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glucose homeostasis

Clara Roujeau, Ralf Jockers, Julie Dam
Endospanin 1 (Endo1), a protein encoded, in humans by the same gene than the leptin receptor (ObR), and increased by diet induced obesity, is an important regulator of ObR trafficking and cell surface exposure, determining leptin signaling strength. Defective intracellular trafficking of the leptin receptor to the neuronal plasma membrane has been proposed as a mechanism underlying the development of leptin resistance observed in human obesity. More recently, Endo1 has emerged as a mediator of "selective leptin resistance"...
October 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
H A Olanrewaju, S D Collier, J L Purswell, S L Branton
We evaluated the influence of light sources and photoperiod on blood physiological variables in four trials. In each trial, 720 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 12 environmentally controlled rooms (30 males/30 females/room). The experimental design was a 4 × 3 factorial treatments consisting of four light sources [incandescent (ICD, standard), compact fluorescent, neutral light emitting diode, and cool poultry-specific-filtered LED] and three photoperiods [long/continuous (23L:1D), regular/intermittent (2L:2D), and short/non-intermittent (8L:16D)] from d8-d56 at 50% relative humidity...
October 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Nestor Prieto-Dominguez, Austin Y Shull, Yong Teng
FGF19 is a noncanonical FGF ligand that can control a broad spectrum of physiological responses, which include bile acid homeostasis, liver metabolism and glucose uptake. Many of these responses are mediated by FGF19 binding to its FGFR4/β-klotho receptor complex and controlling activation of an array of intracellular signaling events. Overactivation of the FGF19/FGFR4 axis has been implicated in tumorigenic formation, progression and metastasis, and inhibitors of this axis have recently been developed for single agent use or in combination with other anticancer drugs...
October 16, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Ahmet Nadir, Sule Temizkan, Aysenur Ozderya, Osman Temizkan, Ekrem Orbay, Kadriye Aydin
Potential effect of hyperandrogenemia on metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has always been a matter of interest. We analyzed the records of 125 patients with PCOS and 54 age-matched healthy women. All participants underwent biochemical and hormonal assessment and a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test was performed. PCOS and control groups were comparable in terms of age. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/free androgen index (DHEAS/FAI) ratio was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (p < ...
October 16, 2018: Gynecological Endocrinology
Eiji Kutoh, Asuka Wada, Teruma Murayama, Jyunka Hayashi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between the changes in body weight and those of glycemic and non-glycemic parameters in drug-naïve subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin monotherapy. METHODS: Subjects received 50-100 mg/day canagliflozin monotherapy for 3 months (n = 36), and were then divided into two groups: (1) those who lost weight [changes in (Δ)BMI ≤ - 0.45, p < 0.00001: Group L(ost), n = 20); and (2) those who did not lose weight [ΔBMI > - 0...
October 15, 2018: Drugs in R&D
Satoshi Nakamura, Yuiko Sato, Tami Kobayashi, Takatsugu Oike, Yosuke Kaneko, Kana Miyamoto, Atsushi Funayama, Akihito Oya, Toru Nishiwaki, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura, Arihiko Kanaji, Takeshi Miyamoto
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a peptide with diverse functions, among them regulation of embryonic development and bone homeostasis. Serum IGF-I levels decline in the elderly; however, IGF-I function in adults has not been clearly defined. Here, we show that IGF-I is required to maintain muscle mass in adults. We crossed Igf-I flox'd and Mx1 Cre mice to yield Mx1 Cre/Igf-Iflox/flox (IGF-I cKO) mice, and deleted Igf-I in adult mice by polyIpolyC injection. We demonstrate that, although serum IGF-I levels significantly decreased after polyIpolyC injection relative to (Igf-Iflox/flox ) controls, serum glucose levels were unchanged...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Xinhui Wang, Hong Gao, Wenhui Wu, Enjun Xie, Yingying Yu, Xuyan He, Jin Li, Wanru Zheng, Xudong Wang, Xizhi Cao, Zhuoxian Meng, Ligong Chen, Junxia Min, Fudi Wang
Zinc levels are high in pancreatic β-cells, and zinc is involved in the synthesis, processing and secretion of insulin in these cells. However, precisely how cellular zinc homeostasis is regulated in pancreatic β-cells is poorly understood. By screening the expression of 14 Slc39a metal importer family member genes, we found that the zinc transporter Slc39a5 is significantly down-regulated in pancreatic β-cells in diabetic db/db mice, obese ob/ob mice and high-fat diet-fed mice. Moreover, β-cell-specific Slc39a5 knockout mice have impaired insulin secretion...
October 15, 2018: Protein & Cell
Jae Min Lee, Sun Sil Choi, Yo Han Lee, Keon Woo Khim, Sora Yoon, Byung-Gyu Kim, Dougu Nam, Pann-Ghill Suh, Kyungjae Myung, Jang Hyun Choi
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. The transcriptional activity of PPARγ is regulated not only by ligands but also by post-translational modifications (PTMs). In this study, we demonstrate that a novel E3 ligase of PPARγ, tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25), directly induced the ubiquitination of PPARγ, leading to its proteasome-dependent degradation. During adipocyte differentiation, both TRIM25 mRNA and protein expression significantly decreased and negatively correlated with the expression of PPARγ...
October 15, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Yuta Nanjo, Michael W Newstead, Tetsuji Aoyagi, Xianying Zeng, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Fu Shin Yu, Kazuhiro Tateda, Theodore J Standiford
Legionella pneumophila (Lp) causes life-threatening pneumonia culminating in acute lung injury. Innate and adaptive cytokines play an important role in host defense against Lp infection. Interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines are recently described members of the larger IL-1 cytokine family known to exert potent inflammatory effects. In this study, we elucidated the role for IL-36 cytokines in experimental pneumonia caused by Lp. Intratracheal (i.t.) administration of Lp induced the upregulation of both IL-36α and IL-36γ mRNA and protein production in the lung...
October 15, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Ioannis Gkouveris, Nikolaos G Nikitakis, Jaya Asservatham, Kalu U E Ogbureke
The expression of proinflammatory cytokines in various malignant neoplasms is widely considered to represent the host immune response to tumor development. The role of interferon (IFN)γ in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and its association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways, remains a subject of ongoing investigation. Dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), which is a member of the small integrin‑binding N‑linked glycoproteins family, has been implicated in malignant transformation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jung-In Kim, Jeong-A Yun, Yoo-Kyung Jeong, Hee-Jin Baek
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of samnamul were investigated. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of samnamul in vivo was determined in normal mice. Oral administration of samnamul extract (500 mg/kg) or acarbose (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced the postprandial glucose response. The effects of chronic consumption of samnamul on fasting hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were determined in C57BL/6 J mice with diabetes mellitus induced by a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Consumption of samnamul extract at 0...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Romi Dasgupta, Indraneel Saha, Prajna Paramita Ray, Aniruddha Maity, Debajoyti Pradhan, Hari Prasad Sarkar, B R Maiti
Arecoline has biomedical importance, but it has untoward side effects on endocrine functions. The aim is to investigate its role on adrenal activity under thermal stress by ultrastructural and hormonal parameters in mice. Cold (4 °C) or heat (37 °C) stress, or arecoline (10 mg/kg body wt), each for 7 days in cold or heat stress stimulated adrenocortical activity ultrastructurally with an elevation of corticosterone level. Adrenomedullary activity was suppressed in cold stress with depletion of catecholamine levels...
October 13, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Amanda E Brandon, Bing M Liao, Barbara Diakanastasis, Benjamin L Parker, Katy Raddatz, Sophie A McManus, Liam O'Reilly, Erica Kimber, A Gabrielle van der Kraan, Dale Hancock, Darren C Henstridge, Peter J Meikle, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Saskia Reibe, Mark A Febbraio, Trevor J Biden, Carsten Schmitz-Peiffer
Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ) activation in the liver is proposed to inhibit insulin action through phosphorylation of the insulin receptor. Here, however, we demonstrated that global, but not liver-specific, deletion of PKCɛ in mice protected against diet-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Furthermore, PKCɛ-dependent alterations in insulin receptor phosphorylation were not detected. Adipose-tissue-specific knockout mice did exhibit improved glucose tolerance, but phosphoproteomics revealed no PKCɛ-dependent effect on the activation of insulin signaling pathways...
October 8, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Yaser Khajebishak, Laleh Payahoo, Mohammadreza Alivand, Beitollah Alipour
Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases in the worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the most common form of the disease, has become a serious threat to public health and is a growing burden on global economies. Due to the unexpected adverse effects of antidiabetic medicines, the use of nutraceuticals as a complementary therapy has drawn extensive attention by investigators. In this issue, a novel nutraceutical, Punicic acid (PA)-the main ingredient of pomegranate seed oil (PSO) that has potential therapeutic effects in T2DM-has been investigated...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Renato Chaves Souto Branco, Rafael Ludemann Camargo, Thiago Martins Batista, Jean Franciesco Vettorazzi, Camila Lubaczeuski, Lucas Henrique Montes Bomfim, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Antônio Carlos Boschero, Cláudio Cesar Zoppi, Everardo Magalhães Carneiro
Nutrient malnutrition, during the early stages of development, may facilitate the onset of metabolic diseases later in life. However, the consequences of nutritional insults, such as a high-fat diet (HFD) after protein restriction, are still controversial. We assessed overall glucose homeostasis and molecular markers of mitochondrial function in the gastrocnemius muscle of protein-restricted mice fed an HFD until early adulthood. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control (14% protein-control diet) or a protein-restricted (6% protein-restricted diet) diet for 6 weeks...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jia Li, Gary R Hunter, Yuying Chen, Amie McLain, Daniel L Smith, Ceren Yarar-Fisher
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the differences in glucose metabolism among women with paraplegic, and tetraplegic spinal cord injury (SCI) in comparison to their able-bodied (AB) counterparts after adjusting for differences in body composition. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Following an overnight fast, each participant consumed a 75-g glucose solution for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Blood glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations were analyzed before and 30-, 60-, and 120-minute post-consumption...
October 11, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Pierre-Gilles Blanchard, Rafael J Moreira, Érique de Castro, Alexandre Caron, Marie Côté, Maynara L Andrade, Tiago E Oliveira, Milene Ortiz-Silva, Albert S Peixoto, France Anne Dias, Yves Gélinas, Renata Guerra-Sá, Yves Deshaies, William T Festuccia
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether PPARγ modulates adipose tissue BCAA metabolism, and whether this mediates the attenuation of obesity-associated insulin resistance induced by pharmacological PPARγ activation. METHODS: Mice with adipocyte deletion of one or two PPARγ copies fed a chow diet and rats fed either chow, or high fat (HF) or HF supplemented with BCAA (HF/BCAA) diets treated with rosiglitazone (30 or 15 mg/kg/day, 14 days) were evaluated for glucose and BCAA homeostasis...
October 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Xiliang Du, Guowen Liu, Juan J Loor, Zhiyuan Fang, Ryan Bucktrout, Yuchen Yang, Qianqian Ye, Zhen Shi, Taiyu Shen, Xinghui Wang, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Bin Lv, Dongmei Xing, Yiwei Zhu, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li
The ability of liver to respond to changes in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Autophagy encompasses mechanisms of cell survival, including capturing, degrading, and recycling of intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. During negative nutrient status, autophagy provides substrates to sustain cellular metabolism and hence, tissue function. Severe negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with fatty liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic autophagy status in dairy cows with severe fatty liver and to determine associations with biomarkers of liver function and inflammation...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
H Berends, M Vidal, M Terré, L N Leal, J Martín-Tereso, A Bach
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of an extruded high-fat pellet mixed with a conventional pelleted calf starter on energy intake and performance around weaning in calves. To this end, 75 female Holstein newborn calves (41.0 ± 4.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 iso-nitrogenous solid feed treatments consisting of 4 levels of fat inclusion by mixing a low-fat highly fermentable control pellet with 3 different levels of inclusion of an extruded high-fat pellet [control (100:0), 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30], and a high-fat single pellet (HFSP)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Huiting Xu, Qiang Fu, Yi Zhou, Chengbin Xue, Patrick Olson, Ernest C Lynch, Ke K Zhang, Chaodong Wu, Peter Murano, Lanjing Zhang, Linglin Xie
Although a pre-pregnancy dietary intervention is believed to be able to prevent offspring obesity, research evidence is absent. We hypothesize that a long period of pre-pregnancy maternal diet transition from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet effectively prevents offspring obesity, and this preventive effect is independent of maternal body weight change. In our study, female mice were either continued on an NF diet (NF group) or an HF diet (HF group) until weaning, or switched from an HF to an NF for 1 week (H1N group), 5 weeks (H5N group) or 9 weeks (H9N group) before pregnancy...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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