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glucose homeostasis

Thomas Morville, Tine Dohlmann, Anja B Kuhlman, Tine Monberg, Mimmi Torp, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Steen Larsen, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
Background Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol concentrations in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The treatment increases the risk of muscle pain (myalgia) and of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain disputed. Methods We investigated whether statin induced myalgia is coupled to impaired glucose homeostasis using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We performed a cross-sectional study of statin users without CVD (primary prevention) stratified into a statin myalgic (M; n=25) and a non-myalgic (NM; n=39) group as well as a control group (C; n=20) consisting of non-statin users...
December 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Carolina M Pusec, Adam De Jesus, Md Wasim Khan, Alexander R Terry, Anton E Ludvik, Kai Xu, Nicholas Giancola, Haaris Pervaiz, Emily Daviau Smith, Xianzhong Ding, Stephen Harrison, Navdeep S Chandel, Thomas C Becker, Nissim Hay, Hossein Ardehali, Jose Cordoba-Chacon, Brian T Layden
Glucokinase (GCK) is the principal hexokinase (HK) in the liver, operating as a glucose sensor to regulate glucose metabolism and lipid homeostasis. Recently, we proposed Hexokinase Domain Containing-1 (HKDC1) to be a novel 5th HK with expression in the liver. Here, we reveal HKDC1 to have low glucose-phosphorylating ability and demonstrate its association with the mitochondria in hepatocytes. As we have shown previously that genetic deletion of HKDC1 leads to altered hepatic triglyceride levels, we also explored the influence of overexpression of HKDC1 in hepatocytes on cellular metabolism observing reduced glycolytic capacity and maximal mitochondrial respiration with concurrent reductions in glucose oxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential...
December 3, 2018: Endocrinology
Michele Alves-Bezerra, Yingxia Li, Mariana Acuña, Anna A Ivanova, Kathleen E Corey, Eric A Ortlund, David E Cohen
In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), triglycerides accumulate within the liver because the rates of fatty acid accrual by uptake from plasma and de novo synthesis exceed elimination by mitochondrial oxidation and secretion as VLDL-triglycerides. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) is an acyl-CoA thioesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs into free fatty acids plus CoASH. Them2 is highly expressed in the liver, as well as other oxidative tissues. Mice globally lacking Them2 are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis, and exhibit improved glucose homeostasis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Hesheng Liu, Xiangyang Qi, Keke Yu, Anjie Lu, Kaifeng Lin, Jiajing Zhu, Min Zhang, Zhida Sun
Previous studies suggested the anti-diabetic effect of mogrosides in type 1 diabetes. To evaluate the potential effect of mogrosides in type 2 diabetes, we herein investigated the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and the underlying mechanism of mogroside-rich extract (MGE) using a high-fat diet in combination with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic model. MGE feeding for 5 weeks did not result in any obvious impact on the body weight and energy intake, but caused a moderate decrease of organ index in diabetic mice...
December 5, 2018: Food & Function
Habib Yaribeygi, Vahid Zare, Alexandra E Butler, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is growing rapidly worldwide. This metabolic disorder affects many physiological pathways and is a key underlying cause of a multitude of debilitating complications. There is, therefore, a critical need for effective diabetes management. Although many synthetic therapeutic glucose-lowering agents have been developed to control glucose homeostasis, they may have unfavorable side effects or limited efficacy. Herbal-based hypoglycemic agents present an adjunct treatment option to mitigate insulin resistance, improve glycemic control and reduce the required dose of standard antidiabetic medications...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anja Beckmann, Alexander Grißmer, Sandra Wolf, Johanna Recktenwald, Carola Meier
In the intact brain, astrocytes play an important role in a number of physiological functions like spatial buffering of potassium, maintenance of calcium homeostasis, neurotransmitter release, regulation of the cerebral blood flow, and many more. As pathophysiological events upon hypoxic-ischemic brain injury include excitotoxicity by glutamate release as well as oxidative stress, astrocytes and their gap junction-based syncytium are of major relevance for regulating the extent of resulting brain damage. The gap junction protein Connexin 43 (Cx43) contributes mainly to the astrocytic intercellular communication...
December 1, 2018: Neuroscience
Carlos Castaño, Anna Novials, Marcelina Párrizas
Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated blood glucose levels that drive the development of life-threatening complications. Diabetes results from a situation of insufficient insulin action, either by deficient production of the hormone by the pancreas, or by the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues such as liver, muscle or the adipose depots. Communication between organs is thus central to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Recently, several studies are evidencing that small vesicles called exosomes released by, amongst other, the adipose tissue, can regulate gene expression in other tissues, hence modulating inter-organ cross-talk...
December 4, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Ravichandra Shivalingappa Davargaon, Asha Devi Sambe, Subramanyam Muthangi V V
Oxidative stress (OS) has been implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including diabetes mellitus, characterized by hyperglycemia. In the present study, OS induced by hyperglycemia and the effect of trolox, a vitamin E analog, were studied in cardiomyocytes and H9c2 cells exposed to 15 to 33 mM glucose (HG) for 24 to 72 hours in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium. Cells treated wirh 24 or 33 mM glucose for 24 hours or above showed decreased viability and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content with a concomitant increase in radicals of oxygen species, calcium (Ca2+ ), mitochondrial permeability transition, and oxidative markers, confirming that the cells were under stress...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Shiyu Li, Zhengbin Fei, Zhenrui Xu, Jiajia Wang, Zhenyou Jiang, Yajie Xie, Yuzhe Wang, Wenhua Huang, Hanxiao Sun
Recent studies showed that probiotics could improve metabolic syndrome, making the identification of factors affecting metabolic control more important than ever. The mammalian sirtuin protein family has received much attention for its regulatory role, especially in various mitochondrial ATP, glucose and lipid metabolic pathways. However, compared with the mammalian sirtuin protein family, the function of prokaryotic sir2 protein is much less known. We studied the effects of probiotics sir2 protein on cell energy metabolize pathway, which showed that deletion of Enterococcus faecalis sir2 inhibited the aerobic oxidation of bacteria and increased the bacterial fermentation...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Martina Rudnicki, Ghoncheh Abdifarkosh, Emmanuel Nwadozi, Sofhia V Ramos, Armin Makki, Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Rolando B Ceddia, Christopher Gr Perry, Emilie Roudier, Tara L Haas
Impaired angiogenesis is a hallmark of metabolically dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity. However, the underlying mechanisms restricting angiogenesis within this context remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate that induced endothelial-specific depletion of the transcription factor Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) in male mice led to increased vascular density in adipose tissue. Upon high-fat diet feeding, endothelial cell FoxO1-deficient mice exhibited even greater vascular remodeling in the visceral adipose depot, which was paralleled with a healthier adipose tissue expansion, higher glucose tolerance and lower fasting glycemia concomitant with enhanced lactate levels...
December 4, 2018: ELife
Dana M Niedowicz, Sabire Özcan, Peter T Nelson
Sulfonylureas are a class of antidiabetes medications prescribed to millions of individuals worldwide. Rodents have been used extensively to study sulfonylureas in the laboratory. Here, we report the results of studies treating mice with a sulfonylurea (glimepiride) in order to understand how the drug affects glucose homeostasis and tolerance. We tested the effect of glimepiride on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion, using glimepiride sourced from a local pharmacy. We also examined the effect on glucagon, gluconeogenesis, and insulin sensitivity...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Chih-Yuan Ko, Ru-Hai Lin, Yi-Ming Zeng, Wen-Chang Chang, Da-Wei Huang, James Swi-Bea Wu, Yu-Fang Chang, Szu-Chuan Shen
Ruellia tuberosa L. (RTL) exhibits a wide range of phytochemical activities, for example, on treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM), in Orient. There is, however, few study regarding the effect of RTL on glycemic-related homeostasis in type 2 DM (T2DM). We investigated the effect of RTL aqueous and ethanolic extracts on hypoglycemia in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed plus streptozotocin (STZ)-induced T2DM rats, and examined the effect of RTL on glucose uptake in tumor necrosis factor-α-induced insulin-resistant mouse C2C12 myoblasts, a mouse skeletal muscle cell line...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Md Badrul Alam, Hongyan An, Jeong-Sic Ra, Ji-Young Lim, Seung-Hyun Lee, Chi-Yeol Yoo, Sang-Han Lee
Glucose absorption from the gut and glucose uptake into muscles are vital for the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the current study, we determined if gossypol (GSP) reduces postprandial hyperglycemia or enhances glucose uptake; we also investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying those processes in vitro and in vivo . GSP strongly and concentration dependently inhibited α -glucosidase by functioning as a competitive inhibitor with IC50 value of 0.67 ± 0.44. GSP activated the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathways and enhanced glucose uptake through the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) into plasma membrane in C2C12 myotubes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Elke Parsi, Norman Bitterlich, Anne Winkelmann, Daniela Rösler, Christine Metzner
BACKGROUND: Cardiac arrhythmias (CA) are very common and may occur with or without heart disease. Causes of these disturbances can be components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) or deficits of micronutrients especially magnesium, potassium, B vitamins and coenzyme Q10. Both causes may also influence each other. Insulin resistance (IR) is a risk factor for diastolic dysfunction. One exploratory outcome of the present pilot study was to assess the impact of a dietary intervention with specific micronutrients on the lowering of IR levels in patients with CA with the goal to improve the left ventricular (LV) function...
December 3, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Ashley Untereiner, Shaaban Abdo, Alpana Bhattacharjee, Himaben Gohil, Farzaneh Pourasgari, Neke Ibeh, Mi Lai, Battsetseg Batchuluun, Anthony Wong, Nicholas Khuu, Ying Liu, Dana Al Rijjal, Neil Winegarden, Carl Virtanen, Beverley A Orser, Over Cabrera, Gabor Varga, Jonathan Rocheleau, Feihan F Dai, Michael B Wheeler
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration has been shown to increase β-cell mass, leading to a reversal of type 1 diabetes in mice. Whether GABA has any effect on β cells of healthy and prediabetic/glucose-intolerant obese mice remains unknown. In the present study, we show that oral GABA administration ( ad libitum) to mice indeed increased pancreatic β-cell mass, which led to a modest enhancement in insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. However, GABA treatment did not further increase insulin-positive islet area in high fat diet-fed mice and was unable to prevent or reverse glucose intolerance and insulin resistance...
December 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Daniel Antonio de Luis, David Primo, Olatz Izaola, Emilia Gomez Hoyos, Juan Jose Lopez Gomez, Ana Ortola, Rocio Aller
OBJECTIVES: The role of ADIPOQ gene variants on weight loss after a dietary intervention remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rs266729 of the ADIPOQ gene on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity parameters after adherence to a Mediterranean-type hypocaloric diet. METHOD: Eighty-three obese patients were studied before and after 12 wk on a Mediterranean-type hypocaloric diet. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical profiles were measured...
August 23, 2018: Nutrition
Maria M Bayliak, Maria P Lylyk, Dmytro V Gospodaryov, Volodymyr O Kotsyubynsky, Nataliia V Butenko, Kenneth B Storey, Volodymyr I Lushchak
In recent years, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a model for studies on aluminum toxicity. The current study aimed to disclose the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in D. melanogaster at larval and adult stages and examined the potential protective effects of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG). Flies were reared on food containing 10 mM AlCl3 , 10 mM AKG or both additives. Rearing on an AlCl3 -containing diet induced behavioral defects, and decreased fecundity and long-term survival of female flies...
November 30, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Ebrahim Banitalebi, AbdolReza Kazemi, Mohammad Faramarzi, Samira Nasiri, Marjan Mosalman Haghighi
Our primary aim was to assess the effects of two different training modalities: sprint interval training (SIT) or combined aerobic and resistance training (A + R) on circulating myokines related to metabolic profile and adiposity in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Fifty-two overweight women with T2D [55 ± 6 yrs., BMI 28.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2 , HbA1c 9.4 ± 0.82% (79 mmol/mol)] were randomized to SIT (n = 17), A + R training (n = 17) or control (n = 18) for 10 weeks. Myokines, metabolic outcomes, body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed at baseline and 48 h after the last training session/control period...
November 30, 2018: Life Sciences
Zhixiong Ying, Xiaoke Ge, Hao Zhang, Weipeng Su, Yue Li, Le Zhou, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of methionine restriction (MR) on growth performance, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic and muscle glucose metabolism in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) pigs at 49 and 105 days of age. At weaning (day 21), 30 female normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were fed control diets with adequate methionine (NBW-CON), whereas 60 female IUGR piglets were fed either the control diets (IUGR-CON) or MR diets which were 30% reduced in methionine (IUGR-MR) (n=6 replicates (pens) with 5 piglets/replicate)...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Nurdan Gonul Baltaci, Caglar Guler, Hamid Ceylan, Seyda Nur Kalin, Sevki Adem, Enver Fehim Kocpinar, Orhan Erdogan, Harun Budak
Iron is an indispensable element for vital activities in almost all living organisms. It is also a cofactor for many proteins, enzymes, and other essential complex biochemical processes. Therefore, iron trafficking is firmly regulated by Hepcidin (Hamp), which is regarded as the marker for iron accumulation. The disruption of iron homeostasis leads to oxidative stress that causes various human diseases, but this mechanism is still unclear. The aim of this study is to provide a better in vivo and in vitro understanding of how long-term iron overload affects the gene expression and activities of some antioxidant enzymes, such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), and glutathione reductase (GR) in the spleen...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
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