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The Nanomedicine

William J Brownlee, F Philipp Seib
Breast cancer cells adapt to the hypoxic tumoral environment by undergoing changes in metabolism, cell signalling, endo-lysosomal receptor uptake and recycling. The resulting hypoxic cell phenotype has the potential to undermine the therapeutic efficacy of nanomedicines designed for endocytic uptake and specific intracellular trafficking. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of hypoxia and simulated reperfusion on the in vitro uptake and release of nanomedicines by human breast cancer cells. Cells were exposed to a hypoxic preconditioning treatment in 1% oxygen for 6 and 24 hours to induce temporal changes in the hypoxic circuit (e...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abhilash Samykutty, William E Grizzle, Benjamin L Fouts, Molly W McNally, Phillip Chuong, Alexandra Thomas, Akiko Chiba, Dennis Otali, Anna Woloszynska, Neveen Said, Peter J Frederick, Jacek Jasinski, Jie Liu, Lacey R McNally
At the intersection of the newly emerging fields of optoacoustic imaging and theranostic nanomedicine, promising clinical progress can be made in dismal prognosis of ovarian cancer. An acidic pH targeted wormhole mesoporous silica nanoparticle (V7-RUBY) was developed to serve as a novel tumor specific theranostic nanoparticle detectable using multispectral optoacoustic tomographic (MSOT) imaging. We report the synthesis of a small, < 40 nm, biocompatible asymmetric wormhole pore mesoporous silica core particle that has both large loading capacity and favorable release kinetics combined with tumor-specific targeting and gatekeeping...
August 4, 2018: Biomaterials
Isabel Sousa, Filipa Rodrigues, Hugo Prazeres, Raquel T Lima, Paula Soares
Liposomal therapies opened the chapter of nanomedicine, in 1995, with the approval of liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil® ) for the treatment of numerous types of cancer. For the first time, liposomes permitted the employment of potent chemotherapeutic agents with improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, with less undesired side effects. Liposomal therapies allow the drug encapsulation and more selective delivery in the tumor bed, particularly due to the enhanced permeation and retention effect. These unique characteristics explain why liposomal therapies are being increasingly considered as alternatives in cancer therapy and represent an important research field with the recent approval for clinical use and emergent formulations in clinical trials...
August 16, 2018: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Mykola Borzenkov, Maria Moros, Claudia Tortiglione, Serena Bertoldi, Nicola Contessi, Silvia Faré, Angelo Taglietti, Agnese D'Agostino, Piersandro Pallavicini, Maddalena Collini, Giuseppe Chirico
The unique photothermal properties of non-spherical gold nanoparticles under near-infrared (NIR) irradiation find broad application in nanotechnology and nanomedicine. The combination of their plasmonic features with widely used biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films can lead to novel hybrid polymeric materials with tunable photothermal properties and a wide range of applications. In this study, thin PVA films containing highly photothermally efficient gold nanostars (GNSs) were fabricated and their properties were studied...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Shaowa Lü, Hong Su, Shuang Sun, Yuyan Guo, Ting Liu, Yang Ping, Yongji Li
In China, a decoction is one of the most common clinical dosage forms. Nanometre aggregates (NAs), which often consist of circular or irregular nanoparticles, have been observed in previous research on decoctions. A Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT) decoction is an ancient clinical dosage form in China. The purpose of this work was to isolate and characterize NAs from BHT and to investigate their antipyretic effect. A BHT decoction was prepared by the traditional method. The mechanism and active components of the aggregates in BHT were investigated by high-speed centrifugation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography)...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chandrababu Rejeeth, Raju Vivek, Varukattu NipunBabu, Alok Sharma, Xianting Ding, Kun Qian
An innovative approach for the distinctively efficient action of smart targeted drug delivery to a specific cell type is obtained through the modification of the surface of nanoparticles. Specifically, the work identifies a cell surface receptor targeting drug delivery nanosystem based on mesoporous silica loaded with the anticancer drug cisplatin ( cis -DDP) and poly-acrylic acid (PAA). A specific target is the PDGF receptors expressed in cervical cancer cells, thus making the PAA functionalized nanocomposite a suitable and promising nano-medicine for the targeting of PDGF-overexpressing cancers in the near future...
November 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Shukun Li, Qianli Zou, Yongxin Li, Chengqian Yuan, Ruirui Xing, Xuehai Yan
Supramolecular photosensitizer nanodrugs that combine the flexibility of supramolecular self-assembly and the advantage of spatiotemporal, controlled drug delivery are promising for dedicated, precise non-invasive tumor therapy. However, integrating robust blood circulation and targeted burst release in a single photosensitizer nanodrug platform that can simultaneously improve the therapeutic performance and reduce side effects is challenging. Herein, we demonstrate a multicomponent coordination self-assembly strategy that is versatile and potent for the development of photodynamic nanodrugs...
August 13, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Min Gao, Xuan Meng, Xuliang Guo, Jundong Zhu, Aiping Fan, Zheng Wang, Yanjun Zhao
Traditional antitumor nanomedicines have been suffering from the poor tumor targeting (ca. 1%) by the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, and the low drug loading (<5%). It was postulated that engineering all-active nanoplatform could increase the therapeutic efficacy to enable the nanocarrier function as both vehicle and active ingredient. To achieve this, a photosensitizer, Ce6 was encapsulated within polymeric micelles with unsaturated fatty acids as the building blocks. Upon light irradiation, the singlet oxygen produced by Ce6 induced lipid peroxidation, resulting in the generation of both active free radicals and aldehydes...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Zili Gu, Qingjie Wang, Yanbin Shi, Yi Huang, Jing Zhang, Xinke Zhang, Guimei Lin
Immunotherapy has exhibited enormous practice in the treatment of melanoma because of the intrinsic properties of tumor. Tumor can downmodulate immune function via multiple mechanisms such as immune checkpoint pathways. The PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies that block the PD1/PD-L1 pathway, which induced tumor cells to evade an immune attack, can delay tumor growth efficiently with inevitable disadvantages such as low selectivity and systemic toxicity. Nanomedicine is clearly an approach that holds tremendous potential for addressing the shortcomings and assisting delivery of drugs with proper biodistribution...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Mihai Moldovan, Susana Alvarez, Christian Rothe, Thomas L Andresen, Andrew Urquhart, Kai H W Lange, Christian Krarup
Peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) using local anesthetic (LA) are superior to systemic analgesia for management of post-operative pain. An insufficiently short PNB duration following single-shot LA can be optimized by development of extended release formulations among which liposomes have been shown to be the least toxic. In vivo rodent models for PNB have focused primarily on assessing behavioral responses following LA. In a previous study in human volunteers, we found that it is feasible to monitor the effect of LA in vivo by combining conventional conduction studies with nerve excitability studies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Carla Pereira Gomes, Victoria Leiro, Cátia Daniela Ferreira Lopes, Ana Patrícia Spencer, Ana Paula Pêgo
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been extensively used to coat the surface of nanocarriers to improve their physicochemical properties and allow the grafting of targeting moieties. Still, to date there is no common agreement on the ideal PEG coverage-density or length to be used for optimum vector performance. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of both PEG density and length on the vectoring capacity of neuron-targeted gene-carrying trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles. The non-toxic fragment from the tetanus toxin (HC) was coupled to a 5 kDa heterobifunctional PEG (HC-PEG5k ) reactive for the thiol groups inserted into the polymer backbone and grafted at different densities onto the nanoparticles...
August 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Han Zhang, Kai Liu, Shukun Li, Xia Xin, Shiling Yuan, Guanghui Ma, Xuehai Yan
Minimalist multifunctional platforms for delivering diagnostic and therapeutic agents effectively and safely into tumor sites are highly desired in nanomedicine. Herein, we describe the fabrication of a supramolecular nanoplatform via the amphiphilic amino acid (9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl-L-Leucine, Fmoc-L-L)-modulated self-assembly of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent (ionic manganese, Mn2+) and photosensitive drug (chlorin e6, Ce6). Coordination drives the coassembly of Fmoc-L-L and Mn2+ to generate a nanoscale supramolecular network to adaptively encapsulate Ce6...
August 9, 2018: ACS Nano
Abraham J P Teunissen, Carlos Pérez-Medina, Andries Meijerink, Willem J M Mulder
Supramolecular systems have applications in areas as diverse as materials science, biochemistry, analytical chemistry, and nanomedicine. However, analyzing such systems can be challenging due to the wide range of time scales, binding strengths, distances, and concentrations at which non-covalent phenomena take place. Due to their versatility and sensitivity, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based techniques are excellently suited to meet such challenges. Here, we detail the ways in which FRET has been used to study non-covalent interactions in both synthetic and biological supramolecular systems...
August 9, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Murtaza Hasan, Ghazala Mustafa, Javed Iqbal, Muhammad Ashfaq, Nasir Mahmood
The effective detection of molecular biomarkers, such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and pathogens, in a living body is a huge challenge in the field of nanomedicine. Here, we have investigated the comparative quantitative proteomics analysis of the molecular response of HeLa cells to biocompatible Fe2 C@C nanoparticles (NPs) using 16 O/18 O isotopic labelling of the cell culture. The relative binding efficiency of proteins to Fe2 C@C NPs was calculated. HPLC-ESI-orbit-trap analysis found 51 differentially expressed proteins, out of which 23 were over-expressed and 28 down-regulated...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Caina Xu, Yanbing Wang, Haiyang Yu, Huayu Tian, Xuesi Chen
Low toxic theranostic nanoparticles that can simultaneously achieve effective tumor accumulation and rapid renal clearance are highly desired for imaging contrast agents and photothermal therapy (PTT) in tumor diagnosis and therapy. Herein, we report a one-pot method for preparing multifunctional nanoparticles (FeAP-NPs) based on the coordination interaction of natural polyphenols (anthocyanins) extracted from fruits, FeIII ions, and poly(L-glutamic acid)-g-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers. The FeAP-NPs possess the following favorable advantages: (1) The components of FeAP-NPs originate from the natural products, endogenous element, and poly(amino acid) derivatives, guaranteeing their safety for in vivo application...
August 8, 2018: ACS Nano
Xuan Liu, Lunzhi Yuan, Liang Zhang, Yalin Mu, Xiaoling Li, Chao Liu, Peng Lv, Yali Zhang, Tong Cheng, Quan Yuan, Ningshao Xia, Xiaoyuan Chen, Gang Liu
We report a facile route for fabricating a new class of nanomimics that overexpress hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptor via a natural biosynthetic procedure against HBV infection. We engineered a nine-transmembrane HBV-specific receptor, human sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (hNTCP), to naturally immobilize it onto the cellular surface and subsequently trigger the budding of hNTCP-anchoring membrane vesicles (hNTCP-MVs) that favor the HBV virion. We confirmed that hNTCP-MVs could rapidly block HBV infection in cell models...
August 8, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Masaki Tokutome, Tetsuya Matoba, Yasuhiro Nakano, Arihide Okahara, Masaki Fujiwara, Jun-Ichiro Koga, Kaku Nakano, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Kensuke Egashira
Aims: Monocyte-mediated inflammation is a major mechanism underlying myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury and the healing process after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, no definitive anti-inflammatory therapies have been developed for clinical use. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ agonist, has unique anti-inflammatory effects on monocytes/macrophages. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nanoparticle-mediated targeting of pioglitazone to monocytes/macrophages ameliorates IR injury and cardiac remodeling in preclinical animal models...
August 3, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Bin Li, Lucas A Lane
Despite massive growth in nanomedicine research to date, the field still lacks fundamental understanding of how certain physical and chemical features of a nanoparticle affect its ability to overcome biological obstacles in vivo and reach its intended target. To gain fundamental understanding of how physical and chemical parameters affect the biological outcomes of administered nanoparticles, model systems that can systematically manipulate a single parameter with minimal influence on others are needed. Gold nanoparticles are particularly good model systems in this case as one can synthetically control the physical dimensions and surface chemistry of the particles independently and with great precision...
August 7, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Francis Man, Twan Lammers, Rafael T M de Rosales
Imaging plays a key role in the preclinical evaluation of nanomedicine-based drug delivery systems and it has provided important insights into their mechanism of action and therapeutic effect. Its role in supporting the clinical development of nanomedicine products, however, has been less explored. In this review, we summarize clinical studies in which imaging has provided valuable information on the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and target site accumulation of nanomedicine-based drug delivery systems...
August 6, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Hangxiang Wang, Liqian Zhou, Ke Xie, Jiaping Wu, Penghong Song, Haiyang Xie, Lin Zhou, Jialin Liu, Xiao Xu, Youqing Shen, Shusen Zheng
Nanomedicines have been extensively explored for cancer treatment, and their efficacies have arguably been proven in various cancer cell-derived xenograft (CDX) mouse models. However, they generally fail to show such therapeutic advantages in patients because of the huge pathological differences between human tumors and CDX models. Methods: In this study, we fabricated colloidal ultrastable nanomedicines from polymeric prodrugs and compared the therapeutic efficacies in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) CDX and clinically relevant patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models, which closely mimic human tumor pathological properties...
2018: Theranostics
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