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beige fat cell

Wenli Yang, Patrick Seale
Beige fat cells hold significant promise for reducing obesity and metabolic disease. Su et al. (2018) present a robust method to produce human beige adipocytes from pluripotent stem cells via the generation of an expandable intermediary population of mesenchymal progenitor cells.
December 11, 2018: Cell Reports
Joseph Zhou, Anil Poudel, Prashanth Chandramani-Shivalingappa, Biao Xu, Ryan Welchko, Lixin Li
PURPOSE: Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced to induce postprandial insulin secretion. Liraglutide, a full agonist of the GLP-1 receptor, has a protective effect on weight gain in obese subjects. Brown adipose tissue plays a major role in the control of energy balance and is known to be involved in the weight loss regulated by liraglutide. The putative anti-obesity properties of liraglutide and the cell signaling pathways involved were examined. METHODS: Four groups of C57/BL6 mice fed with chow or HFHS diet were injected with either liraglutide or vehicle for four weeks...
December 9, 2018: Endocrine
Guillaume Oldenhove, Elodie Boucquey, Anaelle Taquin, Valérie Acolty, Lynn Bonetti, Bernhard Ryffel, Marc Le Bert, Kevin Englebert, Louis Boon, Muriel Moser
Recent observations clearly highlight the critical role of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in maintaining the homeostasis of adipose tissues in humans and mice. This cell population promotes beiging and limits adiposity directly and indirectly by sustaining a Th2-prone environment enriched in eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. Accordingly, the number and function of type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are strongly impaired in obese individuals. In this work, we identify the PD-1-PD-L1 pathway as a factor leading to ILC2 destabilization upon high-fat feeding resulting in impaired tissue metabolism...
November 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Linyun He, Mowei Tang, Ting Xiao, Hailan Liu, Wei Liu, Guangdi Li, Feng Zhang, Yalun Xiao, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, Fang Hu
miRNAs are important regulators of differentiation, development, and function of brown and beige fat cells. In this study, we identify the role of the miR-199a/214 cluster in the regulation of brown and beige adipocyte development and thermogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We show that expression of the miR-199a/214 cluster is dramatically decreased during brown and beige adipocyte differentiation and in response to cold exposure or β-adrenergic receptor activation. The cluster levels are significantly upregulated in the adipose tissues of obese mice and human subjects...
December 2018: Diabetes
Erika Hoppela, Tove J Grönroos, Anne M Saarikko, Tomi V Tervala, Susanna Kauhanen, Pirjo Nuutila, Katri Kivinen, Pauliina Hartiala
Background: Fat grafting is commonly used when treating soft-tissue defects. However, much of the basic biology behind fat transfer is still uncovered. Adipocytes can be divided into energy storing white and energy burning brown adipose cells. It is now well known, that also adult humans have metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) within white adipose tissue (WAT). Previously our group showed that transfer of metabolically inactive WAT into a new environment increased the metabolic activity of the fat grafts to resemble the activity in the recipient site and that different WAT depots have variation in the metabolic activity...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Jingxin Liu, Ligen Lin
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fatty acids as heat to maintain body temperature in cold environments. The existence of BAT and beige cells in human adults supplies a promising weight-reduction therapy. The central thermogenic regulation descends through an excitatory neural pathway from the hypothalamus, medullar and spine towards BAT. This sympathoexcitatory thermogenic circuit is controlled by GABAergic (γ-aminobutyric acid) signaling from the thermoregulatory center in the preoptic area and the satiety center in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus...
September 21, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Yusuke Fujimoto, Osamu Hashimoto, Daichi Shindo, Makoto Sugiyama, Shozo Tomonaga, Masaru Murakami, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown and beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. Thus, the activation of brown adipocytes and the emergence of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are suggested to be useful for preventing and treating obesity. Although β3 -adrenergic receptor activation is known to stimulate lipolysis and activation of brown and beige adipocytes, fat depot-dependent changes in metabolite concentrations are not fully elucidated. The current study examined the effect of treatment with CL-316,243, a β3 -adrenergic receptor agonist, on the relative abundance of metabolites in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT), inguinal WAT (ingWAT), and epididymal WAT (epiWAT)...
January 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Salvatore Fabbiano, Nicolas Suárez-Zamorano, Claire Chevalier, Vladimir Lazarević, Silas Kieser, Dorothée Rigo, Stefano Leo, Christelle Veyrat-Durebex, Nadia Gaïa, Marcello Maresca, Doron Merkler, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Andrew Macpherson, Jacques Schrenzel, Mirko Trajkovski
Caloric restriction (CR) stimulates development of functional beige fat and extends healthy lifespan. Here we show that compositional and functional changes in the gut microbiota contribute to a number of CR-induced metabolic improvements and promote fat browning. Mechanistically, these effects are linked to a lower expression of the key bacterial enzymes necessary for the lipid A biosynthesis, a critical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) building component. The decreased LPS dictates the tone of the innate immune response during CR, leading to increased eosinophil infiltration and anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization in fat of the CR animals...
August 24, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Yanbo Kou, Qingya Liu, Wenli Liu, Hongxiang Sun, Ming Liang, Fanyun Kong, Bo Zhang, Yanxia Wei, Zhuanzhuan Liu, Yugang Wang
The physiologic signals that regulate beige adipogenesis remain incompletely understood, especially those that limit browning and prevent overexpenditure of energy. In this study, the TNF family member cytokine lymphotoxin-like inducible protein that competes with glycoprotein D for herpesvirus entry on T cells (LIGHT), also known as TNF super family protein 14 (TNFSF14), can inhibit adipose precursor differentiation into beige adipocytes. In acute cold stress, LIGHT deficiency in mice accelerated browning in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT)...
August 27, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Antonia Graja, Sabrina Gohlke, Tim J Schulz
Brown adipose tissue aging and the concomitant loss of thermogenic capacity have been linked to an inability to maintain normal energy homeostasis in late life. Similarly, the ability of white fat to convert into brite/beige adipose tissue declines. This may ultimately exacerbate the progression of age-related metabolic pathologies, such as insulin resistance and obesity. The depletion of all types of brown adipocytes during aging is well-established and has been described in rodent models as well as humans...
August 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Shengjuan Wei, Mengmeng Zhang, Yueying Zheng, Peishi Yan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our study aims to characterize functions of ZBTB16 gene in the process of intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition and metabolism of bovine, thereby providing insights into mechanisms for the use of ZBTB16 in fat management. METHODS: Primary preadipocytes derived from bovine IMF tissue were isolated and used as the in vitro cell model. An adenovirus Ad-ZBTB16 was transfected into bovine preadipocytes to overexpress the ZBTB16 gene. By using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), western blotting, Oil Red-O staining, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity assay, and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) test, adipogenic and proliferative signals in adipocytes were monitored to investigate effects of ZBTB16 on adipogenesis of bovine preadipocytes...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Umesh D Wankhade, Ji-Hyeon Lee, Pradeep K Dagur, Hariom Yadav, Michael Shen, Weiping Chen, Ashok B Kulkarni, J Philip McCoy, Toren Finkel, Aaron M Cypess, Sushil G Rane
OBJECTIVE: Beige/brite adipose tissue displays morphological characteristics and beneficial metabolic traits of brown adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that TGF-β signaling regulates the browning of white adipose tissue. Here, we inquired whether TGF-β signals regulated presumptive beige progenitors in white fat and investigated the TGF-β regulated mechanisms involved in beige adipogenesis. METHODS: We deleted TGF-β receptor 1 (TβRI) in adipose tissue (TβRIAdKO mice) and, using flow-cytometry based assays, identified and isolated presumptive beige progenitors located in the stromal vascular cells of white fat...
October 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Rushita A Bagchi, Bradley S Ferguson, Matthew S Stratton, Tianjing Hu, Maria A Cavasin, Lei Sun, Ying-Hsi Lin, Dianxin Liu, Pilar Londono, Kunhua Song, Maria F Pino, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Philipp E Scherer, Sheila Collins, Edward Seto, Timothy A McKinsey
Little is known about the biological function of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), which is the lone class IV HDAC. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of HDAC11 in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT). Consequently, HDAC11-deficient mice exhibit enhanced thermogenic potential and, in response to high-fat feeding, attenuated obesity, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Ex vivo and cell-based assays revealed that HDAC11 catalytic activity suppresses the BAT transcriptional program, in both the basal state and in response to β-adrenergic receptor signaling, through a mechanism that is dependent on physical association with BRD2, a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-histone-binding protein...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
Bronson A Haynes, Ryan W Huyck, Ashley J James, Meghan E Carter, Omnia U Gaafar, Marjorie Day, Avennette Pinto, Anca D Dobrian
Obesity is accompanied by an extensive remodeling of adipose tissue primarily via adipocyte hypertrophy. Extreme adipocyte growth results in a poor response to insulin, local hypoxia, and inflammation. By stimulating the differentiation of functional white adipocytes from progenitors, radical hypertrophy of the adipocyte population can be prevented and, consequently, the metabolic health of adipose tissue can be improved along with a reduction of inflammation. Also, by stimulating a differentiation of beige/brown adipocytes, the total body energy expenditure can be increased, resulting in weight loss...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Michael E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Mark Pope, Helen Budge
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) possesses a unique uncoupling protein (UCP1) which, when activated, enables the rapid generation of heat and the oxidation of lipids or glucose or both. It is present in small amounts (~15-350 mL) in adult humans. UCP1 is rapidly activated at birth and is essential in preventing hypothermia in newborns, who rapidly generate large amounts of heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Since the "re-discovery" of BAT in adult humans about 10 years ago, there has been an exceptional amount of research interest...
2018: F1000Research
Ann Hammarstedt, Silvia Gogg, Shahram Hedjazifar, Annika Nerstedt, Ulf Smith
The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is the largest and best storage site for excess lipids. However, it has a limited ability to expand by recruiting and/or differentiating available precursor cells. When inadequate, this leads to a hypertrophic expansion of the cells with increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and a dysfunctional prolipolytic tissue. Epi-/genetic factors regulate SAT adipogenesis and genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes is associated with markers of an impaired SAT adipogenesis and development of hypertrophic obesity also in nonobese individuals...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Adriana Grigoraş, Cornelia Amalinei, Raluca Anca Balan, Simona Eliza Giuşcă, Elena Roxana Avădănei, Ludmila Lozneanu, Irina-Draga Căruntu
Firstly identified by anatomists, the fat tissue is nowadays an area of intense research due to increased global prevalence of obesity and its associated diseases. Histologically, there are four types of fat tissue cells which are currently recognized (white, brown, beige, and perivascular adipocytes). Therefore, in this study we are reviewing the most recent data regarding the origin, structure, and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of adipocytes. White adipocytes can store triglycerides as a consequence of lipogenesis, under the regulation of growth hormone or leptin and adiponectin, and release fatty acids resulted from lipolysis, under the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, glucocorticoids, TNF-α, insulin, and natriuretic peptides...
September 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Lu Liu, Nitin Puri, Marco Raffaele, Joseph Schragenheim, Shailendra P Singh, J Alyce Bradbury, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Darryl C Zeldin, Jian Cao, Nader G Abraham
We have shown that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), specifically 11,12- and 14,15-EETs, reduce adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells and mouse preadipocytes (3T-3L1). In this study, we explore the effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) deletion on various aspects of adipocyte-function, including programing for white vs. beige-like fat, and mitochondrial and thermogenic gene-expressions. We further hypothesize that EETs and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) form a synergistic, functional module whose effects on adipocyte and vascular function is greater than the effects of sEH deletion alone...
July 21, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
Michael S Kuefner, Xiong Deng, Erin J Stephenson, Kevin Pham, Edwards A Park
Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a phospholipase which has a role in inflammation, atherogenesis, and host defense. Previously, we found that PLA2G2A protects mice on high-fat diets from weight gain and insulin resistance. Here, we examined the regulation of PLA2G2A and the metabolic changes that occur in response to variations in thyroid status. In particular, the impact of PLA2G2A on the brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic gene expression was explored. We induced hypothyroidism in C57BL/6 and PLA2G2A-overexpressing (IIA+) mice over a 10 wk period or treated them with thyroid hormone (T3 ) for 5 wk...
July 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Adriana R Rodrigues, Maria J Salazar, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Inês O Gonçalves, Célia Cruz, Delminda Neves, Henrique Almeida, José Magalhães, Alexandra M Gouveia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been in the spotlight during the last years, becoming an attractive approach to combat obesity. Melanocortin neuropeptides, such as α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), are well-known regulators of appetite at the central nervous system, but its role in adipocyte metabolism is poorly elucidated. This study sought to verify if α-MSH can induce transdifferentiation of white to brown/beige adipocytes and to determine whether it can ameliorate the obesity phenotype...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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