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High flow o2

Mizuki Ikeda, Junji Deguchi, Shota Fukushima, Ai Qingyu, Norihiro Katayama, Hajime Miura, Yasuo Oyama
Chlorothalonil, a polychlorinated aromatic fungicide, is considered non-toxic to small mammals. However, chlorothalonil inactivates sulfhydryl enzymes and depletes cellular glutathione. Chlorothalonil increases intracellular Zn2+ concentration ([Zn2+ ]i) in mammalian cells possibly because intracellular Zn2+ is released via zinc-thiol/disulfide interchange. The effects of chlorothalonil at sublethal concentrations on the cellular content of nonprotein thiols ([NPT]i) and [Zn2+ ]i were examined using flow cytometry in rat thymocytes...
March 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Lieselot Decroix, Cajsa Tonoli, Elodie Lespagnol, Constantino Balestra, Amandine Descat, Marie Jose Drittij-Reijnders, Jamie R Blackwell, Wilhelm Stahl, Andrew M Jones, Antje R Weseler, Aalt Bast, Romain Meeusen, Elsa Heyman
INTRODUCTION: During exercise in hypoxia, O2 delivery to brain and muscle is compromised and oxidative stress is elicited. Cocoa flavanols (CF) have antioxidant capacities and can increase blood flow by stimulating endothelial function. We aimed to examine the effects of 7-day CF intake on oxidative stress, nitric oxide production and tissue oxygenation in response to exercise in hypoxia (14.3% O2 ). METHODS: In a randomized, double blind, cross-over study, 14 well-trained male cyclists completed 4 trials: exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, after 7-day CF or placebo intake...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Xuanliang Pan, Guoxian Chen, Pan Wu, Chunmao Han, Jon Kee Ho
Skin perfusion pressure (SPP) is the blood pressure that is the requisite for the restoration of microcirculatory or capillary flow following controlled occlusion and subsequent flow return. The purpose of the current review was to evaluate the value of SPP for the prediction of wound healing in patients with limb ischemia. Articles published up to January 31, 2017 were searched in the PubMed database and Chinese database CNKI, using the keywords of 'skin perfusion pressure', 'limb ischemia' and 'wound healing'...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
May W Chen, Michael Reyes, Ewa Kulikowicz, Laura Martin, David J Hackam, Raymond C Koehler, Jennifer K Lee
BACKGROUND: Abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (aNIRS) may detect gastrointestinal hypoxia before necrotizing enterocolitis develops. We sought to validate aNIRS during splanchnic hypoxia and hypoperfusion in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Anesthetized piglets underwent systemic hypoxia or 3-h superior mesenteric artery (SMA) ligation with aNIRS monitoring. RESULTS: During progressive hypoxia, gastrointestinal tissue oxyhemoglobin saturation measured by aNIRS decreased linearly with oxyhemoglobin saturation measured directly in the portal vein...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Xiongzhang Liu, Ran Guo, Senjing Zhang, Qingda Li, Genki Saito, Xuemei Yi, Takahiro Nomura
Silicon nitride (Si3N4) products with different nanostructure morphologies and different phases for Si3N4 ceramic with high thermal conductivity were synthesized by a direct nitriding method. NaCl and NH4Cl were added to raw Si powders, and the reaction was carried out under a nitrogen gas flow of 100 mL/min. The phase composition and morphologies of the products were systemically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM)...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mihir Sarkar, Rajasree Sinha, Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Sobhanman Mukhopadhyay, Pramit Ghosh, Kalpana Dutta, Shibarjun Ghosh
Background: Early initiation of appropriate noninvasive respiratory support is utmost important intervention to avoid mechanical ventilation in severe bronchiolitis. Aim: This study aims to compare noninvasive continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) and hot humidified high-flow nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) as modes of respiratory support in infants with severe bronchiolitis. Methods: Prospective, randomized, open-label pilot study done in a tertiary-care hospital Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU)...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
C Overbergh, S Installe, A Boudewyns, K Van Hoorenbeeck, S L Verhulst
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is being increasingly used in children of all age ranges. The limited number of commercially available masks especially in infants and young children may complicate its use and compliance. In this report, we describe our experience with the use of the Optiflow™ (Fisher and Paykel Healthcare) Nasal Cannula attached to a regular CPAP device in the setting of chronic CPAP use. This interface consists of a nasal cannula and was originally designed for the delivery of high-flow oxygen therapy...
April 2018: Sleep Medicine
Antonella Cotoia, Lucia Mirabella, Sabrina Altamura, Rachele Villani, Flavia Marchese, Giuseppe Ferrara, Karim Mariano, Tullo Livio, Gilda Cinnella
BACKGROUND: Sepsis caused by complicated intra-abdominal infection is associated with high mortality. Loss of endothelial barrier integrity, inflammation, and impaired cellular oxygen have been shown to be primary contributors to sepsis. To date, little is known regarding the pathway for the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow in sepsis whereas stromal-cell-derived factor 1a (SDF-1a) and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) seem to have a role in the EPC response to hypoxic microenvironments...
March 12, 2018: Trials
Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Nora Elisabeth Zois, Mette Simonsen, Ole Lajord Munk
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating CBF is unresolved and therefore knowledge of optimal anaesthesia and monitoring of pigs in PET studies is sparse. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if and how physiological variables and the duration of anaesthesia affected CBF as measured by PET using [15 O]-water in isoflurane-N2 O anaesthetized domestic female pigs...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Anıl Er, Aykut Çağlar, Fatma Akgül, Emel Ulusoy, Hale Çitlenbik, Durgül Yılmaz, Murat Duman
AIM: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a new treatment option for pediatric respiratory distress and we aimed to assess early predictive factors of unresponsiveness to HFNC therapy in a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHOD: Patients who presented with respiratory distress and were treated by HFNC, were included. The age, gender, weight, medical history, diagnosis, vital signs, oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2 /FiO2 ) ratio, modified Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument (mRDAI) scores, medical interventions, duration of HFNC therapy, time to escalation, adverse effects, and laboratory test results were obtained from medical and nursing records...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Elshin Mathias, Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
A state-of-the-art integrated model of neurovascular coupling (NVC) [19, 18, 38] and the BOLD response [47, 48] is presented with the ability to simulate the fMRI BOLD responses due to continuous neuronal spiking, bursting and cortical spreading depression (CSD) along with the underlying complex vascular coupling. Simulated BOLD responses are compared to experimental BOLD signals observed in the rat barrel cortex and in the hippocampus under seizure conditions showing good agreement. Bursting phenomena provides relatively clear BOLD signals as long as the time between bursts is not too short...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Brett J Manley, Calum T Roberts, Dag H Frøisland, Lex W Doyle, Peter G Davis, Louise S Owen
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and demographic variables that predict nasal high-flow (nHF) treatment failure when used as a primary respiratory support for preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary analysis used data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial comparing nHF with continuous positive airway pressure as primary respiratory support in preterm infants 28-36 completed weeks of gestation. Treatment success or failure with nHF was determined using treatment failure criteria within the first 72 hours after randomization...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Paul Whitehead, Gianbattista Bussi, Mohammed Abed Hossain, Michaela Dolk, Partho Das, Sean Comber, Rebecca Peters, Katrina J Charles, Rob Hope, Sarwar Hossain
River water quality in rapidly urbanising Asian cities threatens to damage the resource base on which human health, economic growth and poverty reduction all depend. Dhaka reflects the challenges and opportunities for balancing these dynamic and complex trade-offs which goals can be achieved through effective policy interventions. There is a serious problem of water pollution in central Dhaka, in the Turag-Tongi-Balu River system in Bangladesh with the river system being one of the most polluted in the world at the moment...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Aditi Jhaveri, Pranali Deshpande, Bhushan Pattni, Vladimir Torchilin
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly aggressive brain tumors with a very grim prognosis even after multi-modal therapeutic regimens. Conventional chemotherapeutic agents frequently lead to drug resistance and result in severe toxicities to non-cancerous tissues. Resveratrol (RES), a natural polyphenol with pleiotropic health benefits, has proven chemopreventive effects in all the stages of cancer including initiation, promotion and progression. However the poor physico-chemical properties of RES severely limit its use as a free drug...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Paul O Wennberg, Kelvin H Bates, John D Crounse, Leah G Dodson, Renee C McVay, Laura A Mertens, Tran B Nguyen, Eric Praske, Rebecca H Schwantes, Matthew D Smarte, Jason M St Clair, Alexander P Teng, Xuan Zhang, John H Seinfeld
Isoprene carries approximately half of the flux of non-methane volatile organic carbon emitted to the atmosphere by the biosphere. Accurate representation of its oxidation rate and products is essential for quantifying its influence on the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH), nitrogen oxide free radicals (NOx ), ozone (O3 ), and, via the formation of highly oxygenated compounds, aerosol. We present a review of recent laboratory and theoretical studies of the oxidation pathways of isoprene initiated by addition of OH, O3 , the nitrate radical (NO3 ), and the chlorine atom...
March 9, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Yasin Tülüce, Bewar Ali Ahmed, İsmail Koyuncu, Mustafa Durgun
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common tumor, malignant and has developed one of the main reasons of cancer mortality. According to studies conducted recently; carbonic anhydrase 9 (CAIX) is an especially attractive target for cancer therapy, in part since it is limited way expressed in normal tissues on the other hand in a wide variety of solid neoplasia are overexpressed. The aim of this study was to appreciate the effects of CAIX inhibitor, namely novel synthesized sulfonamide derivative (H-4i) with high affinity for CAIX, in CAIX-positive human colorectal cancer cell (HT-29) and CAIX-negative human normal embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Christine C Helms, Mark T Gladwin, Daniel B Kim-Shapiro
Erythrocytes regulate vascular function through the modulation of oxygen delivery and the scavenging and generation of nitric oxide (NO). First, hemoglobin inside the red blood cell binds oxygen in the lungs and delivers it to tissues throughout the body in an allosterically regulated process, modulated by oxygen, carbon dioxide and proton concentrations. The vasculature responds to low oxygen tensions through vasodilation, further recruiting blood flow and oxygen carrying erythrocytes. Research has shown multiple mechanisms are at play in this classical hypoxic vasodilatory response, with a potential role of red cell derived vasodilatory molecules, such as nitrite derived nitric oxide and red blood cell ATP, considered in the last 20 years...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Lihua Zhu, Jia Li, Wu Dayang, Li Bing
PURPOSE: To investigate the protective effect of beta-casomorphin-7 (β-CM-7) in oxidative stressed human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) and to explore the possible mechanism for oxidative stress in human lens epithelial cells induced by high glucose. METHODS: We used HLECs to determine the effect of different concentrations of β-CM-7 on cell viability by 3-(4, 5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolimol/L bromide (MTT) assay. We used flow cytometry to determine the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by oxidative stress and a bioassay kit to determine the oxidant malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels...
March 8, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
John Henry McDermott, Charles Reynard, Jonathan Perry, James W Dear, Fran Child, Rachel Jenner
BACKGROUND: Recent public health strategies have contributed towards a significant reduction in the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings. When events do occur, symptoms can vary dramatically depending on the carboxyhaemoglobin level and individual factors. Most reports to date focus on individual cases or larger retrospective reviews of diverse cohorts. There are very few reports of CO exposure related to scuba diving activities. METHODS: We describe the clinical sequelae experienced by 10 children who were exposed to CO during a scuba diving lesson...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Brenda R S de Araújo, José J Linares León
This study presents the results of the electrochemical degradation of the emulsifier cetrimonium chloride (CTAC) on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode under different current densities and flow rates. Higher values of these parameters result in a more rapid removal. Nevertheless, operation at low current reduces the required applied charge and increases the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, as there is less development of ineffective parasitic reactions. On the other hand, high flow rates reduce the required volumetric applied charge and increase the COD removal current efficiency...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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