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glucose homeostasis

Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Eman T Mehanna
Preeclampsia and gestational diabetes are common pregnancy disorders that may be interrelated. MIR146A rs2910164 (G/C) is a functional polymorphism that was associated with several diseases. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of rs2910164 polymorphism and its possible correlation with the incidence of preeclampsia in gestational diabetes patients. The study involved 250 pregnant women divided into 80 healthy control subjects, 85 gestational diabetes patients only, and 85 patients of gestational diabetes combined with preeclampsia...
August 18, 2018: Biochemical Genetics
Anna Wędrychowicz, Krystyna Sztefko, Jerzy B Starzyk
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that sclerostin, which is a negative regulator of bone formation, could play an important role in the crosstalk between bone and glucose metabolism. The role of sclerostin and its link with glucose homeostasis in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) has not been yet studied extensively in children. The aim of this study was to assess sclerostin and its relationship between other bone and fat related factors as well as glucose metabolism in children and adolescents with T1D in comparison to their healthy peers...
August 15, 2018: Bone
Feitong Wu, Valentina Ho, Brooklyn J Fraser, Michael D Schmidt, Terence Dwyer, Alison J Venn, Costan G Magnussen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Childhood body mass index (BMI) predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but little is known about the predictive utility of other anthropometric measures in childhood. We aimed to identify the anthropometric measure in childhood that best predicts adult glucose homeostasis measures and examine if the combination of additional anthropometric measures further improves predictive utility. METHODS: A 20-year follow-up of children participating in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (n = 2345, aged 7-15 years at baseline)...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Bernard P Kok, Andrea Galmozzi, Nicole K Littlejohn, Verena Albert, Cristina Godio, Woojoo Kim, Sean M Kim, Jeffrey S Bland, Neile Grayson, Mingliang Fang, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Gary Siuzdak, Supriya Srinivasan, Maik Behrens, Enrique Saez
OBJECTIVES: Extracts of the hops plant have been shown to reduce weight and insulin resistance in rodents and humans, but elucidation of the mechanisms responsible for these benefits has been hindered by the use of heterogeneous hops-derived mixtures. Because hop extracts are used as flavoring agents for their bitter properties, we hypothesized that bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs) could be mediating their beneficial effects in metabolic disease. Studies have shown that exposure of cultured enteroendocrine cells to bitter tastants can stimulate release of hormones, including glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)...
August 4, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Manohar Prasad Koduri, Venkanagouda S Goudar, Yu-Wei Shao, John A Hunt, James Henstock, Judith Curran, Fan-Gang Tseng
Closed-loop artificial pancreas systems have recently been proposed as a solution for treating stage I diabetes by reproducing the function of the pancreas. However, there are many unresolved issues associated with their development, including monitoring and controlling oxygen, immune responses and the optimization of glucose. All of which need to be monitored and controlled to produce an efficient and viable artificial organ, that can become integrated in the patient and maintain homeostasis. This research focused on monitoring oxygen concentration, specifically achieving this kinetically as the oxygen gradient in an artificial pancreas made of alginate spheres containing islet cells...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Gerald A Dienel
Glucose utilization is reduced in vulnerable brain regions affected by neurological disorders, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the basis for abnormal glucose homeostasis is unknown. Studies of brain-bank human tissue have made major contributions to understanding complex aspects of neurological, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative diseases, but they are not appropriate for metabolomic analysis of labile metabolites because postmortem intervals between death and tissue freezing are much too long. Recent reports of postmortem brain glucose levels led to suggestions that AD patients may be hyperglycemic and that elevated brain glucose levels along with reduced glycolytic activity reveal abnormal glucose homeostasis before clinical symptoms become manifest...
August 16, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Shigang Qiao, Guofang Mao, Hua Li, Zhimin Ma, Lei Hong, Huiling Zhang, Chen Wang, Jianzhong An
Background: Chronic overnutrition leads to cardiac dysfunction and insulin (INS) resistance. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) improves glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in both human and animal models. In this study, we explored whether DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin (SIT) is involved in the protection of cardiac function and β -cell function using an obesity female mouse model. Methods: Six-week-old C57BL6/J mice were fed a high fat and fructose Western diet with DPP-4 inhibitor SIT for 12 weeks...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Stefanie N Hinkle, Michael Y Tsai, Shristi Rawal, Paul S Albert, Cuilin Zhang
We aimed to examine the prospective association between first trimester HbA1c and gestational diabetes (GDM) and explore the utility of HbA1c for prediction of GDM. We used data from a case-control study within the prospective NICHD Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort (2009-2013), which enrolled 2,802 women at 12 U.S. clinical centers. HbA1c was measured in GDM cases (n = 107) and matched controls (n = 214) targeted at 8-13, 16-22, 24-29, and 34-37 gestational weeks. We excluded women with HbA1c  ≥ 6...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandra L Romero-Cordoba, Sergio Rodriguez-Cuevas, Veronica Bautista-Pina, Antonio Maffuz-Aziz, Elvira D'Ippolito, Giulia Cosentino, Sara Baroni, Marilena V Iorio, Alfredo Hidalgo-Miranda
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and aggressive neoplasia lacking the expression of hormonal receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. Accumulating evidence has highlighted the importance of miRNAs dysregulation in the establishment of cancer programs, but the functional role of many miRNAs remains unclear. The description of miRNAs roles might provide novel strategies for treatment. In the present work, an integrated analysis of miRNA transcriptional landscape was performed (N = 132), identifying the significant down-modulation of miR-342-3p in TNBC, probably because of the aberrant activity of estrogen receptor, which serves as a transcription factor of the miRNA, as demonstrated by a siRNA-knockdown approach...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gaia C Mannino, Anastasia Fuoco, Maria A Marini, Rosangela Spiga, Concetta Di Fatta, Elettra Mancuso, Francesco Perticone, Francesco Andreozzi, Giorgio Sesti
Previous studies suggested that the IGF-1/IGF-1 receptor signaling pathway may contribute to regulate uric acid levels. To confirm this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of the IGF-1-raising genetic variant rs35767 on urate levels in serum and urine, and we investigated IGF-1 ability to modulate the expression of transporters involved in reabsorption and secretion of uric acid in the kidney. The study population included 2794 adult Whites. 24-hour urinary uric acid concentration was available for 229 subjects...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Clara Sanchez-Parra, Cécile Jacovetti, Olivier Dumortier, Kailun Lee, Marie-Line Peyot, Claudiane Guay, Marc Prentki, D Ross Laybutt, Emmanuel Van Obberghen, Romano Regazzi
Pancreatic β-cell expansion throughout the neonatal period is essential to generate the appropriate mass of insulin-secreting cells to maintain blood glucose homeostasis later in life. Hence, defects in this process can predispose to diabetes development at adulthood. Global profiling of the transcripts in pancreatic islets of newborn and adult rats revealed that the expression of the long non-coding RNA H19 is controlled by the transcription factor E2F1 and is profoundly downregulated during the post-natal period...
August 16, 2018: Diabetes
Bo Kong, Grace L Guo
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been known as a xenobiotic nuclear receptor and transcriptional factor that is important for inducing the expression of genes involved in drug disposition (1, 2). Recently, PXR has emerged to critically regulate endobiotic metabolism, including the homeostasis of glucose, lipids, steroids, bile acids, bilirubin, retinoids and bone minerals, and maybe implicated in the treatment of cholestasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (3). PXR activation is also well known to increase liver size and cause liver hypertrophy...
August 16, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Alireza Mafi, Gholamreza Namazi, Alireza Soleimani, Fereshteh Bahmani, Esmat Aghadavod, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of probiotics administration on the metabolic and genetic profiles in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). This was a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as the primary and other metabolic profiles, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress as the secondary outcomes. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 60 patients with DN...
August 16, 2018: Food & Function
Muruganantham Koothappan, Roshana Devi Vellai, Iyyam Pillai Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai Subramanian
Due to the multifactorial and multisystemic nature of diabetes mellitus, it is often treated with a combination of therapeutic agents having different mode of action. Earlier, we have synthesized several organozinc complexes and evaluated their safety and antidiabetic properties in experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). More recently, we have synthesized a metformin-3-hydroxyflavone complex and studied its antidiabetic efficacy in experimental rats. In the present study, a new zinc-mixed ligand (metformin-3-hydroxyflavone) was synthesized, characterized by spectral studies and its antidiabetic properties was evaluated in HFD fed-low dose streptozotocin induced T2DM in rats...
April 24, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Ji Hye Huh, Minyoung Lee, So Young Park, Jae Hyeon Kim, Byung Wan Lee
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate which glycemic parameters better reflect urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) abnormality, a marker for renal tubulopathy, in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subjects with normoalbuminuria and a normal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: We classified 1,061 participants with T2DM into two groups according to uNAG level-normal vs. high (>5.8 U/g creatinine)-and measured their biochemical parameters...
May 2, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Ilario Ferrocino, Valentina Ponzo, Roberto Gambino, Adriana Zarovska, Filomena Leone, Clara Monzeglio, Ilaria Goitre, Rosalba Rosato, Angelo Romano, Giorgio Grassi, Fabio Broglio, Maurizio Cassader, Luca Cocolin, Simona Bo
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a common pregnancy complication, is associated with an increased risk of maternal/perinatal outcomes. We performed a prospective observational explorative study in 41 GDM patients to evaluate their microbiota changes during pregnancy and the associations between the gut microbiota and variations in nutrient intakes, anthropometric and laboratory variables. GDM patients routinely received nutritional recommendations according to guidelines. The fecal microbiota (by 16S amplicon-based sequencing), was assessed at enrolment (24-28 weeks) and at 38 weeks of gestational age...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qun Wang, Xu-Dong Wang, Xin Liu, Yun Xiang, Han-Chu Liu, Ling-Kong Zeng
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on insulin sensitivity in neonates and the relationship between insulin sensitivity and plasma adiponectin level. METHODS: Eighty-two term neonates with IUGR and 90 term neonates born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) were enrolled. Weight, height, head circumference and abdomen circumference of the neonates were measured within 24 hours after birth. Fasting serum glucose (FG), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), plasma insulin and adiponectin were detected in two groups on the 7th day after birth...
August 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Taizo Mori, Nao Suzuki-Yamazaki, Satoshi Takaki
Lnk/Sh2b3 is an adaptor protein that negatively regulates cytokine signaling in lymphohematopoiesis. A missense variant within the LNK/SH2B3 gene has been reported to be a risk variant for several autoimmune diseases, including diabetes. We found that glucose tolerance and insulin responses were impaired in Lnk-/- mice. Moreover, immune cells such as group 1 innate lymphoid cells (G1-ILCs), CD8+ T cells, and M1 macrophages accumulated in adipose tissue. When Lnk-/- mice were crossed with Il15-/- mice or depleted of G1-ILCs but not CD8+ T cells, glucose intolerance and adipose inflammation were ameliorated...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Rose Cairns, Alexander W Fischer, Patricia Blanco-Munoz, Anna Alvarez-Guaita, Elsa Meneses-Salas, Antonia Egert, Christa Buechler, Andrew J Hoy, Joerg Heeren, Carlos Enrich, Carles Rentero, Thomas Grewal
Annexin A6 (AnxA6) controls cholesterol and membrane transport in endo- and exocytosis, and modulates triglyceride accumulation and storage. In addition, AnxA6 acts as a scaffolding protein for negative regulators of growth factor receptors and their effector pathways in many different cell types. Here we investigated the role of AnxA6 in the regulation of whole body lipid metabolism and insulin-regulated glucose homeostasis. Therefore, wildtype (WT) and AnxA6-knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 17 weeks...
2018: PloS One
Basel Bandak, Lian Yi, Michael G Roper
Proper release of insulin from pancreatic islets of Langerhans is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis. For full efficacy, both the pattern and the amount of hormone release are critical. It is therefore important to understand how insulin levels are secreted from single islets in both a quantitative fashion and in a manner that resolves temporal dynamics. In this study, we describe a microfluidic analytical system that can both quantitatively monitor insulin secretion from single islets while simultaneously maintaining high temporal sampling to resolve dynamics of release...
August 15, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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