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ovarian granulosa cell

Wen-Peng Zhao, Hong-Wei Wang, Jing Liu, Zi-Hao Zhang, Shi-Quan Zhu, Bian-Hua Zhou
Excessive fluoride intake has a strong female reproductive toxicity, which can result in follicular developmental dysplasia and decrease oocytes developmental potential. The underlying mechanisms of fluoride-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in ovarian granulosa cells remain largely unknown. In this study, the ultrastructure changes of mitochondria and DNA damage in ovarian granulosa cells were observed under transmission electron microscope and TUNEL staining. Then, the ATP content and ROS level in granulosa cells were measured...
October 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Mahrukh Hameed Zargar, Syed Shafia, Shariq Rashid Masoodi, Qurteeba Mahajan, Nabeela Khan, Rehana Ahmad
Inhibin is a glycoprotein produced by granulosa cells and its main function is the negative feedback control of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) which has an important role in folliculogenesis. Mutation in the INHα gene leading to decreased bioactive inhibin has been associated with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of variations in the INHα gene in increasing the susceptibility to POI in Kashmiri women. INHα c.769G > A mutation was analysed in 100 POI cases and 100 controls using PCR-RFLP and agarose gel electrophoresis...
October 19, 2018: Human Fertility: Journal of the British Fertility Society
Gabriela L Santos Guasch, J Scott Beeler, Clayton B Marshall, Timothy M Shaver, Quanhu Sheng, Kimberly N Johnson, Kelli L Boyd, Bryan J Venters, Rebecca S Cook, Jennifer A Pietenpol
We report that p73 is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells and that loss of p73 leads to attenuated follicle development, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation, resulting in decreased levels of circulating progesterone and defects in mammary gland branching. Ectopic progesterone in p73-deficient mice completely rescued the mammary branching and partially rescued the ovarian follicle development defects. Performing RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on transcripts from murine wild-type and p73-deficient antral follicles, we discovered differentially expressed genes that regulate biological adhesion programs...
September 25, 2018: iScience
Qiuyue Chen, Jingde Duan, Haizhen Wu, Jianbo Li, Yunliang Jiang, Hui Tang, Xianyao Li, Li Kang
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I) has been identified in the ovaries of vertebrate species, and this decapeptide is a key regulator of reproductive functions. However, its biological action and regulatory mechanism in the chicken ovary remain to be characterized. In this study, the expression of GnRH-I gene in chicken hypothalamus and ovaries at different developmental stages and different sizes of follicles was investigated, and the effect of GnRH-I mRNA on chicken follicular cells was analyzed in vitro...
October 16, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Julie A MacDonald, Niharika Kura, Carleigh Sussman, Dori C Woods
BACKGROUND: Cellular metabolic changes that accompany malignant transformation have been heralded as hallmark features of cancer. However, metabolic signatures between neoplasms can be unique, allowing for distinctions in malignancy, invasion and chemoresistance between cancer types and subtypes. Mitochondria are central metabolic mediators, as cellular bioenergetics veers from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Herein, we evaluate the role of mitochondria in maintenance of cellular metabolism, proliferation, and survival in the adult granulosa tumor cell line, KGN, as well as three epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines to determine distinctions in specific features...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
Long Bai, Hsun-Ming Chang, Yi-Min Zhu, Peter C K Leung
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a copper-dependent enzyme that maintains and stabilizes the extracellular matrix (ECM) by catalyzing the cross-linking of elastin and collagen. ECM within the ovarian follicle plays a crucial role in regulating follicular development and oocyte maturation. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) belongs to the BMP subfamily that has been shown to be involved in the process of ovarian folliculogenesis and luteal formation. To date, whether BMP2 regulates the activity of LOX during human follicular development remains to be elucidated...
October 12, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Kahina Ghanem, A L Johnson
In laying hens, pre-recruitment ovarian follicles (1-8 mm diameter) are arranged as a continuum of size and predicted maturity. Cyclic recruitment of a pre-recruitment follicle to the preovulatory stage begins, in part, by the ability of the granulosa cell (GC) layer to initiate responsiveness to follicle stimulating hormone- (FSH-) induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The objective of this study was to determine if increased circulating concentrations of FSH during the ovulatory cycle increase the number of recruited follicles, in a dose-dependent manner...
October 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
David Pépin, Mary E Sabatini, Patricia K Donahoe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The nascent field of oncofertility is quickly gaining traction as novel experimental treatments are being developed, driving a renewed interest in Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) as an ovarian fertoprotectant. RECENT FINDINGS: MIS is unique in its mechanisms of ovarian protection by virtue of acting directly on granulosa cells of primordial follicles and for being a benign reproductive hormone, with few side effects. We will explore in this review how it may be utilized to protect the ovary from chemotherapy, or to enhance ovarian tissue cryopreservation therapy...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
Arturo Bevilacqua, Jessica Dragotto, Alessandro Giuliani, Mariano Bizzarri
Mice exposed to continuous light undergo functional and histological changes that mimic those of human Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). We herein induced the syndrome by exposing 30-day-old females to 10 weeks of permanent light. Ovarian morphology and histology, as well as reproductive parameters (time of observed pregnancy/delivery) were investigated. Ovaries of PCOS-modeled mice showed lack of tertiary follicles and corpora lutea, altered ovarian architecture, and increased thickness of the theca layer...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Elena Shepel, Nataliya Grushka, Nataliya Makogon, Valentyna Sribna, Svitlana Pavlovych, Roman Yanchii
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of gram-negative bacteria, can impair female reproductive function. However, there is a little information about genotoxic stress in ovarian follicular cells as well as about the changes in oocyte developmental potential under endotoxemia. So the aim of our study was to investigate in vitro oocyte maturation, the DNA damage and expression of some developmental competence-related genes in follicular cells of mice treated with LPS. METHODS: LPS (3 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into the mice for 24 h, and in vitro maturation of mouse oocyte was determined...
June 20, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Qi Gao, Chengdong Wang, Desheng Li, Hemin Zhang, Linhua Deng, Caiwu Li, Zhengli Chen
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is diagnosed clinically by detecting ovarian cancer-related factors and markers. Here, we report a case of giant panda ovarian tumor metastasis with a combination of clinical and histopathological diagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: Histopathological studies revealed severe lesions and tumor cells in the ovaries, lungs, spleen, kidneys and perianal tissue. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the ovarian cancer markers B7-H4, CA125, and HE4 were highly expressed in the lungs, kidneys, spleen, ovaries and perianal tissue...
October 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Warakorn Cheewasopit, Mhairi Laird, Claire Glister, Phil G Knight
Myostatin plays a negative role in skeletal muscle growth regulation but its potential role in the ovary has received little attention. Here, we first examined relative expression of myostatin (MSTN), myostatin receptors (ACVR1B, ACVR2B and TGFBR1) and binding protein, follistatin (FST), in granulosa (GC) and theca (TC) cells of developing bovine follicles. Secondly, using primary GC and TC cultures, we investigated whether myostatin affects steroidogenesis and cell number. Thirdly, effects of gonadotropins and other intrafollicular factors on MSTN expression in GC and TC were examined...
October 1, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Liliana C Patiño, Isabelle Beau, Adrien Morel, Brigitte Delemer, Jacques Young, Nadine Binart, Paul Laissue
Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a frequently occurring disease affecting women under 40 years old. Recently, we have analysed unrelated POI women via whole-exome sequencing (WES) and identified NOTCH2 mutations underlying possible functional effects. The present study involved reanalysing of WES assays. We used in the KGN granulosa-like cell model, a synthetic gene reporter construct driving luciferase gene expression to assess the functional effects of five NOTCH2 mutations identified in POI patients...
October 10, 2018: Human Mutation
Kun Huang, Yujie Dang, Pan Zhang, Cong Shen, Xuesong Sui, Guoliang Xia, Yingying Qin, Xue Jiao, Chao Wang, Ran Huo, Zi-Jiang Chen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the function of CAV1 in folliculogenesis and female reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: CAV1 regulates germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle (PF) formation in mice, and CAV1 mutation may be related to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Pre-granulosa cells are essential for the establishment of the PF pool, which determines female fertility and reproductive lifespan. Cav1 participates in vascularization in fetal mouse ovaries...
October 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Shang Li, Junyu Zhai, Jiansheng Liu, Fangfang Di, Yun Sun, Weiping Li, Zi-Jiang Chen, Yanzhi Du
BACKGROUND: The ovulatory dysfunction mechanisms underlying polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not completely understood. And the roles of EPHA7 and EPHA7-regulated pathway factors in the pathogenesis of anovulation remain to be elucidated. METHODS: We used human granulosa cells (hGCs) of PCOS and non-PCOS patients to measure EPHA7 and other target gene expressions. We performed in vitro experiments in KGN cells to verify the molecular mechanisms. Additionally, we conducted in vivo loss- and gain-of-function studies using EPHA7 shRNA lentivirus and recombinant EPHA7-Fc protein injection to identify the ovulation effects of EPHA7...
October 2018: EBioMedicine
Rifu Xu, Ning Qin, Xiaoxing Xu, Xue Sun, Xiaoxia Chen, Jinghua Zhao
The SLIT/ROBO pathway has been implicated in prehierarchical follicular development of hen ovary by an intrafollicular autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. SLIT3, one of the key components of the SLIT/ROBO family, serves as a ligand that potentially interacts with the four receptors, ROBO1, ROBO2, ROBO3 and ROBO4. But the exact roles and regulatory mechanism of SLIT3 in chicken ovarian follicle development remain largely unclear. The present study was conducted to investigate the potential roles and molecular regulation of SLIT3 in granulosa cell (GC) proliferation, differentiation and follicle selection within the prehierarchical follicles of hen ovary...
October 4, 2018: Cell Biology International
Aneta Stochmalova, Abdel Halim Harrath, Alexander V Sirotkin
Flaxseed is useful as a functional food and alternative medicine owing to its beneficial health effects. Its action on ovarian cell functions and interrelationships with the upstream hormonal regulators remain unknown. Our aim was to examine the direct influence of flaxseed extract on basal porcine ovarian functions (proliferation, apoptosis), leptin release, and response to insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). First, we examined the effect of flaxseed extract on the accumulation of proliferation (PCNA) and apoptosis (bax) marker and on leptin release in cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cells...
October 4, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Xiaohan Cao, Xiangyu Wang, Lulu Lu, Xiaoyu Li, Ran Di, Xiaoyun He, Wenping Hu, Xianyin Zeng, Qiuyue Liu, Mingxing Chu
Most ewes in China are seasonally polyestrous with normal ovulatory cycles, which is controlled by photoperiod (length of the daily light phase). These ewes are estrous in the short-day season and anestrus in the long-day season and cannot mate during anestrus. Thus seasonal breeding limits both diversification and intensification of production. If sheep can estrus all round year, it can be mated twice per year, which can greatly improve the economic benefits. To change seasonal estrus at the genetic level and cultivating new sheep breeds, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of seasonal breeding trait in sheep...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Ahmed Samy El-Agwany
Introduction: Cervical nabothian cysts are common in women of reproductive age. Although cysts are generally small and asymptomatic, large ones are extremely rare and may be misdiagnosed as malignancy. Case Study: We report a case of large multiple complex nabothian cyst, which was suspected as malignant one on imaging and examination. Pelvic examination and ultrasonography revealed ballooned cervix with multiple large complex nabothian follicles. There was an associated large adnexal mass with ascites...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasound
Zhe Zhang, Cheng-Zhen Chen, Ming-Qiang Xu, Li-Qun Zhang, Jian-Bo Liu, Yan Gao, Hao Jiang, Bao Yuan, Jia-Bao Zhang
The regulatory role of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been explored in ovarian cells, and the effects of miRNAs on gonadal development, apoptosis, ovulation, and steroid production have been reported. In this study, we analyzed the effects of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on miR-31 and miR-143 expression levels in bovine granulosa cells (GCs). Our results demonstrated that the FSH receptor (FSHR) is a common target gene of miR-31 and miR-143 in bovine GCs. We further analyzed the roles of miR-31 and miR-143 in bovine GCs by transfecting miR-31 and miR-143 mimics and inhibitors...
September 26, 2018: Theriogenology
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