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microvascular density

Valerio Ciccone, Erika Terzuoli, Sandra Donnini, Antonio Giachetti, Lucia Morbidelli, Marina Ziche
BACKGROUND: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a member of aldehyde dehydrogenase family, is a marker of stemness in breast cancer. During tumor progression cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been reported to secrete angiogenic factors to orchestrate the formation of pathological angiogenesis. This vasculature can represent the source of self-renewal of CSCs and the route for further tumor spreading. The aim of the present study has been to assess whether ALDH1A1 controls the output of angiogenic factors in breast cancer cells and regulates tumor angiogenesis in a panel of in vitro and in vivo models...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Carlos Eduardo da Silva, João Carlos Domingues Repka, Carlos José Franco de Souza, Jorge Eduardo Fouto Matias
BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease affects more than 500 million people worldwide. In this context, the uremic toxins present are related to worsening in tissue healing. AIM: Evaluate on healing of colonic anastomosis in uremic rats, serum and anatomopathological indicators, which may be related to the change tissue repair process. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats, were randomly separated into two groups. In the sham group they were submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy simulation in left kidney, simulation right nephrectomy, median laparotomy, colotomy and colorraphy...
December 6, 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Nicholas J Protopsaltis, Wei Liang, Eric Nudleman, Napoleone Ferrara
TH 17 cells play important yet complex roles in cancer development and progression. We previously reported that TH 17 cells and IL-17 mediate resistance to anti-VEGF therapy by inducing recruitment of immunosuppressive and proangiogenic myeloid cells to the tumor microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that IL-22, a key effector cytokine expressed by TH 17 cells, directly acts on endothelial cells to promote tumor angiogenesis. IL-22 induces endothelial cell proliferation, survival, and chemotaxis in vitro and neovascularization in an ex vivo mouse choroid explant model...
December 11, 2018: Angiogenesis
Christine Lansche, Anil K Dasanna, Katharina Quadt, Benjamin Fröhlich, Dimitris Missirlis, Marilou Tétard, Benoit Gamain, Bernd Buchholz, Cecilia P Sanchez, Motomu Tanaka, Ulrich S Schwarz, Michael Lanzer
Sickle cell trait, a common hereditary blood disorder, protects carriers from severe disease in infections with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . Protection is associated with a reduced capacity of parasitized erythrocytes to cytoadhere to the microvascular endothelium and cause vaso-occlusive events. However, the underpinning cellular and biomechanical processes are only partly understood and the impact on endothelial cell activation is unclear. Here, we show, by combining quantitative flow chamber experiments with multiscale computer simulations of deformable cells in hydrodynamic flow, that parasitized erythrocytes containing the sickle cell haemoglobin displayed altered adhesion dynamics, resulting in restricted contact footprints on the endothelium...
2018: Communications biology
Han Jiang, Xiaohan Wang, Jinhui Zhang, Allan Kachelmeier, Ivan A Lopez, Xiaorui Shi
Using transgenic fluorescent reporter mice in combination with an established tissue clearing method, we detail heretofore optically opaque regions of the spiral lamina and spiral limbus where the auditory peripheral nervous system is located and provide insight into changes in cochlear vascular density with ageing. We found a relatively dense and branched vascular network in young adults, but a less dense and thinned network in aged adults. Significant reduction in vascular density starts early at the age of 180 days in the region of the spiral limbus (SL) and continues into old age at 540 days...
December 4, 2018: Hearing Research
Mahya Sheikhzadeh, Andrew J Vercnocke, Shengzhen Tao, Kishore Rajendran, Shuai Leng, Erik L Ritman, Cynthia H McCollough
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of effective detector-pixel-size and image voxel size on the accurate estimation of microvessel density (ratio of microvascular lumen volume/tissue volume) in an excised porcine myocardium specimen using microcomputed tomography (CT), and the ability of whole-body energy-integrating-detector (EID) CT and photon-counting-detector (PCD) CT to measure microvessel density in the same ex vivo specimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Porcine myocardial tissue in which the microvessels contained radio-opaque material was scanned using a micro-CT scanner and data were generated with a range of detector pixel sizes and image voxel sizes from 20 to 260 microns, to determine the impact of these parameters on the accuracy of microvessel density estimates...
December 7, 2018: Academic Radiology
H Dekker, N Bravenboer, D van Dijk, E Bloemena, D H F Rietveld, Chr M Ten Bruggenkate, E A J M Schulten
OBJECTIVES: Hypovascularisation is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of osteoradionecrosis. The objective of this study was to assess the microvascular system in the irradiated mandibular bone marrow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mandibular bone biopsies were taken from 20 irradiated patients and 24 controls. Blood vessels were visualized using CD34 antibody stain to detect endothelial cells. The vascular density (VD) and vascular area fraction (VAF) were measured...
December 2018: Oral Oncology
Ching Wei Lim, Jun Cheng, Elton Lik Tong Tay, Hwei Yee Teo, Elizabeth Poh Ying Wong, Vernon Khet Yau Yong, Boon Ang Lim, Owen Kim Hee, Hon Tym Wong, Leonard Wei Leon Yip
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential usefulness of optical coherence tomography angiography in retinal and optic disc conditions, the reliability of the imaging modality remains unclear. This study set out to measure the microvascular density of macula and optic disc by mean of optical coherence tomography angiography and report the repeatability of the vessel density measurements. METHODS: Cross sectional observational cohort study. Subjects with normal eyes were recruited...
December 10, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Stefanie J Rodenbeck, Devin D Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The funduscopic examination can be a technically difficult, and often omitted, portion of the neurologic examination, despite its great potential to influence patient care. RECENT FINDINGS: Medical practitioners are often first taught to examine the ocular fundus using a direct ophthalmoscope, however, this skill requires frequent practice. Nonmydriatic tabletop and portable fundus photography and even smartphone-based photography offer alternative and practical means for approaching examination of the ocular fundus...
December 3, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Priscila Alves Maranhão, Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Diogo Guarnieri Panazzolo, José Firmino Nogueira Neto, Eliete Bouskela, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar
Background: Frequently, ingestion of lipids exceeds our daily requirements and constantly exposes humans to circulating lipid overload which may lead to endothelial dysfunction (ED), the earliest marker of atherosclerosis. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy (NVC) technique can detect ED on microcirculation. Using NVC, we aimed to demonstrate if metabolic alterations evoked by high-fat meals can act differently on microvascular endothelial reactivity in lean and women with obesity. Methods: Women, aged between 19 and 40 years, were allocated to control group (CG) and with obesity group (OBG) and were subjected to blood analysis for determination of glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and NVC evaluation at fasting and 30, 60, 120, and 180-min after high-fat meal ingestion...
2018: BioMed Research International
David Rogerson, Diana Maçãs, Marianne Milner, Yingshan Liu, Markos Klonizakis
The Mediterranean diet has been shown to improve cardiovascular health. Vegan diets have demonstrated similar benefits, albeit in fewer studies. In a comparative pilot study, we compared the effects of a short-term Mediterranean Diet (MD) and Vegan Diet (VD) on microvascular function and cholesterol levels in a healthy population. Twenty-four young (aged 18 to 35 years) healthy volunteers followed a four-week intervention (MD = 12; VD = 12) ad libitum. Pre and post-intervention anthropometrics, microvascular function (assessed via LDF and expressed as raw CVC and %CVC MAX), dietary-analysis data (Calories, Protein, Carbohydrates, Total Fat, Saturated Fat, Fibre), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Blood Pressure, Total Cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) and TC:HDL-C were compared...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Ian A Thompson, Alia K Durrani, Shriji Patel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to measure optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA)-defined retinal vascular and choriocapillaris parameters in diabetic patients without clinically evident diabetic retinopathy. METHODS: Retrospective case series of eyes in patients with a documented history of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus without any clinical signs of diabetic retinopathy seen at the Vanderbilt Eye Institute. All eyes underwent dilated funduscopic examination along with OCTA...
December 3, 2018: Eye
Anastasiia Panfilova, Sarah E Shelton, Cristina Caresio, Ruud J G van Sloun, Filippo Molinari, Hessel Wijkstra, Paul A Dayton, Massimo Mischi
Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) has been proposed as a powerful tool for cancer diagnosis by estimation of perfusion and dispersion parameters reflecting angiogenic vascular changes. This work was aimed at identifying which vascular features are reflected by the estimated perfusion and dispersion parameters through comparison with acoustic angiography (AA). AA is a high-resolution technique that allows quantification of vascular morphology. Three-dimensional AA and 2-D DCE-US bolus acquisitions were used to monitor the growth of fibrosarcoma tumors in nine rats...
November 30, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Diogo Van Bavel, Roger de Moraes, Eduardo Tibirica
The incidence of cardiovascular diseases in vegetarian individuals is lower than that in the general population. Nevertheless, individuals who adhere to vegan diets have a higher prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia with eventual adverse effects on vascular reactivity. Creatine supplementation (CrS) reduces plasma homocysteine levels and enhances vascular reactivity in the microcirculation. Thus, we investigated the effects of CrS on systemic microcirculation and homocysteine blood levels in strict vegan subjects...
December 3, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Zhi Cai, Liping Teng, Juan Zhou, Yishu Yan, Yan Zhang, Guozhong Lv, Jinghua Chen
Numerous studies have proved that heparin, a sub-group of glycosaminoglycan, possesses great potential as anti-metastasis agent. However, the native strong anti-coagulant activity which causes serious side effects, such as bleeding, has limited its clinical applications for safety concern. To overcome this problem, we synthesized a panel of novel glycopolymers that mimic heparin structure with substantially reduced anti-coagulant activity by a simple grafted-on strategy. The influence of molecular weight & distribution, substituting degree and sulfonic density on cytotoxicity were determined by systematic MTT analysis to select the candidates with highly bio-compatibility...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
E V Askhadulin, T V Konchugova, S V Moskvin
AIM: The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of the combined treatment of the patients presenting with trophic ulcers associated with chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities of venous etiology with the application of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) at different wavelengths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included the patients presenting with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) (class C6 in accordance with the CEAP clinical classification)...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Mingxiang Chang, Meimei Wu, Hanmin Li
At present, the chemotherapy of advanced inoperable liver cancer is limited with serious side effects. Curcumin possesses multiple cancer preventive activities and low safety concerns. However, its poor solubility and instability in water pose significant pharmacological barriers to its clinical application. In this study, we presented a novel delivery system - the glycyrrhetinic acid modified curcumin-loaded cationic liposomes (GAMCLCL) and investigated its antitumor activities on HepG2 cells in vitro and in H22 tumor-bearing mice...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Josien Smits, Dimitar Tasev, Stine Andersen, Robert Szulcek, Liza Botros, Steffen Ringgaard, Asger Andersen, Anton Vonk-Noordegraaf, Pieter Koolwijk, Harm Jan Bogaard
In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), lung-angioproliferation leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, while simultaneous myocardial microvessel loss contributes to right ventricular (RV) failure. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) are highly proliferative, angiogenic cells that may contribute to either pulmonary vascular obstruction or to RV microvascular adaptation. We hypothesize ECFC phenotypes (outgrowth, proliferation, tube formation) are related to markers of disease severity in a prospective cohort-study of 33 PAH and 30 healthy subjects...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tiepei Zhu, Jinlian Ma, Jinyu Li, Xizhe Dai, Panpan Ye, Zhaoan Su, Dexing Kong, Juan Ye
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the degree of microvascular impairment in diabetic retinopathy using multifractal and lacunarity analyses and to compare the diagnostic ability between traditional Euclidean measures (fovea avascular zone area and vessel density) and fractal geometric features. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included a total of 143 eyes of 94 patients with different stages of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal microvasculature was imaged by projection removed optical coherence tomography angiography...
November 27, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Joobin Khadamy, Kaveh Abri Aghdam, Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani
Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a novel non-invasive imaging modality for 3-dimensional visualization of retinal and optic nerve capillary networks. In this article, a comprehensive review of relevant original articles in the PubMed database was performed using the search terms "diabetic retinopathy," "diabetic macular edema," "diabetes mellitus," and "optical coherence tomography angiography." OCTA was found to detect microvascular changes early in diabetes mellitus, even before they become clinically evident...
October 2018: Journal of Ophthalmic & Vision Research
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