new RCC cases. Renal masses suggestive of cancer include enhancing solid renal lesions and Bosniak III and IV complex cystic lesions. Most of these tumors are detected incidentally, and many are slow growing with little propensity to metastasize...
October 19, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Yudiana Wayan, Pratiwi Dinar Ayu, Oka A A Gde, Niryana Wayan, I Putu Eka Widyadharma
BACKGROUND: Radical cystectomy is the standard treatment for nonmetastatic bladder cancer (muscle-invasive and selective superficial bladder cancer). There are many types of urinary diversion after this procedure; the ileal conduit is the most and simplest one. AIM: To asses clinical, pathological profile, early complication, functional and oncological outcome after radical cystectomy and ileal conduit for muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients. METHOD: Between January 2013 and December 2016, there were 68 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer...
September 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
F Zhang, S D Zhang, C L Xiao, Y Huang, L L Ma
OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative outcome, continence recovery and oncologic outcome of Chinese patients aged 80 years or older treated with radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the octogenarian patients who recieved biopsy for prostatic carcinoma and underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy from 2007 to 2016. We collected the data of clinical variables, perioperative parameters and postoperative pathological results for the octogenarian patients...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Francesco Quaglino, Valentina Marchese, Riccardo Lemini, Alessandro Piovesan, Enrico Mazza, Tiziana Viora, Stefano Taraglio
INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a slow-growing and very rare malignancy, representing less than 0.005% of all cancers. The rarity of PC makes it hard to create large-scale published series of patients affected by this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present four cases of PC treated in our Institution and analyze the most salient aspects of this disease highlighted in recent international literature. DISCUSSION AND COMMENTS: In our experience, in 3/4 cases, the clinical presentation of PC was not different compared to adenoma; therefore, the diagnosis was a post-operative histopathological surprise...
2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Francesco Quaglino, Valentina Marchese, Riccardo Lemini, Alessandro Piovesan, Enrico Mazza, Tiziana Viora, Stefano Taraglio
INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a slow-growing and very rare malignancy, representing less than 0.005% of all cancers. The rarity of PC makes it hard to create large-scale published series of patients affected by this condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present four cases of PC treated in our Institution and analyze the most salient aspects of this disease highlighted in recent international literature. DISCUSSION AND COMMENTS: In our experience, in 3/4 cases, the clinical presentation of PC was not different compared to adenoma; therefore, the diagnosis was a post-operative histopathological surprise...
June 11, 2018: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
Han Zhang, Jun Han, Hao Xing, Zhen-Li Li, Myron E Schwartz, Ya-Hao Zhou, Ting-Hao Chen, Hong Wang, Wei-Min Gu, Wan Yee Lau, Han Wu, Meng-Chao Wu, Feng Shen, Tian Yang
BACKGROUND: There is a striking sex difference in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma, with a strong predominance for men; however, the impact of sex on the incidence of recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma remains controversial. This study aimed to assess sex differences in the risks of recurrence and mortality for patients treated with curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from 1,435 hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with curative resection (1,228 men and 207 women) between 2004 and 2014 at 5 institutions in China...
October 15, 2018: Surgery
Tommy Buchanan, David Mutch
Although a relatively uncommon disease, the treatment of vulvar cancer has changed considerably over the years and has been under considerable focus due to its past overtreatment and apparent increase in incidence. The purpose of this review is to describe the recommended management of the most commonly encountered vulvar carcinomas based on the most recent available literature. Areas covered: The clinical environment of squamous cell vulvar cancers are illustrated in order to describe the potential pitfalls and limitations of treatment...
October 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Zeran Yang, Guang Chen, Ye Cui, Guowen Xiao, Tianhao Su, Jianan Yu, Zhiyuan Zhang, Yanjing Han, Kailan Yang, Long Jin
As a novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR2-TKI), apatinib has a certain anti-tumor effect for a variety of solid tumors. The present study evaluates its efficacy and safety in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, 47 patients with advanced HCC were included. TACE monotherapy group included 22 patients that responded to TACE, while the group that received TACE and apatinib included 25 patients that progressed on TACE and were able to receive apatinib off label...
October 17, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Joshua K Elson, Lisa A Kachnic, Jordan R Kharofa
BACKGROUND: Chemoradiation with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin remains the standard of care for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal. A prolonged treatment time is associated with inferior disease-specific outcomes. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group trial 0529 demonstrated decreased toxicity and fewer treatment breaks with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), but this has not been assessed in a randomized trial. Using data from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), this study evaluated the impact of IMRT on treatment time and survival in anal SCC...
October 17, 2018: Cancer
Hiroki Ishihara, Toshio Takagi, Tsunenori Kondo, Hironori Fukuda, Kazuhiko Yoshida, Junpei Iizuka, Kazunari Tanabe
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is a state of degenerative skeletal muscle wasting induced by cancer cachexia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic impact of changes in skeletal muscle mass (SMM) during first-line sunitinib therapy on oncological outcomes in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients were evaluated retrospectively. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated based on computed tomography images obtained before the initiation (pre-treatment SMI) and after two cycles of sunitinib treatment (post-treatment SMI)...
October 16, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Victor Hugo Fonseca de Jesus, Aldo Lourenço Abbade Dettino
At the 2018 Gastrointestinal Cancer Symposium, sponsored by the American Society of Clinical Oncology, significant advances in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were announced. In intermediate-stage disease (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B), interest in combining transarterial chemoembolization and sorafenib has been reignited as a consequence of the TACTICS trial. In advanced-stage disease (BCLC C), external-beam radiotherapy combined with transarterial chemoembolization proved to be superior to sorafenib in patients with portal vein thrombosis according to the START trial...
2018: Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Mairah Razi, Humayun Bashir, Aamna Hassan, Imran K Niazi
Although PET-CT scanning is a tremendous advancement in oncology; for accurate interpretation, it is important to understand its limitations. Not all PET-positive lesions are cancerous. Both activated macrophages and metabolically active carcinomas will accumulate F18-FDG. Due to limited specificity of FDG-PET/CT, histologic assessment may be required to establish correct diagnosis. We describe a case of 37-year-old man with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, who underwent F18-FDG PET/CT at the completion of chemotherapy...
June 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Sung Han Kim, Mi Kyung Song, Jung Kwon Kim, Bumsik Hong, Seok Ho Kang, Ja Hyeon Ku, Byong Chang Jeong, Ho Kyung Seo
Purpose: To compare oncologic outcomes between open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The medical records of consecutive ONU and LNU cases from five tertiary institutions were retrospectively analyzed between 2000 and 2012. The propensity-score matching methodology was used to compare the two surgical approaches in terms of age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, tumor location, grade, pathologic T and N stages, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, and follow-up duration...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Fuat Demirkiran, Ilker Kahramanoglu, Tugan Bese, Hasan Turan, Elif Meseci, Macit Arvas
OBJECTIVES: Less radical fertility sparing procedures have been introduced to reduce morbidity and adverse obstetric outcome in cervical cancer. Our objective was to describe oncological and obstetric outcomes of women with early-stage cervical cancer who underwent a simple vaginal trachelectomy (SVT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 01/2013 to 05/2017, 14 women underwent SVT preceded by laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection. RESULTS: Patients' median age was 32 years and all of them were nulliparous...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Tomonori Hirashima, Yoshitaka Tamura, Yuki Han, Shoji Hashimoto, Ayako Tanaka, Takayuki Shiroyama, Naoko Morishita, Hidekazu Suzuki, Norio Okamoto, Shinobu Akada, Makoto Fujishima, Yoshihisa Kadota, Kazuya Sakata, Akiko Nishitani, Satoru Miyazaki, Takayuki Nagai
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) tolerated concurrent anti-cancer chemotherapy (anti-CCT) and anti-MTB chemotherapy. In this study, we retrospectively confirmed the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemotherapy in a greater number of patients with different types of malignancies. METHODS: We enrolled 30 patients who were treated concurrently with anti-CCT and anti-MTB regimens between January 2006 and February 2016...
October 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Alessandra Pannunzio, Mauro Coluccia
Prostaglandins and thromboxane are lipid signaling molecules deriving from arachidonic acid by the action of the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2. The role of cyclooxygenases (particularly COX-2) and prostaglandins (particularly PGE₂) in cancer-related inflammation has been extensively investigated. In contrast, COX-1 has received less attention, although its expression increases in several human cancers and a pathogenetic role emerges from experimental models. COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms seem to operate in a coordinate manner in cancer pathophysiology, especially in the tumorigenesis process...
October 11, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Siham Hedir, Marcella De Giorgi, Jade Fogha, Martina De Pascale, Louis-Bastien Weiswald, Emilie Brotin, Bogdan Marekha, Christophe Denoyelle, Camille Denis, Peggy Suzanne, Fabien Gautier, Philippe Juin, Laetitia Ligat, Frédéric Lopez, Ludovic Carlier, Rémi Legay, Ronan Bureau, Sylvain Rault, Laurent Poulain, Jana Sopková-de Oliveira Santos, Anne Sophie Voisin-Chiret
Protein-protein interactions are attractive targets because they control numerous cellular processes. In oncology, apoptosis regulating Bcl-2 family proteins are of particular interest. Apoptotic cell death is controlled via PPIs between the anti-apoptotic proteins hydrophobic groove and the pro-apoptotic proteins BH3 domain. In ovarian carcinoma, it has been previously demonstrated that Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 cooperate to protect tumor cells against apoptosis. Moreover, Mcl-1 is a key regulator of cancer cell survival and is a known resistance factor to Bcl-2/Bcl-xL pharmacological inhibitors making it an attractive therapeutic target...
November 5, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Kenji Ikeda
Transcatheter arterial therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have developed during last decade. Fine powder formulation of cisplatin and new platinum agent miriplatin became standard medicines in addition to anthracyclines on transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in Japan. Recent prospective and retrospective studies supported the usefulness of platinum agents as a chemotherapeutic at the time of varied TACE therapy. Although balloon-occluded TACE is an effective manner of therapy for localized HCC and drug-eluting microspheres seemed to show a higher response rate in certain HCCs, definite advantages of those procedures still remained uncertain...
October 11, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Jonathan S Berek, Sean T Kehoe, Lalit Kumar, Michael Friedlander
The Gynecologic Oncology Committee of FIGO in 2014 revised the staging of ovarian cancer, incorporating ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancer into the same system. Most of these malignancies are high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSC). Stage IC is now divided into three categories: IC1 (surgical spill); IC2 (capsule ruptured before surgery or tumor on ovarian or fallopian tube surface); and IC3 (malignant cells in the ascites or peritoneal washings). The updated staging includes a revision of Stage IIIC based on spread to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes alone without intraperitoneal dissemination...
October 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
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