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beige fat cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100246/tgf-%C3%AE-receptor-1-regulates-progenitors-that-promote-browning-of-white-fat
#1
Umesh D Wankhade, Ji-Hyeon Lee, Pradeep K Dagur, Hariom Yadav, Michael Shen, Weiping Chen, Ashok B Kulkarni, J Philip McCoy, Toren Finkel, Aaron M Cypess, Sushil G Rane
OBJECTIVE: Beige/brite adipose tissue displays morphological characteristics and beneficial metabolic traits of brown adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that TGF-β signaling regulates the browning of white adipose tissue. Here, we inquired whether TGF-β signals regulated presumptive beige progenitors in white fat and investigated the TGF-β regulated mechanisms involved in beige adipogenesis. METHODS: We deleted TGF-β receptor 1 (TβRI) in adipose tissue (TβRIAdKO mice) and, using flow-cytometry based assays, identified and isolated presumptive beige progenitors located in the stromal vascular cells of white fat...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089714/hdac11-suppresses-the-thermogenic-program-of-adipose-tissue-via-brd2
#2
Rushita A Bagchi, Bradley S Ferguson, Matthew S Stratton, Tianjing Hu, Maria A Cavasin, Lei Sun, Ying-Hsi Lin, Dianxin Liu, Pilar Londono, Kunhua Song, Maria F Pino, Lauren M Sparks, Steven R Smith, Philipp E Scherer, Sheila Collins, Edward Seto, Timothy A McKinsey
Little is known about the biological function of histone deacetylase 11 (HDAC11), which is the lone class IV HDAC. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of HDAC11 in mice stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) formation and beiging of white adipose tissue (WAT). Consequently, HDAC11-deficient mice exhibit enhanced thermogenic potential and, in response to high-fat feeding, attenuated obesity, improved insulin sensitivity, and reduced hepatic steatosis. Ex vivo and cell-based assays revealed that HDAC11 catalytic activity suppresses the BAT transcriptional program, in both the basal state and in response to β-adrenergic receptor signaling, through a mechanism that is dependent on physical association with BRD2, a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) acetyl-histone-binding protein...
August 9, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080200/isolation-expansion-and-adipogenic-induction-of-cd34-cd31-endothelial-cells-from-human-omental-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue
#3
Bronson A Haynes, Ryan W Huyck, Ashley J James, Meghan E Carter, Omnia U Gaafar, Marjorie Day, Avennette Pinto, Anca D Dobrian
Obesity is accompanied by an extensive remodeling of adipose tissue primarily via adipocyte hypertrophy. Extreme adipocyte growth results in a poor response to insulin, local hypoxia, and inflammation. By stimulating the differentiation of functional white adipocytes from progenitors, radical hypertrophy of the adipocyte population can be prevented and, consequently, the metabolic health of adipose tissue can be improved along with a reduction of inflammation. Also, by stimulating a differentiation of beige/brown adipocytes, the total body energy expenditure can be increased, resulting in weight loss...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079236/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-brown-and-beige-adipose-tissue-the-good-fat-that-keeps-you-healthy
#4
REVIEW
Michael E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Mark Pope, Helen Budge
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) possesses a unique uncoupling protein (UCP1) which, when activated, enables the rapid generation of heat and the oxidation of lipids or glucose or both. It is present in small amounts (~15-350 mL) in adult humans. UCP1 is rapidly activated at birth and is essential in preventing hypothermia in newborns, who rapidly generate large amounts of heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Since the "re-discovery" of BAT in adult humans about 10 years ago, there has been an exceptional amount of research interest...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067159/impaired-adipogenesis-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-in-human-hypertrophic-obesity
#5
Ann Hammarstedt, Silvia Gogg, Shahram Hedjazifar, Annika Nerstedt, Ulf Smith
The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is the largest and best storage site for excess lipids. However, it has a limited ability to expand by recruiting and/or differentiating available precursor cells. When inadequate, this leads to a hypertrophic expansion of the cells with increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and a dysfunctional prolipolytic tissue. Epi-/genetic factors regulate SAT adipogenesis and genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes is associated with markers of an impaired SAT adipogenesis and development of hypertrophic obesity also in nonobese individuals...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30049662/adipocytes-spectrum-from-homeostasia-to-obesity-and-its-associated-pathology
#6
REVIEW
Adriana Grigoraş, Cornelia Amalinei, Raluca Anca Balan, Simona Eliza Giuşcă, Elena Roxana Avădănei, Ludmila Lozneanu, Irina-Draga Căruntu
Firstly identified by anatomists, the fat tissue is nowadays an area of intense research due to increased global prevalence of obesity and its associated diseases. Histologically, there are four types of fat tissue cells which are currently recognized (white, brown, beige, and perivascular adipocytes). Therefore, in this study we are reviewing the most recent data regarding the origin, structure, and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of adipocytes. White adipocytes can store triglycerides as a consequence of lipogenesis, under the regulation of growth hormone or leptin and adiponectin, and release fatty acids resulted from lipolysis, under the regulation of the sympathetic nervous system, glucocorticoids, TNF-α, insulin, and natriuretic peptides...
September 2018: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041041/ablation-of-soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-reprogram-white-fat-to-beige-like-fat-through-an-increase-in-mitochondrial-integrity-ho-1-adiponectin-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
REVIEW
Lu Liu, Nitin Puri, Marco Raffaele, Joseph Schragenheim, Shailendra P Singh, J Alyce Bradbury, Lars Bellner, Luca Vanella, Darryl C Zeldin, Jian Cao, Nader G Abraham
We have shown that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), specifically 11,12- and 14,15-EETs, reduce adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells and mouse preadipocytes (3T-3L1). In this study, we explore the effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) deletion on various aspects of adipocyte-function, including programing for white vs. beige-like fat, and mitochondrial and thermogenic gene-expressions. We further hypothesize that EETs and heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1) form a synergistic, functional module whose effects on adipocyte and vascular function is greater than the effects of sEH deletion alone...
July 21, 2018: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020829/secretory-phospholipase-a-2-group-iia-enhances-the-metabolic-rate-and-increases-glucose-utilization-in-response-to-thyroid-hormone
#8
Michael S Kuefner, Xiong Deng, Erin J Stephenson, Kevin Pham, Edwards A Park
Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (PLA2G2A) is a phospholipase which has a role in inflammation, atherogenesis, and host defense. Previously, we found that PLA2G2A protects mice on high-fat diets from weight gain and insulin resistance. Here, we examined the regulation of PLA2G2A and the metabolic changes that occur in response to variations in thyroid status. In particular, the impact of PLA2G2A on the brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic gene expression was explored. We induced hypothyroidism in C57BL/6 and PLA2G2A-overexpressing (IIA+) mice over a 10 wk period or treated them with thyroid hormone (T3 ) for 5 wk...
July 18, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018312/peripherally-administered-melanocortins-induce-mice-fat-browning-and-prevent-obesity
#9
Adriana R Rodrigues, Maria J Salazar, Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Inês O Gonçalves, Célia Cruz, Delminda Neves, Henrique Almeida, José Magalhães, Alexandra M Gouveia
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been in the spotlight during the last years, becoming an attractive approach to combat obesity. Melanocortin neuropeptides, such as α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), are well-known regulators of appetite at the central nervous system, but its role in adipocyte metabolism is poorly elucidated. This study sought to verify if α-MSH can induce transdifferentiation of white to brown/beige adipocytes and to determine whether it can ameliorate the obesity phenotype...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29934059/the-long-noncoding-rna-blnc1-orchestrates-homeostatic-adipose-tissue-remodeling-to-preserve-metabolic-health
#10
Xu-Yun Zhao, Siming Li, Jennifer L DelProposto, Tongyu Liu, Lin Mi, Cara Porsche, Xiaoling Peng, Carey N Lumeng, Jiandie D Lin
OBJECTIVE: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as powerful regulators of adipocyte differentiation and gene expression. However, their significance in adipose tissue metabolism and physiology has not been demonstrated in vivo. We previously identified Blnc1 as a conserved lncRNA regulator of brown and beige adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we investigated the physiological role of Blnc1 in thermogenesis, adipose remodeling and systemic metabolism. METHODS: We generated fat-specific Blnc1 transgenic and conditional knockout mouse strains and investigated how adipocyte Blnc1 levels are causally linked to key aspects of metabolic health following diet-induced obesity...
June 8, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923291/inflammation-of-brown-beige-adipose-tissues-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#11
F Villarroya, R Cereijo, A Gavaldà-Navarro, J Villarroya, M Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912360/expression-levels-of-brown-beige-adipocyte-related-genes-in-fat-depots-of-vitamin-a-restricted-fattening-cattle
#12
Hsuan-Ju Chen, Tsubasa Ihara, Hidetugu Yoshioka, Erina Itoyama, Shoko Kitamura, Hiroshi Nagase, Hiroaki Murakami, Yoichiro Hoshino, Masaru Murakami, Shozo Tomonaga, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Brown/beige adipocytes dissipate energy as heat. We previously showed that brown/beige adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) of fattening cattle. The present study examined the effect of vitamin A restriction on mRNA expression of brown/beige adipocyte-related genes. In Japan, fattening cattle are conventionally fed a vitamin A-restricted diet to improve beef marbling. Twelve Japanese Black steers aged 10 months were fed control feed (n=6) or vitamin A-restricted feed (n=6) for 20 months. Subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and mesenteric WAT (mesWAT) were collected, and mRNA expression levels of molecules related to function of brown/beige adipocytes (Ucp1, Cidea, Dio2, Cox7a and Cox8b) as well as transcriptional regulators related to brown/beige adipogenesis (Zfp516, Nfia, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α) were evaluated...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29852279/brown-and-beige-fat-from-molecules-to-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#13
REVIEW
Stefania Carobbio, Anne-Claire Guénantin, Isabella Samuelson, Myriam Bahri, Antonio Vidal-Puig
The adipose organ portrays adipocytes of diverse tones: white, brown and beige, each type with distinct functions. Adipocytes orchestrate their adaptation and expansion to provide storage to excess nutrients, the quick mobilisation of fuel to supply peripheral functional demands, insulation, and, in their thermogenic form, heat generation to maintain core body temperature. Thermogenic adipocytes could be targets for anti-obesity and anti-diabetic therapeutic approaches aiming to restore adipose tissue functionality and increase energy dissipation...
May 28, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800720/transcriptional-brakes-on-the-road-to-adipocyte-thermogenesis
#14
REVIEW
Mengle Shao, Rana K Gupta
White adipocytes represent the principle site for energy storage whereas brown/beige adipocytes emerge from seemingly distinct cellular lineages and burn chemical energy to produce heat. Thermogenic adipocytes utilize cell-type selective master regulatory transcription factors to drive the expression of their adipocyte thermogenic gene program. White adipocytes harbor transcriptional mechanisms to suppress the thermogenic gene program and maintain an energy-storing function. Here, we summarize some of the key developmental and transcriptional mechanisms leading to the postnatal recruitment of thermogenic adipocytes under physiological conditions, with a particular emphasis on the transcriptional "brakes" on the thermogenic gene program...
May 23, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785025/an-immune-beige-adipocyte-communication-via-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-signaling
#15
Heejin Jun, Hui Yu, Jianke Gong, Juan Jiang, Xiaona Qiao, Eric Perkey, Dong-Il Kim, Margo P Emont, Alexander G Zestos, Jung-Sun Cho, Jianfeng Liu, Robert T Kennedy, Ivan Maillard, X Z Shawn Xu, Jun Wu
Beige adipocytes have recently been shown to regulate energy dissipation when activated and help organisms defend against hypothermia and obesity. Prior reports indicate that beige-like adipocytes exist in adult humans and that they may present novel opportunities to curb the global epidemic in obesity and metabolic illnesses. In an effort to identify unique features of activated beige adipocytes, we found that expression of the cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 2 subunit (Chrna2) was induced in subcutaneous fat during the activation of these cells and that acetylcholine-producing immune cells within this tissue regulated this signaling pathway via paracrine mechanisms...
June 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764980/interplay-of-cell-cell-contacts-and-rhoa-mrtf-a-signaling-regulates-cardiomyocyte-identity
#16
Tatjana Dorn, Jessica Kornherr, Elvira I Parrotta, Dorota Zawada, Harold Ayetey, Gianluca Santamaria, Laura Iop, Elisa Mastantuono, Daniel Sinnecker, Alexander Goedel, Ralf J Dirschinger, Ilaria My, Svenja Laue, Tarik Bozoglu, Christian Baarlink, Tilman Ziegler, Elisabeth Graf, Rabea Hinkel, Giovanni Cuda, Stefan Kääb, Andrew A Grace, Robert Grosse, Christian Kupatt, Thomas Meitinger, Austin G Smith, Karl-Ludwig Laugwitz, Alessandra Moretti
Cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions guide organ development and homeostasis by controlling lineage specification and maintenance, but the underlying molecular principles are largely unknown. Here, we show that in human developing cardiomyocytes cell-cell contacts at the intercalated disk connect to remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton by regulating the RhoA-ROCK signaling to maintain an active MRTF/SRF transcriptional program essential for cardiomyocyte identity. Genetic perturbation of this mechanosensory pathway activates an ectopic fat gene program during cardiomyocyte differentiation, which ultimately primes the cells to switch to the brown/beige adipocyte lineage in response to adipogenesis-inducing signals...
June 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758288/micrornas-in-brown-and-beige-fat
#17
REVIEW
Deborah Goody, Alexander Pfeifer
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and its activity correlates with leanness in human adults. Understanding the mechanisms behind the activation of BAT and the process of "browning", i.e. the appearance of inducible brown adipocytes called beige or brite (brown-in-white) cells in white adipose tissue (WAT), is of great interest for developing novel therapies to combat obesity. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small transcriptional regulators that control gene expression in a variety of tissues, including WAT and BAT...
May 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757365/multifaceted-roles-of-beige-fat-in-energy-homeostasis-beyond-ucp1
#18
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipose cells that emerge within the white adipose tissue in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as chronic cold acclimation. Similar to brown adipocytes that reside in brown adipose tissue depots, beige adipocytes are also thermogenic; however, beige adipocytes possess unique, distinguishing characteristics in their developmental regulation and biological function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of beige adipocytes, focusing on the diverse roles of beige fat in the regulation of energy homeostasis that are independent of the canonical thermogenic pathway via uncoupling protein 1...
July 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719233/toward-an-understanding-of-how-immune-cells-control-brown-and-beige-adipobiology
#19
REVIEW
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Joan Villarroya, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Marta Giralt
Immune cells were recently found to have an unexpected involvement in controlling the thermogenic activity of brown and beige adipose tissue. Here, we review how macrophages, eosinophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, and T lymphocytes are linked to this process. In particular, the recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages and eosinophils is associated with brown fat activation and white fat browning. Conversely, pro-inflammatory immune cell recruitment represses the thermogenic activity of brown and beige adipose tissues via cytokines that inhibit noradrenergic signaling...
May 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692364/mitophagy-controls-beige-adipocyte-maintenance-through-a-parkin-dependent-and-ucp1-independent-mechanism
#20
Xiaodan Lu, Svetlana Altshuler-Keylin, Qiang Wang, Yong Chen, Carlos Henrique Sponton, Kenji Ikeda, Pema Maretich, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of mitochondria-enriched thermogenic adipocytes that emerge in response to external stimuli, such as chronic cold exposure. We have previously shown that after the withdrawal of external stimuli, beige adipocytes directly acquire a white fat-like phenotype through autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation. We investigated the upstream pathway that mediates mitochondrial clearance and report that Parkin-mediated mitophagy plays a key role in the beige-to-white adipocyte transition...
April 24, 2018: Science Signaling
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