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High mountain

Alicia J Hotovec-Ellis, David R Shelly, David P Hill, Andrew M Pitt, Philip B Dawson, Bernard A Chouet
Although most volcanic seismicity is shallow (within several kilometers of the surface), some volcanoes exhibit deeper seismicity (10 to 30+ km) that may reflect active processes such as magma resupply and volatile transfer. One such volcano is Mammoth Mountain, California, which has also recently exhibited high rates of CO2 discharge at the surface. We perform high-resolution earthquake detection and relocation to reveal punctuated episodes of rapidly propagating seismicity at mid-crustal depths along a narrow fracture zone surrounding a body of partial melt...
August 2018: Science Advances
Jun-Ho Huh
In the Republic of Korea, one of the most widely discussed subjects related to future logistics technology is the drone-based delivery (transportation) system. Much (around 75%) of Korea's territory consists of mountainous areas; however, the costs of installing internet facilities for drone landing sites are very high compared to other countries. Therefore, this paper proposes the power-line communication (PLC) system introduced in the author's previous study as an alternative solution. For the system design, a number of lightning rods are used together with a monitoring system...
August 16, 2018: Sensors
Rui-Ming Zhao, Hua Zhang, Li-Zhe An
As alpine plants, cushion species are particularly susceptible to environment changes. Thus, understanding population structure and community diversity variation of cushion plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their response to predicted climate changes. In this study, Thylacospermum caespitosum populations from three elevations (low, medium, and high) in three climate zones of China (the Kunlun, Qilian, and Tianshan Mountains) were selected to evaluate the effect of elevation on the structure of T...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaojia ZHu, Yuyan Guan, Yanhua Qu, Gabriel David, Gang Song, Fumin Lei
Gene flow and demographic history can play important roles in the adaptive genetic differentiation of species, which is rarely understood in the high-altitude adaptive evolution of birds. To elucidate genetic divergence of populations in the great tit complex ( Parus major , P. minor and P. cinereus ) at different elevations, we compared the genetic structure and gene flow in hemoglobin genes with neutral loci. Our results revealed the elevationally divergent structure of α A -globin gene, distinctive from that of the β A -globin gene and neutral loci...
August 2018: Current Zoology
Daniel E Winkler, Ramona J Butz, Matthew J Germino, Keith Reinhardt, Lara M Kueppers
The spatial patterning of alpine plant communities is strongly influenced by the variation in physical factors such as temperature and moisture, which are strongly affected by snow depth and snowmelt patterns. Earlier snowmelt timing and greater soil-moisture limitations may favor wide-ranging species adapted to a broader set of ecohydrological conditions than alpine-restricted species. We asked how plant community composition, phenology, plant water relations, and photosynthetic gas exchange of alpine-restricted and wide-ranging species differ in their responses to a ca...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Robert N Spengler, Farhod Maksudov, Elissa Bullion, Ann Merkle, Taylor Hermes, Michael Frachetti
During the first millennium A.D., Central Asia was marked by broad networks of exchange and interaction, what many historians collectively refer to as the "Silk Road". Much of this contact relied on high-elevation mountain valleys, often linking towns and caravanserais through alpine territories. This cultural exchange is thought to have reached a peak in the late first millennium A.D., and these exchange networks fostered the spread of domesticated plants and animals across Eurasia. However, few systematic studies have investigated the cultivated plants that spread along the trans-Eurasian exchange during this time...
2018: PloS One
Elina Miteniece, Milena Pavlova, Lela Shengelia, Bernd Rechel, Wim Groot
BACKGROUND: The maternal health outcomes in Georgia are linked to shortcomings in healthcare such as inequities in access to adequate maternal care. Due to the macro-level, quantitative approach applied in most previous studies, little is known about the underlying reasons that influence maternal care and care-seeking behaviour of pregnant women. METHODS: This qualitative study explores the stakeholders' perspectives on access to adequate maternal care in Georgia...
August 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Behnam Ahmadipour, Hossein Hassanpour, Fariborz Khajali
BACKGROUND: Fatness is an unwanted side effect of genetic selection in broiler chickens. In this study, we introduce mountain celery powder as a feed supplement to suppress lipogenesis and improve antioxidant status in broiler chickens. Male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were fed a control diet or a diet that includes mountain celery (MC) at 7.5 gkg-1 over 42 days. RESULTS: Body weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly (P < 0.05) improved in chicks fed MC...
August 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Karen Ritchie, Isabelle Carrière, David Howett, Li Su, Michael Hornberger, John T O'Brien, Craig W Ritchie, Dennis Chan
Impairments in spatial processing due to hippocampal degeneration have been observed in the years immediately preceding the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. The demonstration of changes in spatial processing in preceding decades would provide a cognitive marker for pre-clinical AD and an outcome measure for early intervention trials. The present study examined allocentric and egocentric spatial processing in relation to future dementia risk in a middle-aged cohort. The CAIDE Dementia Risk Score (DRS) was calculated for 188 persons aged 40 to 59, of whom 94 had a parent with dementia...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
P Bouzat, G Séchaud, P Banco, K Davranche, L Casini, S Baillieul, P Manhes, F Botrè, M Mazzarino, X De la Torre, P Robach, S Verges
Study objectives: Sleep is altered at high altitude leading many mountaineers to use hypnotics in order to improve sleep efficiency. While after a full night at altitude the short-acting hypnotic zolpidem does not appear to alter cognitive function, residual adverse effects should be considered following early waking-up as performed by mountaineers. We hypothesized that zolpidem intake at high altitude would alter cognitive function 4 hours after drug intake. Methods: In a randomized double-blind controlled cross-over study, 22 subjects were evaluated during 2 nights at sea level and 2 nights at 3,800m, 4 hours after zolpidem (10mg) or placebo intake at 22:00pm...
August 7, 2018: Sleep
Chiaki Hori, Jill Gaskell, Dan Cullen, Grzegorz Sabat, Philip E Stewart, Kathleen Lail, Yi Peng, Kerrie Barry, Igor V Grigoriev, Annegret Kohler, Laure Fauchery, Francis Martin, Carolyn A Zeiner, Jennifer M Bhatnagar
Fungi play a key role cycling nutrients in forest ecosystems but the mechanisms remain uncertain. To clarify the enzymatic processes involved in wood decomposition, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics of extensively decayed lodgepole pine were examined by RNAseq and LC-MS/MS, respectively. Following de novo metatranscriptome assembly, 52,011 contigs were searched for functional domains and homology to database entries. Contigs similar to to basidiomycete transcripts dominated and many of these were most closely related to ligninolytic white rot fungi or cellulolytic brown rot fungi...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Markus Reisenbüchler, Minh Duc Bui, Daniel Skublics, Peter Rutschmann
Man-made structures in the Saalach River have changed the hydromorphological characteristics of the river regime. In some river reaches, the Saalach has lost the high morphological versatility and high variation in sediment transport characteristic of a mountain river. Among the negative effects, an extreme flow discharge in combination with riverbed variation could be one of the possible causes of flood disasters along the river. For example, the heavy and long lasting rainfall in June 2013 led to a peak discharge of 1100 m3 /s, which was slightly above the 100-year flood return period, inundating a nearby city...
August 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaomei Wang, Hong Chen, Rong Li, Weiling Fu, Chunyan Yao
BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is common in high-altitude travelers, and may lead to life-threatening high-altitude cerebral edema (HACE) or high-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). The inhaled drugs have a much lower peak serum concentrations and a shorter half-life period than oral drugs, which give them a special character, greater local effects in the lung. Meanwhile, short-term administration of inhaled drugs results in almost no adverse reactions. METHODS: We chose inhaled ipratropium bromide/salbutamol sulfate (combivent, COM), budesonide (pulmicortrespules, BUD), and salbutamol sulfate (ventolin, VEN) in our study to investigate their prophylactic efficacy against AMS...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Deep Chandra Suyal, Saurabh Kumar, Divya Joshi, Ravindra Soni, Reeta Goel
Effective protocols and novel biomarkers are the need of this hour to screen potential cold adapted diazotrophs for sustainable mountain agricultural plans. LC-MS/MS based gel less quantitative proteomics was employed to investigate the metabolic response of Himalayan cold adapted diazotroph Pseudomonas palleroniana N26 (JN055435) for nitrogen deficiency and cold stress. More than 5000 proteins were identified, and 125 of them showed significant difference with a 2-fold or greater change (p < .05) between normal and stress conditions, including 29 up-regulated proteins and 35 down-regulated proteins...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
J A Hindley, B A Graham, P C Pulgarin-R, T M Burg
Examining the factors that influence contemporary genetic patterns is important given the alarming rate at which natural environments are changing. In particular habitat fragmentation and climate change are expected to influence the distribution and diversity of natural populations. In this study we used both mitochondrial control region (mtDNA) and microsatellite data to answer the following questions about genetic diversity and divergence in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli) a resident bird species in western North America: (1) Do populations exhibit similar levels of genetic diversity across the range? (2) What is the genetic affinity of western populations in Oregon and Washington? (3) Do genetic patterns exhibit isolation by distance, or are genetic patterns more heavily influenced by habitat discontinuity? We tested the effects of isolation by distance and habitat distribution on genetic structure by analyzing 266 samples from 17 sites across western Canada and the United States...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Raffaele Cortignani, Gabriele Dono
The study assesses the possible impact of first pillar reform of the Common Agricultural Policy by focusing on the new greening rules defined by the recent Omnibus regulation. The analysis was carried out on a Farm Accountancy Data Network sample of Italian farms using by a Positive Mathematical Programming model. Moreover, our analysis is stratified by geographical area and altimetric level and uses some additional environmental and social indicators beyond those economic. The results indicate that the new greening rules generate positive but limited environmental impacts, which reinforce those already determined by the previous CAP reform, for example the use of chemical fertilizers is further reduced...
August 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Connor O'Malley, L Mark Elbroch, Patrick E Lendrum, Howard Quigley
Carrion is a rich, ephemeral resource vital to biodiversity and ecosystem health. In temperate ecosystems in which cold temperatures and snowfall influence the accessibility and availability of small prey and seasonal mast crops, carrion may also be a limiting resource for mesocarnivores like red foxes ( Vulpes vulpes ), which are too small to predate ungulates. Using motion-triggered video cameras and generalized linear mixed models, we studied the spatial and temporal patterns of red fox scavenging at 232 mountain lion kills in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) from 2012-2015...
2018: PeerJ
Marius Lebret, Bernard Wuyam, Dominique Bertrand, Christiane Chaudot, Jean-Louis Pépin, Jean-Christian Borel
Sleep-related breathing disturbances are exacerbated at altitude in patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The objective of this case report was to determine if a portable auto-CPAP device effectively treated sleep apnea across different altitudes. We report the severity of sleep apnea from 60 to 12,000 feet high in a man with severe OSA (Apnea Hypopnea Index at diagnosis = 60 events/hour) during the 2017 Dakar rally over the Andes mountains. The man was equipped with a lightweight portable auto-CPAP device with a narrow window [6-8 cmH2 O]...
March 2018: Sleep Science
Diana L Six, Clare Vergobbi, Mitchell Cutter
Increased mortality of forest trees, driven directly or indirectly by climate change, is occurring around the world. In western North America, whitebark pine, a high elevation keystone species, and lodgepole pine, a widespread ecologically and economically important tree, have experienced extensive mortality in recent climate-driven outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle. However, even in stands experiencing high levels of mortality, some mature trees have survived. We hypothesized that the outbreak acted as a natural selection event, removing trees most susceptible to the beetle and least adapted to warmer drier conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ruiliang Liu, Jessica Rawson, A Mark Pollard
One of the greatest enigmas in the study of Bronze Age China is the source of highly radiogenic lead discovered in the copper-based objects of the Shang period (ca. 1500-1046 BC). Although being relatively rare in nature, such lead contributed over half of the lead consumed across a vast area from the Yellow River to the Yangtze. Identifying its source and supply network would significantly contribute to our understanding of how China achieved the largest metal production across Eurasia. The past thirty years of research have seen various proposals for the origin of this lead, including south-western China, the middle Yangtze River valley, the Qinling and Zhongtiao mountains, and even Africa...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
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