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steroid synthesis

Melissa Gonzalez Veiga, Rogério Tadeu Felizi, Dayane Guerino Reis, Ivo Carelli Filho, Cesar Eduardo Fernandes, Ricardo Peres do Souto, Emerson Oliveira
OBJECTIVE:  Epidemiological studies have shown evidence of the effect of sex hormones in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, and have suggested a relationship of the disease with variations in genes involved in estrogen synthesis and/or metabolism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the CYP3A4*1B gene polymorphism (rs2740574) and the risk of developing breast cancer. METHODS:  In the present case-control study, the frequency of the CYP3A4*1B gene polymorphism was determined in 148 women with breast cancer and in 245 women without the disease...
October 18, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
Dharshini Ganeshapillai, L W Lawrence Woo, Mark P Thomas, Atul Purohit, Barry V L Potter
Synthetic routes to potent bicyclic nonsteroidal sulfamate-based active-site-directed inhibitors of the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS), an emerging target in the treatment of postmenopausal hormone-dependent diseases, including breast cancer, are described. Sulfamate analogs 9 - 27 and 28 - 46 of the core in vivo active two-ring coumarin template, modified at the 4- and 3-positions, respectively, were synthesized to expand structure-activity relationships. α-Alkylacetoacetates were used to synthesize coumarin sulfamate derivatives with 3-position modifications, and the bicyclic ring of other parent coumarins was primarily constructed via the Pechmann synthesis of hydroxyl coumarins...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Tanja M Šarenac, Momir Mikov
Bile acids (BAs) are amphiphilic molecules with 24 carbon atoms and consist of a hydrophobic and a rigid steroid nucleus, to which are attached a hydrophilic hydroxyl group and a flexible acidic aliphatic side chain. The steroidal core of BAs constitutes a saturated cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene skeleton, consisting of three six-membered (A, B, and C) and one five-membered ring (D). Primary BAs are produced in the hepatocytes, while secondary BAs are formed by modifying the primary BAs in the intestinal lumen, i...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dimitrios Nasioudis, Georgios Doulaveris, Tomi T Kanninen
Hyperlipidemia is a known cause of atherosclerosis and directly contributes to the current epidemic in cardio-vascular disease. Pregnancy is typified by an increase in serum levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides pushed by the rise in estrogen, progesterone and lactogen. Mobilization of stored fat depots in late pregnancy may provide a reservoir of fatty acids for fetal growth and placental tissue steroid synthesis. This physiologic increase in lipids performs an essential role during pregnancy; however, elevated levels of lipids in predisposed women or with familiar forms of hyperlipidemia can carry increased risk for maternal-fetal complications...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
Irina A Tolmacheva, Alexey V Nazarov, Daria V Eroshenko, Victoria V Grishko
Synthetic transformations of steroids for drug discovery and improvement of drug effectiveness have been an important part of modern medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical sciences. Pentacyclic triterpenoids, being represented in the nature by various structures and biogenetically related to steroids, can largely expand the spectrum of biologically active steroidal agents via synthesis of the so-called "triterpenoid-steroid" hybrids. In the presented work, the nitrile anion cyclizations of 3,4-secolupane and 3,4-seco-oleanane nitriles and follow-up synthetic transformations of the cyclized products with formation of the gemm-dimethyl-free A ring "triterpenoid-steroid" hybrids were studied...
October 10, 2018: Steroids
Dongjie Wu, Zhen Yang, Chen Zhao, Liang Yao
BACKGROUND: Infliximab and cyclosporine are two main therapies in treating acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), our objective is to assess the effectiveness and safety of cyclosporine (CSA) versus infliximab (IFX) as rescue agents in patients with steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We will search three databases from inception to May 2018, and 19 studies are identified that infliximab and cyclosporine as a treatment in steroid-refractory UC patients...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chris Hyunchul Jo, Seung Yeon Lee, Kang Sup Yoon, Sohee Oh, Sue Shin
BACKGROUND: Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a popular option for rotator cuff disease, the underlying mechanism of PRP and its clinical indications are unclear. Further, some kinds of PRP might be detrimental to patients. Allogenic PRP prepared through a standardized process and fully characterized could eliminate variations in PRP as well as uncertainties regarding its use in each patient, which could provide clues about its mechanism of action and indications for its use. PURPOSE: To assess the effects of pure PRP on tenocytes with or without inflammation in an in vitro study and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fully characterized pure PRP injection in patients with rotator cuff disease in a clinical study...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
María Teresa García-Valverde, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Rafael Lucena, Soledad Cárdenas, Constantine D Stalikas
A new procedure for the functionalization of melamine sponge (MeS) with urea-formaldehyde (UF) co-oligomers is put forward. The procedure differs from the typical synthesis of the UF co-polymer, as it employs a base-catalyzed condensation step at certain concentrations of urea and formaldehyde. The produced melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) sponge cubes are hydrophobic, despite the presence of hydrophilic groups in the oligomers. The MUF sponge developed herein is used as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of 10 analytes, from 6 different classes (i...
October 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rachael Hemmert, Karen C Schliep, Sydney Willis, Charles Matthew Peterson, Germaine Buck Louis, Kristina Allen-Brady, Sara E Simonsen, Joseph B Stanford, Jiyoung Byun, Ken R Smith
BACKGROUND: Caffeine, alcohol, smoking and physical activity are known to alter sex steroid synthesis, which may affect hormone-dependent gynaecologic disease risk, such as endometriosis; however, few studies have assessed life style factors prior to endometriosis diagnosis. METHODS: Four hundred and seventy three women, ages 18-44 years, underwent laparoscopy or laparotomy, regardless of clinical indication, at 14 clinic sites, 2007-2009. Women with prior surgically confirmed endometriosis were excluded...
October 11, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Jing Pan, Yu-Qin Di, Yong-Bo Li, Cai-Hua Chen, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Insulin promotes larval growth of insects by stimulating the synthesis of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), which induces pupation and apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the coordinate regulation of insect pupation and apoptosis by these two functionally opposing hormones is still unclear. Here, using the lepidopteran insect and serious agricultural pest Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm) as a model, we report that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and forkhead box O (FoxO) play key roles in these processes...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jie Denny Luo, Catherine Miller, Tamara Jirjis, Masoud Nasir, Dileep Sharma
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used in implant dentistry for management of post-operative pain. The objective of this systematic review was to analyse the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the osteogenic activity of osteoblasts with an emphasis on its effect on osseointegration. A systematic literature search for in vitro, animal models, and clinical trials was conducted using Ovid, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Articles published since the introduction of selective COX-2 inhibitors, between January 1999 and July 2018, were selected...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Implant Dentistry
Thirusangumurugan Senthamarai, Kathiravan Murugesan, Jacob Schneidewind, Narayana V Kalevaru, Wolfgang Baumann, Helfried Neumann, Paul C J Kamer, Matthias Beller, Rajenahally V Jagadeesh
The production of primary benzylic and aliphatic amines, which represent essential feedstocks and key intermediates for valuable chemicals, life science molecules and materials, is of central importance. Here, we report the synthesis of this class of amines starting from carbonyl compounds and ammonia by Ru-catalyzed reductive amination using H2 . Key to success for this synthesis is the use of a simple RuCl2 (PPh3 )3 catalyst that empowers the synthesis of >90 various linear and branched benzylic, heterocyclic, and aliphatic amines under industrially viable and scalable conditions...
October 8, 2018: Nature Communications
Bob Z Sun, Tairmae Kangarloo, Judith M Adams, Patrick M Sluss, Corrine K Welt, Donald W Chandler, David T Zava, John A McGrath, David M Umbach, Janet E Hall, Natalie D Shaw
Context: Menstrual irregularity after menarche has been attributed to immature estrogen positive feedback activity (E+FB) but data are conflicting. Objective: To determine the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian contributions to menstrual irregularity in adolescents. Methods: 23 healthy girls (aged 12.8-17.6 years, 0.4-3.5 years post-menarche, BMI [body mass index] percentile 41.0-99.3) underwent serial hormone measurements and pelvic ultrasounds during 2 consecutive menstrual cycles...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Young Ho Lee, Hyun Yang, Sang R Lee, Sun Woo Kwon, Eui-Ju Hong, Hye Won Lee
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine, metabolic, and systemic disease. It is mainly characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea, and high levels of luteinizing hormone (LH). There is no obvious therapy for PCOS, so patients have received symptomatic therapy. Welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum ) is well-known in Asian countries for its usage in food ingredients and traditional medicines. It is also studied for its many effects. These include activation of immune responses, antihypertensive effects, and antioxidant effects...
October 4, 2018: Nutrients
Daisuke Urabe, Yuki Nakagawa, Ken Mukai, Kei-Ichiro Fukushima, Naoto Aoki, Hiroaki Itoh, Masanori Nagatomo, Masayuki Inoue
Cardenolides comprise an important family of natural steroids with a wide spectrum of biological activities. Although 19-hydroxysarmentogenin-3-O-a-L-rhamnoside (1a) and trewianin (1b) were structurally determined to have cardenolide structures, their biological activities have not been evaluated. The 6/6/6/5-membered ABCD-ring systems of both 1a and 1b are decorated by a b-oriented C17-butenolide, three C11,14,19-hydroxy groups, and a C3-O-L-rhamnoside moiety. On the other hand, as 1a and 1b are epimeric at the C5-position...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
George J Kahaly, Luigi Bartalena, Lazlo Hegedüs, Laurence Leenhardt, Kris Poppe, Simon H Pearce
Graves' disease (GD) is a systemic autoimmune disorder characterized by the infiltration of thyroid antigen-specific T cells into thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R)-expressing tissues. Stimulatory autoantibodies (Ab) in GD activate the TSH-R leading to thyroid hyperplasia and unregulated thyroid hormone production and secretion. Diagnosis of GD is straightforward in a patient with biochemically confirmed thyrotoxicosis, positive TSH-R-Ab, a hypervascular and hypoechoic thyroid gland (ultrasound), and associated orbitopathy...
August 2018: European Thyroid Journal
Yoshio Yamauchi, Maximillian A Rogers
Cholesterol is a vital lipid molecule for mammalian cells, regulating fluidity of biological membranes, and serving as an essential constituent of lipid rafts. Mammalian cells acquire cholesterol from extracellular lipoproteins and from de novo synthesis. Cholesterol biosynthesis generates various precursor sterols. Cholesterol undergoes metabolic conversion into oxygenated sterols (oxysterols), bile acids, and steroid hormones. Cholesterol intermediates and metabolites have diverse and important cellular functions...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Gonda Konings, Linda Brentjens, Bert Delvoux, Tero Linnanen, Karlijn Cornel, Pasi Koskimies, Marlies Bongers, Roy Kruitwagen, Sofia Xanthoulea, Andrea Romano
Our understanding of the intracrine (or local) regulation of estrogen and other steroid synthesis and degradation expanded in the last decades, also thanks to recent technological advances in chromatography mass-spectrometry. Estrogen responsive tissues and organs are not passive receivers of the pool of steroids present in the blood but they can actively modify the intra-tissue steroid concentrations. This allows fine-tuning the exposure of responsive tissues and organs to estrogens and other steroids in order to best respond to the physiological needs of each specific organ...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Jung Hwan Lee, Dong Hwan Kim, Du Hwan Kim, Kyoung-Ho Shin, Sung Jin Park, Goo Joo Lee, Chang-Hyung Lee, Hee Seung Yang
BACKGROUND: Epidural injection is performed for treatment of back and radicular pain in patients with lumbosacral disc herniation (LDH). Steroids are usually administered to effectively remove inflammatory mediators, and local anesthetics or saline also contribute to pain reduction by washing out chemical mediators or blocking the nociceptor activity. Controversy exists regarding whether steroids produce superior clinical effects compared with local anesthetics or saline. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether epidural injection of steroids produces better clinical effects than local anesthetics or saline in the treatment of LDH...
September 2018: Pain Physician
Jung Hwan Lee, Kyoung-Ho Shin, Sung Jin Park, Goo Joo Lee, Chang-Hyung Lee, Dong Hwan Kim, Du Hwan Kim, Hee Seung Yang
BACKGROUND: Epidural injection (EI) is used to treat back or radicular pain from lumbosacral disc herniation (LDH). Although several reports have stated that the transforaminal approach in EI (TFEI) has an advantage in target specificity and yields better clinical efficacy than the interlaminar approach in EI (ILEI), other studies have indicated that the clinical efficacy of ILEI was not inferior to that of TFEI and that ILEI also has the ability to spread medication into the ventral space to a degree similar to that of TFEI...
September 2018: Pain Physician
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