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High mountain

Junhao Chen, Jiawei Zhang, Meigui Lin, Wei Dong, Xinyue Guo, Yang Dong, Zhengjia Wang, Liangsheng Zhang, Fei Chen
Maca (Lepidium meyenii), a Brassicaceae herb plant originated from Andean mountains, has attracted wide interests due to its unique health benefits in reproduction and fertility. Because of its adaptation to the 4000 m high-altitude harsh environment, maca is attracting more and more attention from both crop breeders and basic biologists. After our previous release of the maca genome sequence, there's a growing need to store, query, analyze and integrate various maca resources efficiently. Here, we created Maca Genome Hub (MGH), a genomics and genetics database of maca...
January 1, 2018: Database: the Journal of Biological Databases and Curation
Lars G Crabo
The genus Rhabdorthodes gen. n. is described for three previously unnamed noctuid moths from the mountains of south-western United States and Mexico. It is assigned to subfamily Noctuinae, tribe Eriopygini. Rhabdorthodespattersoni sp. n. from the United States and Rhabdorthodesdurango sp. n. and Rhabdorthodespetersoni sp. n. from Mexico are described. These moths are small, dull gray brown, and lack highly diagnostic wing markings, but are distinctive structurally. The adults and genitalia of both sexes are illustrated and distribution maps are presented...
2018: ZooKeys
Marian V Lea, John Syring, Tara Jennings, Richard Cronn, Leo P Bruederle, Jennifer Ramp Neale, Diana F Tomback
Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) is a widely-distributed but rapidly declining high elevation western North American tree and a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our objectives were to develop reliable nuclear microsatellite markers that can be used to assess within-population genetic diversity as well as seed and pollen migration dynamics, and to validate markers using two geographically proximal P. albicaulis populations. We identified 1,667 microsatellite-containing sequences from shotgun DNA libraries of P...
2018: PloS One
David Hillebrandt, Anil Gurtoo, Thomas Kupper, Paul Richards, Volker Schöffl, Pankaj Shah, Rianne van der Spek, Nikki Wallis, Jim Milledge
Hillebrandt, David, Anil Gurtoo, Thomas Kupper, Paul Richards, Volker Schöffl, Pankaj Shah, Rianne van der Spek, Nikki Wallis, and Jim Milledge. UIAA Medical Commission recommendations for mountaineers, hillwalkers, trekkers, and rock and ice climbers with diabetes. High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2018.-The object of this advice article is not only to give the diabetic mountaineer general guidance but also to inform his or her medical team of practical aspects of care that may not be standard for nonmountaineers...
October 18, 2018: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
Miguel Aguilera, Manuel G Bedia
The activity of many biological and cognitive systems is not poised deep within a specific regime of activity. Instead, they operate near points of critical behavior located at the boundary between different phases. Certain authors link some of the properties of criticality with the ability of living systems to generate autonomous or intrinsically generated behavior. However, these claims remain highly speculative. In this paper, we intend to explore the connection between criticality and autonomous behavior through conceptual models that show how embodied agents may adapt themselves toward critical points...
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Jacek Kamczyc, Maciej Skorupski, Marcin K Dyderski, Anna Gazda, Mariusz Hachułka, Paweł Horodecki, Izabela Kałucka, Marek Malicki, Remigiusz Pielech, Michał Smoczyk, Sylwia Wierzcholska, Andrzej M Jagodziński
During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, coniferous monocultures were introduced, replacing natural broadleaved forests in Central Europe, mainly for economic benefits. In the mountains, Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) H. Karst] was introduced in large areas previously covered with beech forests and also in natural riverside habitat corridors such as river valleys, despite its negative impact on the soil environment by e.g. organic matter accumulation, decrease of soil pH and changes in C/N ratio. We aimed to check how long-term Norway spruce plantations affect species richness and diversity of soil mites along a mountain river in former mixed and broadleaved forests...
October 16, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
Hongyi Yang, Xingyu Zhao, Changli Liu, Long Bai, Min Zhao, Lili Li
This study investigated ericoid mycorrhizal fungi (EMF) diversity in Vaccinium uliginosum across its main wild distribution range in China. Fungal communities in hair roots of V. uliginosum were analyzed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Only 22 OTUs were assigned to putative EMF genera. Rhizoscyphus and Meliniomyces dominated EMF communities, followed by Clavaria, Oidiodendron, Lachnum, Acephala, and Phialocephala. There were more dark septate endophytes (DSE) reads from the Greater Khingan Mountains than from other study areas, similar to the results of the percent colonization of DSE by the magnified intersections method...
October 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuan-Zhen Zhang, Ruo-Wei Zhu, Da-Lv Zhong, Jian-Qiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Quaternary climatic oscillations had tremendous effects on the current distribution of species. Here, we aim to elucidate the glacial history of Rhodiola crenulata, a perennial herb almost exclusively restricted to rock crevices on mountain peaks, and to test whether the nunatak or massif de refuge hypotheses could explain its distribution pattern. RESULTS: Six haplotypes and six ribotypes were detected in the cpDNA data set and the ITS data set, respectively...
October 16, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Gregorio Moreno-Rueda, Elena Melero, Senda Reguera, Francisco J Zamora-Camacho, Inés Álvarez-Benito
Mountains imply enormous environmental variation, with alpine habitats entailing harsh environments, especially for ectotherms such as lizards. This environmental variability also may imply variation in prey availability. However, little is known about how lizard trophic ecology varies with elevation. In this study, we analyze diet, prey availability, prey selection, and trophic niche width in the lacertid lizard Psammodromus algirus along a 2,200-m elevational gradient in the Sierra Nevada (SE Spain). The analysis of fecal samples has shown that Orthoptera, Formicidae, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, and Araneae are the main prey, although, according to their abundance in pitfall traps, Formicidae and Coleoptera are rejected by the lizard whereas Orthoptera, Hemiptera, and Araneae are preferred...
October 2018: Current Zoology
Xiangning Bai, Shan Lu, Jing Yang, Dong Jin, Ji Pu, Sara Díaz Moyá, Yanwen Xiong, Ramon Rossello-Mora, Jianguo Xu
The metataxonomic approach combining 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using the PacBio Technology with the application of the operational phylogenetic unit (OPU) approach, has been used to analyze the fecal microbial composition of the high-altitude and herbivorous Tibetan antelopes. The fecal samples of the antelope were collected in Hoh Xil National Nature Reserve, at an altitude over 4500 m, the largest depopulated zone in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, where non-native animals or humans may experience life-threatening acute mountain sickness...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Stacy Rosenbaum, Linda Vigilant, Christopher W Kuzawa, Tara S Stoinski
Socioecological theory predicts that male parenting among mammals should be rare due to the large payoffs of prioritizing mating effort over parenting. Although these predictions are generally met, in some promiscuous primate species males overcome this by identifying their offspring, and providing benefits such as protection and resource access. Mountain gorillas, which often organize into multi-male groups, are an intriguing exception. Males frequently affiliate with infants despite not discriminating their own from other males' offspring, raising questions about the function of this behavior...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexander M Posch, Stewart Dandorf, David C Hile
Lowlanders rapidly ascending to high altitude (>2500 m) often develop acute mountain sickness (AMS). While acclimatization is the most effective method of reducing symptoms of AMS (ie, headache, fatigue, nausea, gastrointestinal distress, etc.), it may take several days to become fully acclimated. Prophylactic use of acetazolamide (AZ), a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, has become a popular alternative to staged acclimatization because it can be a less time-consuming method of reducing symptoms of AMS. While numerous studies have shown the effectiveness of AZ in mitigating the symptoms of AMS, a review of the existing literature regarding the effects of AZ on submaximal and maximal exercise performance at sea level and at altitude has not been performed...
October 9, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Vivek Philip Cyriac, Alex Johny, P K Umesh, Muhamed Jafer Palot
Two new species of geckos of the genus Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 are described from the southern Western Ghats of Kerala. Both species are medium to large sized Cnemaspis and can be differentiated from all other Indian congeners by a suite of distinct morphological characters. Both species are found in the high elevation forests of the two major massifs-       Anaimalai Hills and Agasthyamalai Hills and are presently known to have very restricted distributional ranges. The discovery of these novel species highlights the understudied diversity of reptiles in the high mountain ranges of the Western Ghats...
August 14, 2018: Zootaxa
Monika Springer, Jenny BermÚdez-Monge
The larva and pupa of Limnephilus hamifer Flint 1963 are described and illustrated for the first time. The description is based on material collected and reared from the Cerro de la Muerte mountain range in Costa Rica, and from additional specimens deposited at the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica. The distribution of this species is restricted to high mountain areas of Costa Rica and Panamá and constitutes the most southern distribution of the genus on the American continent.
August 21, 2018: Zootaxa
David T Bilton
The genus Leielmis was recently revised by Bilton (2017), who established the identity of the type species Leielmis georyssoides (Grouvelle, 1890), and described two new taxa: Leielmis gibbosus Bilton, 2017, widespread in the Cape Fold Mountains and Leielmis hirsutus Bilton, 2017, known to date only from a single site at high altitude in the Groote Winterhoek mountains. A distinctive new species of Leielmis was discovered in a high altitude stream in 2017 in the Hexrivierberge, being collected whilst the generic revision was in press! This species is described below, and a modified key to Leielmis species presented...
June 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Meng Wang, Bao-Zhen Hua
Neopanorpa van der Weele, 1909 is the second largest genus of Panorpidae, and is endemic to the Oriental Region. Yunnan, a province in the southwestern region of China, is well-known as a biodiversity hotspot and abundant in Neopanorpa species. However, only sixteen species of Neopanorpa have been described from Yunnan hitherto and the taxonomic study of Neopanorpa in Yunnan has lagged far behind as compared with studies performed in neighboring regions. In the present study, notably high diversity of Neopanorpa species is found in the Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan...
September 20, 2018: Zootaxa
Duncan M Stevens, Jacqueline Bishop, Mike D Picker
The low vagility of the southern African Notonemouridae (stoneflies, Plecoptera), and their restriction to temperate montane refugia, make them a useful model for examining the evolution and biogeography of the rich palaeogenic fauna of the region. Here we use maximum parsimony tree reconstruction based on morphological characters and a partial COI mtDNA sequence to explore the evolutionary history and biogeography of the family in southern Africa. Morphological and molecular parsimony cladograms were largely in agreement, and supported monophyly of all six genera in the region...
September 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Oscar Arribas, Çetİn Ilgaz, Yusuf KumlutaŞ
The intraspecific variability of Darevskia parvula (which has two classical subspecies easily identifiable by external characteristics, D. p. parvula and D. p. adjarica), was studied using various approaches including morphology (scalation and biometry), multivariate analyses (PCA, CDA, ANOSIM, UPGMA and MST), osteology, and molecular techniques. High mitochondrial distance, differences at the nuclear level and morphological distinctiveness warrant the specific status of both taxa, Darevskia parvula (Lantz Cyrén, 1913) and Darevskia adjarica (Darevsky Eiselt, 1980) stat...
September 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Enrique Serrano, José Juan Sanjosé, Álvaro Gómez-Gutiérrez, Manuel Gómez-Lende
Debris talus is a very common landform in the temperate high mountain, so much so that it is the most representative of the periglacial and nival processes. This work studies debris cones in the Picos de Europa, an Atlantic mountain range in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. A detailed geomorphological map was prepared, fieldwork was carried out on the debris cone surface, the ground and air thermal regime was analyzed, and a five-year Terrestrial Laser Scan survey carried out. Annual volume changes on the surface of the debris cones were detected and related to active processes and sediment transfer...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Zheng Dong, Charles T Driscoll, John L Campbell, Afshin Pourmokhtarian, Anne M K Stoner, Katharine Hayhoe
Using statistically downscaled future climate scenarios and a version of the biogeochemical model (PnET-BGC) that was modified for use in the alpine tundra, we investigated changes in water, carbon, and nitrogen dynamics under the Representative Concentration Pathways at Niwot Ridge in Colorado, USA. Our simulations indicate that future hydrology will become more water-limited over the short-term due to the temperature-induced increases in leaf conductance, but remains energy-limited over the longer term because of anticipated future decreases in leaf area and increases in annual precipitation...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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