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High mountain

Rabin Kadariya, Michito Shimozuru, Jesús E Maldonado, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed Moustafa, Mariko Sashika, Toshio Tsubota
Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) have a widespread distribution in mountain landscapes, and are considered vulnerable globally, but are low-priority species for conservation in Nepal. Habitat fragmentation, illegal hunting, and human-bear conflict are the major threats to Asiatic black bears across their global range. Having an adequate level of genetic variation in a population helps with adapting to rapidly changing environments, and thus is important for the long-term health of bear populations. Accordingly, we conducted non-invasive surveys of bear populations in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) to elucidate genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the phylogenetic relationship of Asiatic black bears from this region of Nepal to other subspecies...
2018: PloS One
Paola Araneda, Walter Sielfeld, Cristián Bonacic, José Tomás Ibarra
Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients lies at the heart of community ecology and conservation. Previous studies have found variation in bird diversity and density along "natural" elevational gradients in the Tropical Andes Hotspot. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how bird communities respond to traditional land-use patterns, in association with other multiple drivers, along elevations. In the present study, we investigated biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sources of variation associated with bird species diversity, density and turnover along a 3000-m elevational gradient, in southern limit of the Tropical Andes Hotspot, northern Chile...
2018: PloS One
Beth A Beidleman, Charles S Fulco, Ellen L Glickman, Allen Cymerman, Robert W Kenefick, Bruce S Cadarette, Sean P Andrew, Janet E Staab, Ingrid V Sils, Stephen R Muza
Beidleman, Beth A., Charles S. Fulco, Ellen L. Glickman, Allen Cymerman, Robert W. Kenefick, Bruce S. Cadarette, Sean P. Andrew, Janet E. Staab, Ingrid V. Sils, and Stephen R. Muza. Acute mountain sickness is reduced following 2 days of staging during subsequent ascent to 4300 m. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2018. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether 2 days of staging at 2500-3500 m, combined with either high or low physical activity, reduces acute mountain sickness (AMS) during subsequent ascent to 4300 m...
December 5, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Hsing-Hsien Wu, Ko-Chi Niu, Cheng-Hsien Lin, Hung-Jung Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Chia-Ti Wang
High-mountain sickness is characterized by brain and pulmonary edema and cognitive deficits. The definition can be fulfilled by a rat model of high-altitude exposure (HAE) used in the present study. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2 T) and to determine the underlying mechanisms. Rats were subjected to an HAE (9.7% O2 at 0.47 absolute atmosphere of 6,000 m for 3 days). Immediately after termination of HAE, rats were treated with HBO2 T (100% O2 at 2.0 absolute atmosphere for 1 hour per day for 5 consecutive days) or non-HBO2 T (21% O2 at 1...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yunhong Li, Yujing Zhang, Ying Zhang
After ascent to high altitude (≥2500 m), the inability of the human body to adapt to the hypobaric and hypoxia environment can induce tissue hypoxia, then a series of high altitude illnesses including acute mountain sickness (AMS), high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), and high altitude cerebral edema (HACE) would develop. Symptoms of AMS include headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting; HAPE is characterized by orthopnea, breathlessness at rest, cough, pink frothy sputum, and results in obvious pulmonary edema that poses significant harm to people; HACE is characterized by ataxia and decreased consciousness, leading to coma and brain herniation which would be fatal if not treated promptly...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
I Garin, G Chaverri, L Jimenez, C Castillo-Salazar, J Aihartza
In the Neotropics, captive vespertilionid bats substantially reduce their metabolic rate at low ambient temperatures, similar to their temperate counterparts, whereas the ability of phyllostomids to lower metabolic rate seems to be more limited, even in mountain species. Nevertheless, field data on the thermal behaviour of syntopic individuals from these two families is lacking. Consequently, we aimed to test whether torpor was more common and deeper in vesper bats compared to leaf-nosed bats by studying skin temperature (Tsk) variation in individuals experiencing the same environmental conditions at a mountain area...
December 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
I Herms, J Jódar, A Soler, I Vadillo, L J Lambán, S Martos-Rosillo, J A Núñez, G Arnó, J Jorge
Water resources in high mountain karst aquifers are usually characterized by high rainfall, recharge and discharge that lead to the sustainability of the downstream ecosystems. Nevertheless, these hydrological systems are vulnerable to the global change impact. The mean transit time (MTT) is a key parameter to describe the behavior of these hydrologic systems and also to assess their vulnerability. This work is focused on estimating MTT by using environmental tracers in the framework of high-mountain karst systems with a very thick unsaturated zone (USZ)...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Muhammad Aamir, Shanshan Yin, Yuting Zhou, Chenye Xu, Kai Liu, Weiping Liu
A comprehensive spatio-vertical survey of short-chain (SCCPs, C10-13 ) and medium-chain (MCCPs, C14-17 ) chlorinated paraffins (CPs) was performed in surface and core soils from Chinese nation-wide agricultural lands in 2016, and a total of 48 congener groups were measured. The shorter carbon chain C10-11 in SCCP and C14-15 in MCCP homologue groups, and the lower chlorinated congeners (Cl5-7 ) for both CP groups were predominant. The ∑SCCP and ∑MCCP concentrations in surface soils ranged from 39 to 1609 ng/g and 127-1969 ng/g, dry weight (dw), respectively...
November 21, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Alexander S Honeyman, Maria L Day, John R Spear
Snowfall is a global phenomenon highly integrated with hydrology and ecology. Forays into studying bioaerosols and their dependence on aeolian movement are largely constrained to either precipitation-independent analyses or in silico models. Though snowpack and glacial microbiological studies have been conducted, little is known about the biological component of meteoric snow. Through culture-independent phylogenetic and geochemical analyses, we show that the geographical location at which snow precipitates determines snowfall's geochemical and microbiological composition...
2018: PeerJ
Tim Theissen, Joachim Aurbacher, David Bedoshvili, Peter Felix-Henningsen, Thomas Hanauer, Sarah Hüller, Besik Kalandadze, Ingrid-Ute Leonhäuser, Anja Magiera, Annette Otte, Rati Shavgulidze, Giorgi Tedoradze, Rainer Waldhardt
Mountain regions cover one quarter of the Earth's terrestrial surface, and are both valuable and vulnerable areas with complex human-environmental interrelationships. In this coupled system, land-use changes induced by political or socio-economic transformations generate consequences for ecological landscape functions like soil productivity and species richness, and integrative land-use concepts provide the potential of a sustainable land development. In the Kazbegi region in the central Greater Caucasus of Georgia, these transformations further lead to landscape-structure change and population marginalization...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Opeyemi A Adedoja, Temitope Kehinde, Michael J Samways
Interaction networks are sensitive to elevation gradients through changes in local distribution of interacting partners. Here, we use plant-pollinator interaction network metrics to assess the effect of elevation on flowers and flower-visiting insect assemblages on a sentinel mountain used for monitoring climate change in the flower- and insect-rich Cape Floristic Region. We also use these interaction metrics to explain the effect of environmental factors on the interaction networks. We did this over four vegetation zones <1640m asl, as determined by former botanical studies...
2018: PloS One
L Lee Grismer, Perry L Jr Wood, Myint Kyaw Thura, Marta S Grismer, Rafe M Brown, Bryan L Stuart
A molecular phylogenetic analysis of Parachute Geckos (Genus Ptychozoon Kuhl van Hasselt, 1822) based on the mitochondrial gene ND2 indicates that a newly discovered population from the Mt. Popa volcano-a habitat island in the northern portion of the Bago Yoma mountains, Myanmar-is a new species, P. popaense sp. nov. This species is part of a clade that contains P. bannanense Wang, Wang, Liu, 2016 and P. lionotum Annandale, 1905 of Indochina. Ptychozoon popaense sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to its sister species P...
November 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Ulf Buchsbaum, Li-Peng Hsu, Ding-Jia Chen, John R Grehan
A new species Endoclita atayala Buchsbaum Hsu sp. n. is based on a single female specimen collected at light in the high mountains of northern Taiwan. Comparisons with all other Endoclita (C. R. Felder, 1874) species confirms that E. atayala sp. n. exhibits distinctive and unique wing pattern characteristics and probably has a sister group relationship with E. crenilimbata (Le Cerf, 1919) of southeastern China and illustrated here for the first time, and E. nodus (Chu Wang, 1985) of northeastern China. The species diversity of Taiwanese Hepialidae is described and the biogeographic implications of the E...
November 14, 2018: Zootaxa
Benjamin Tapley, Timothy Cutajar, Stephen Mahony, Chung Thanh Nguyen, Vinh Quang Dau, Anh Mai Luong, Dzung Trung Le, Tao Thien Nguyen, Truong Quang Nguyen, Christopher Portway, Hao van Luong, Jodi J L Rowley
Megophrys are a group of morphologically conserved, primarily forest-dependent frogs known to harbour cryptic species diversity. In this study, we examined populations of small-sized Megophrys from mid- and high elevation locations in the Hoang Lien Range, northern Vietnam. On the basis of morphological, molecular and bioacoustic data, individuals of these populations differed from all species of Megophrys known from mainland Southeast Asia north of the Isthmus of Kra and from neighbouring provinces in China...
October 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Javier Naves, Andrés Ordiz, Alberto Fernández-Gil, Vincenzo Penteriani, María Del Mar Delgado, José Vicente López-Bao, Eloy Revilla, Miguel Delibes
Large carnivores are often persecuted due to conflict with human activities, making their conservation in human-modified landscapes very challenging. Conflict-related scenarios are increasing worldwide, due to the expansion of human activities or to the recovery of carnivore populations. In general, brown bears Ursus arctos avoid humans and their settlements, but they may use some areas close to people or human infrastructures. Bear damages in human-modified landscapes may be related to the availability of food resources of human origin, such as beehives...
2018: PloS One
Tobias Kammerer, Valentina Faihs, Nikolai Hulde, Andreas Bayer, Max Hübner, Florian Brettner, Walter Karlen, Julia Maria Kröpfl, Markus Rehm, Christina Spengler, Simon Thomas Schäfer
Objective: Normobaric (NH) and hypobaric hypoxia (HH) are associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS) and cognitive dysfunction. Only few variables, like heart-rate-variability, are correlated with AMS. However, prediction of AMS remains difficult. We therefore designed an expedition-study with healthy volunteers in NH/HH to investigate additional non-invasive hemodynamic variables associated with AMS. Methods: Eleven healthy subjects were examined in NH (FiO2 13...
2018: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Maria Moitinho de Almeida, Johan von Schreeb
Human stampedes are a major cause of mortality in mass gatherings, but they have received limited scientific attention. While the number of publications has increased, there is no recent review of new study results. This study compiles and reviews available literature on stampedes, their prevention, preparedness, and response.A search for peer-reviewed and grey literature in PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Google Scholar (Google Inc...
November 27, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Yong Qi, Yinxiu Shao, Jixian Rao, Wanpeng Shen, Qiong Yin, Xiaoling Li, Hongxia Chen, Jiameng Li, Wenwen Zeng, Shulong Zheng, Suyun Liu, Yuexi Li
OBJECTIVES: Rickettsia rickettsii is the causative agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which is the most severe spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis. Developing a simple and reliable detection method is required. METHODS: A detection method for R. rickettsii was established based on a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay and the lateral flow (LF) test. A specific target sequence was screened, and corresponding primers and probes were designed, synthesized, and screened for establishing an RPA assay with high amplification efficiency...
2018: PloS One
Charles J Mason, Ken Keefover-Ring, Caterina Villari, Jennifer G Klutsch, Stephen Cook, Pierluigi Bonello, Nadir Erbilgin, Kenneth F Raffa, Philip A Townsend
Conifers possess chemical and anatomical defences against tree-killing bark beetles that feed in their phloem. Resins accumulating at attack sites can delay and entomb beetles while toxins reach lethal levels. Trees with high concentrations of metabolites active against bark beetle-microbial complexes, and more extensive resin ducts, achieve greater survival. It is unknown if and how conifers integrate chemical and anatomical components of defence or how these capabilities vary with historical exposure. We compared linkages between phloem chemistry and tree ring anatomy of two mountain pine beetle hosts...
September 22, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Uriel Hernández-Salinas, Aurelio Ramírez-Bautista, Barry P Stephenson, Raciel Cruz-Elizalde, Christian Berriozabal-Islas, Carlos Jesús Balderas-Valdivia
The study of demographic and life history aspects of an organism provides valuable information for its conservation. Here, we analyze the phenology of the Mountain Treefrog Hyla eximia (= Dryophytes eximius ) in a temperate environment of the Mexican Plateau. Females were larger in snout-vent length and body mass than males. The peak period of activity occurred in the rainy season (May-September), with amplexus and egg deposition occurring between June and July, and larval development from July to August. A logistic model best explained observed male growth patterns, while the Von Bertalanffy model better described female growth...
2018: PeerJ
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