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The Nanomedicine

Shaheen Mahira, Nagavendra Kommineni, Gulam Mohammed Husain, Wahid Khan
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the promising targets for cancer chemotherapy that cannot be eliminated by conventional chemotherapy. In this study cationic liposomes of cabazitaxel (CBX) and silibinin (SIL) were prepared with an aim to kill cancer cells and CSCs for prostate cancer. CBX act as cancer cell inhibitor and SIL as CSC inhibitor. Hyaluronic acid (HA), an endogenous anionic polysaccharide was coated on cationic liposomes for targeting CD44 receptors over expressed on CSCs. Liposomes were prepared by ethanol injection method with particle size below 100 nm and entrapment efficiency of more than 90% at 10% w/w drug loading...
December 13, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Louis Beauté, Nathan McClenaghan, Sébastien Lecommandoux
The use of nanotechnology to improve treatment efficacy and reduce side effects is central to nanomedicine. In this context, stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (DDS) such as chemical/physical gels or nanoparticles such as polymersomes, micelles or nanogels are particularly promising and are the focus of this review. Several stimuli have been considered but light as an exogenous trigger presents many advantages that are pertinent for clinical applications such as high spatial and temporal control and low cost...
December 13, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Walaa G Hozayen, Ayman M Mahmoud, Ekram M Desouky, El-Shaymaa El-Nahass, Hanan A Soliman, Ahmed A Farghali
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) represent one of the most promising drug delivery systems. MSNs have attracted considerable attention in recent years both in industry and biomedicine due to their unique properties. Thus, evaluation of the toxic effects of MSNs is necessary before the biomedical and clinical applications. We investigated the in vivo effect of MSNs on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defenses and histology of the heart and lung. Rats received 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of synthesized MSNs intraperitoneally for 30 days and samples were collected for analysis...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ana Julia F Dalcin, Bruno S Vizzotto, Guilherme V Bochi, Naiara S Guarda, Kátia Nascimento, Michele R Sagrillo, Rafael N Moresco, André P Schuch, Aline F Ourique, Patrícia Gomes
We evaluated the influence of nanoencapsulation of the flavonoid Dihydromyricetin (DMY) in reducing the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by cationic nanocapsules. Assays were conducted in order to evaluate the potential of protein corona formation, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and the antioxidant capacity. Nanocapsules containing DMY (NC-DMY) and free DMY (DMY-F) did not demonstrate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. However, Eudragit RS100® nanocapsules (NC-E) increased cytotoxicity and DNA damage formation...
January 1, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Man Kyu Shim, Jooho Park, Hong Yeol Yoon, Sangmin Lee, Wooram Um, Jong-Ho Kim, Sun-Woong Kang, Joung-Wook Seo, Soo-Wang Hyun, Jae Hyung Park, Youngro Byun, Ick Chan Kwon, Kwangmeyung Kim
Cancer nanomedicine using nanoparticle-based delivery systems has shown outstanding promise in recent decades for improving anticancer treatment. However, limited targeting efficiency, low drug loading efficiency and innate toxicity of nanoparticles have caused severe problems, leaving only a few available in the clinic. Here, we newly developed carrier-free nanoparticles of cathepsin B-cleavable peptide (Phe-Arg-Arg-Gly; FRRG)-conjugated doxorubicin (DOX) prodrug (FRRG-DOX) that formed a stable nanoparticle structure with an average diameter of 213 nm in aqueous condition...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Feng Chen, Prakash Manandhar, Md Salauddin Ahmed, Shuai Chang, Namuna Panday, Haiqian Zhang, Joong Ho Moon, Jin He
In-depth understanding of the biophysicochemical interactions at the nano-bio interface is important for basic cell biology and applications in nanomedicine and nanobiosensors. Here, the extracellular surface potential and topography changes of live cell membranes interacting with polymeric nanomaterials using a scanning ion conductance microscopy-based potential imaging technique are investigated. Two structurally similar amphiphilic conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) containing different functional groups (i...
December 13, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Lucy Chard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Nanomedicine
Vincent Pautu, Adélie Mellinger, Pauline Resnier, Elise Lepeltier, Ludovic Martin, Lise Boussemart, Franck Letournel, Catherine Passirani, Nicolas Clere
Tumour angiogenesis is defined by an anarchic vasculature and irregularities in alignment of endothelial cells. These structural abnormalities could explain the variability in distribution of nanomedicines in various tumour models. Then, the main goal of this study was to compare and to characterize the tumour vascular structure in different mouse models of melanoma tumours (B16F10 and SK-Mel-28) and in human melanomas from different patients. Tumours were obtained by subcutaneous injection of 106 B16F10 and 3...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Young Hee Choi, Hyo-Kyung Han
Nanomedicines have evolved into various forms including dendrimers, nanocrystals, emulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, micelles, and polymeric nanoparticles since their first launch in the market. Widely highlighted benefits of nanomedicines over conventional medicines include superior efficacy, safety, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles of pharmaceutical ingredients. Especially, various kinetic characteristics of nanomedicines in body are further influenced by their formulations...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
Wantao Tang, Ziliang Dong, Rui Zhang, Xuan Yi, Kai Yang, Meilin Jin, Chao Yuan, Zhidong Xiao, Zhuang Liu, Liang Cheng
Multi-functional nanoplatforms with special advantages in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer have been widely explored in nanomedicine. Herein, we synthesize two-dimensional core-shell nanocomposites (Ti3C2@Au) via a seed-growth method starting from the titanium carbide (Ti3C2) nanosheets, a classical type of MXene nanostructure. After growing gold on the surface of Ti3C2 nanosheets, the stability and biocompatibility of the nanocomposites are greatly improved by the thiol modification. And importantly, the optical absorption in the near infrared region (NIR) is enhanced...
December 13, 2018: ACS Nano
Francesco Lai, Michele Schlich, Rosa Pireddu, Anna Maria Fadda, Chiara Sinico
Natural products are an important source of therapeutically effective compounds throughout the world. Since ancient times, a huge amount of both plant extracts and isolated compoundshave been largely employed in treatment and prevention of human disordersand, currently, more than 60% of the world's population trusts on plant medicamentsas demonstrated by the increasing quantityof herbal therapeutics in the market. Unfortunately, several promising natural molecules for the treatment of the most diverse ailments are characterized by extremely unfavourable features, such as low water solubility and poor/irregular bioavailability, which hinder their clinical use...
December 12, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Rajendra Kumar Singh, Kapil Dev Patel, Chinmaya Mahapatra, S Prakash Parthiban, Tae-Hyun Kim, Hae-Won Kim
In the field of nanomedicine, drug-loaded nanocarriers that integrate nanotechnology and chemotherapeutics are widely used to achieve synergistic therapeutic effects. Here we prepared mesoporous silica nanoparticles capped with cerium oxide nanoparticles (COP@MSN) where a pH triggered-responsive mechanism was used to control drug release and intracellular drug delivery. We blocked the mesopores of the carboxyl functionalized MSN with aminated COP. These pores could be open in acidic conditions to release the loaded drug, thus establishing a pH-responsive drug release system...
December 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Istvan Hajdu, Amal Makhlouf, Viswas Raja Solomon, Deborah Michel, Mays Al-Dulaymi, Kishor M Wasan, Humphrey Fonge, Ildiko Badea
Background: With the advances in radiopharmaceutical research, the development of image-guided therapy has become a major interest. While the development of theranostic nanotherapeutics is frequently associated with cancer chemotherapy, phototherapy and radiotherapy, there is little information available on the in vivo monitoring of gene delivery systems and the application of image-guided approach in gene therapy. The goal of this work was to determine the in vivo behavior of DNA delivery nanosystems - based on cationic gemini surfactants - designed for image-guided gene therapy...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Xiaoyuan Guo, Guojian Wu, Hong Wang, Lukui Chen
Tumor-targeting and blood-brain barrier (BBB)-penetrating are highly desirable for the treatment of glioma. In this study, we developed Pep-1&borneol-bifunctionalized carmustin-loaded micelles (Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M) capable of targeting to IL-13 receptor-overexpressed glioma and penetrating the brain microvascular endothelial cells-associated physiologic barriers. Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M were nearly spherical particles with a diameter of 32.6 ± 1.1 nm and zeta potential of -21.3 ± 3.1 mV. Carmustine (CMS) released from Pep-1/Bor/CMS-M in pH 7...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Gonzalo Villaverde, Arantzazu Alfranca, África Gonzalez-Murillo, Gustavo J Melen, Rafael R Castillo, Manuel Ramírez, Alejandro Baeza, Maria Vallet-Regi
The selective delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents to tumoral cells has been postulated as some of the most important challenges in nanomedicine field. The cellular selectivity of nanocarriers is usually achieved by their surface decoration with targeting moieties able to recognize these cells in a specific manner. Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extra-cranial pedriatic tumor, almost incurable at advanced stages. Meta-iodo-benzilguanidine (MIBG) is widely used for the diagnosis of this disease due to its strong affinity by the norepinephrine transporter (NET) usually overexpressed on the membrane of the malignant cells...
December 10, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Geetha Maniam, Chun-Wai Mai, Mohd Zulkefeli, Christine Dufès, Doryn Meam-Yee Tan, Ju-Yen Fu
Plant-derived phytonutrients have emerged as health enhancers. Tocotrienols from the vitamin E family gained high attention in recent years due to their multi-targeted biological properties, including lipid-lowering, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Despite well-defined mechanism of action as an anti-cancer agent, their clinical use is hampered by poor pharmacokinetic profile and low oral bioavailability. Delivery systems based on nanotechnology were proven to be advantageous in elevating the delivery of tocotrienols to tumor sites for enhanced efficacy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
David J Lundy, Keng-Jung Lee, I-Chia Peng, Chia-Hsin Hsu, Jen-Hao Lin, Kun-Hung Chen, Yu-Wen Tien, Patrick C H Hsieh
The blood brain barrier (BBB) selectively controls the passage of endogenous and exogenous molecules between systemic circulation and the brain parenchyma. Nano-carrier based drugs such as liposomes and nanoparticles are an attractive prospect for cancer therapy since they can carry a drug payload and be modified to improve targeting and retention at the desired site. However, the BBB prevents most therapeutic drugs from entering the brain, including physically restricting the passage of liposomes and nanoparticles...
December 11, 2018: ACS Nano
Baozhang Guan, Ruiling Yan, Ruiman Li, Xingwang Zhang
Selenium as a biologically active element lends much support to health maintenance and disease prevention. It is now presenting pleiotropic effects on therapy and drug delivery. In this study, a profiling on the physiological functions, therapeutic significances, clinical/preclinical performances, and biomedical and drug delivery applications of selenium in different modalities was carried out. Major interests focused on selenium-based nanomedicines in confronting various diseases pertaining to selenium or not, especially in antitumor and antidiabetes...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Bapurao Surnar, Uttara Basu, Bhabatosh Banik, Anis Ahmad, Brian Marples, Nagesh Kolishetti, Shanta Dhar
The success of nanoparticle-mediated delivery of antioxidant and antiinflammatory-based neuroprotectants to the brain to improve neuronal functions in neurodegenerative diseases has demonstrated lesser impact instead of achieving its full potential. We hypothesized that these failures were due to a combination of parameters, such as: ( i ) unavailability of a delivery vehicle, which can reproducibly and efficiently transport through the brain capillary endothelium; ( ii ) inefficient uptake of therapeutic nanoparticles in the neuronal cell population; and ( iii ) limited ability of a single nanoparticle to cross the two most-impermeable biological barriers, the blood-brain barrier and mitochondrial double membrane, so that a nanoparticle can travel through the brain endothelial barrier to the mitochondria of target cells where oxidative damage is localized...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Malcolm Egan, Valeria Loscri, Trung Q Duong, Marco Di Renzo
Some of the most ambitious applications of molecular communications are expected to lie in nanomedicine and advanced manufacturing. In these domains, the molecular communication system is surrounded by a range of biochemical processes, some of which may be sensitive to chemical species used for communication. Under these conditions, the biological system and the molecular communication system impact each other. As such, the problem of coexistence arises, where both the reliability of the molecular communication system and the function of the biological system must be ensured...
December 4, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
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