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Mitochondria dynamic immune

Yi-Ning Qiu, Guo-Hui Wang, Fen Zhou, Jin-Jin Hao, Li Tian, Long-Fei Guan, Xiao-Kun Geng, Yu-Chuan Ding, He-Wen Wu, Ke-Zhong Zhang
BACKGROUND: The increasing epidemic of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a serious threat to human health. It induces the occurrence of liver fibrosis, but its molecular mechanism is not yet clear. The molecular mechanisms of PM2.5 inducing liver fibrosis were investigated in this study. METHODS: The cell viability of LX-2 cells and primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was detected using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay...
October 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Elianne P Bulthuis, Merel W Adjobo-Hermans, Peter H G M Willems, Werner J H Koopman
In addition to their classical role in cellular ATP production, mitochondria are of key relevance in various (patho)physiological mechanisms including 2nd messenger signaling, neuro-transduction, immune responses and death induction. Within cells mitochondria are motile and display temporal changes in internal and external structure ("mitochondrial dynamics"). During the last decade, substantial empirical and in silico evidence was presented demonstrating that mitochondrial dynamics impacts on mitochondrial function and vice versa...
September 28, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Lynnea R Waters, Fasih M Ahsan, Dane M Wolf, Orian Shirihai, Michael A Teitell
B lymphocytes provide adaptive immunity by generating antigen-specific antibodies and supporting the activation of T cells. Little is known about how global metabolism supports naive B cell activation to enable an effective immune response. By coupling RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data with glucose isotopomer tracing, we show that stimulated B cells increase programs for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and nucleotide biosynthesis, but not glycolysis. Isotopomer tracing uncovered increases in TCA cycle intermediates with almost no contribution from glucose...
July 27, 2018: iScience
Liqing Zhou, Dan Zhao, Biao Wu, Xiujun Sun, Zhihong Liu, Feng Zhao, Zhenming Lv, Aiguo Yang, Qing Zhao, Gaowei Zhang, Chunyan Ma
Scapharca broughtonii is one of the most important Arcidae aquaculture species in the Asia-Pacific region. We aimed to investigate the immune responses of hemocytes from ark shell S. broughtonii hemolymph against pathogens. Hemocyte ultrastructure and immunological activity in response to Vibrio anguillarum challenge were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Before ultrastructure observation, we used the API ZYM semi-quantitative kit to evaluate the levels of hydrolytic enzymes in the plasma and hemocytes following V...
September 13, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Anne Grünewald, Kishore R Kumar, Carolyn M Sue
New discoveries providing insights into mitochondrial bioenergetics, their dynamic interactions as well as their role in cellular homeostasis have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurodegenerative process of Parkinson's disease (PD). Respiratory chain impairment is a key feature in sporadic PD patients and there is growing evidence that links proteins encoded by PD-associated genes to disturbances in mitochondrial function. Against the backdrop of latest advances in the development of PD treatments that target mitochondria, we aim to give an overview of the literature published in the last three decades on the significance of mitochondria in the pathogenesis of PD...
September 13, 2018: Progress in Neurobiology
Sumiko Kiryu-Seo, Hiroshi Kiyama
Over the last decade, mitochondrial dynamics beyond function during axon regeneration/degeneration have received attention. Axons have an effective delivery system of mitochondria shuttling between soma and axonal terminals, due to their polarized structure. The proper axonal transport of mitochondria, coordinated with mitochondrial fission/fusion and clearance, is vital for supplying high power energy in injured axons. Many researchers have studied mitochondrial dynamics using in vitro cultured cells with significant progress reported...
September 1, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Jenn-Haung Lai, Shue-Fen Luo, Ling-Jun Ho
Mitochondria have been recognized as ancient bacteria that contain evolutionary endosymbionts. Metabolic pathways and inflammatory signals interact within mitochondria in response to different stresses, such as viral infections. In this commentary, we address several interesting questions, including (1) how do mitochondrial machineries participate in immune responses; (2) how do mitochondria mediate antiviral immunity; (3) what mechanisms involved in mitochondrial machinery, including the downregulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), disturbances of mitochondrial dynamics, and the induction of mitophagy and regulation of apoptosis, have been adopted by viruses to evade antiviral immunity; (4) what mechanisms involve the regulation of mitochondrial machineries in antiviral therapeutics; and (5) what are the potential challenges and perspectives in developing mitochondria-targeting antiviral treatments? This commentary provides a comprehensive review of the roles and mechanisms of mitochondrial machineries in immunity, viral infections and related antiviral therapeutics...
August 31, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Sergey Pustylnikov, Francesca Costabile, Silvia Beghi, Andrea Faccibene
An essential advantage during eukaryotic cell evolution was the acquisition of a network of mitochondria as a source of energy for cell metabolism and contrary to conventional wisdom, functional mitochondria are essential for the cancer cell. Multiple aspects of mitochondrial biology beyond bioenergetics support transformation including mitochondrial biogenesis, fission and fusion dynamics, cell death susceptibility, oxidative stress regulation, metabolism, and signaling. In cancer, the metabolism of cells is reprogrammed for energy generation from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis and impacts cancer mitochondrial function...
July 31, 2018: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Anusha Angajala, Sangbin Lim, Joshua B Phillips, Jin-Hwan Kim, Clayton Yates, Zongbing You, Ming Tan
Lack of immune system cells or impairment in differentiation of immune cells is the basis for many chronic diseases. Metabolic changes could be the root cause for this immune cell impairment. These changes could be a result of altered transcription, cytokine production from surrounding cells, and changes in metabolic pathways. Immunity and mitochondria are interlinked with each other. An important feature of mitochondria is it can regulate activation, differentiation, and survival of immune cells. In addition, it can also release signals such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) to regulate transcription of immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Wei Zhang, Keren Chen, Xueqing Zhang, Chunhe Guo, Yaosheng Chen, Xiaohong Liu
BACKGROUND: Recently, three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques have been used to detect viral invasion and the appearance of specialized structures established in virus-infected cells. These methods have had a positive impact in the field of virology and helped to further our knowledge of how viruses invade cells. Nearly all positive-strand RNA viruses propagate their viral genomes in part through intracellular membranes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus, accumulates viral RNA that forms replication complexes (RCs) in infected cells...
2018: PloS One
Eun-Jung Park, Hong-Soo Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Yoo-Jin Park, Son-Il Park, Jaerak Chang, Kyuhong Lee
Considering that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) is primarily absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs, herein, we used a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S cells). After 24 h exposure, CSC decreased dose-dependently cell viability accompanying an increase in intracellular ROS and NO level. CSC structurally or functionally damaged organelles including mitochondria, ER and lysosome and enhanced the expression of proteins related to apoptosis, ER stress and DNA damage accompanying an elevated proportion of annexin V-bound cells...
October 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Lisa Tilokani, Shun Nagashima, Vincent Paupe, Julien Prudent
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing coordinated cycles of fission and fusion, referred as 'mitochondrial dynamics', in order to maintain their shape, distribution and size. Their transient and rapid morphological adaptations are crucial for many cellular processes such as cell cycle, immunity, apoptosis and mitochondrial quality control. Mutations in the core machinery components and defects in mitochondrial dynamics have been associated with numerous human diseases. These dynamic transitions are mainly ensured by large GTPases belonging to the Dynamin family...
July 20, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
Abdellah Mansouri, Charles-Henry Gattolliat, Tarik Asselah
Mitochondria regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Ultrastructural mitochondrial lesions, altered mitochondrial dynamics, decreased activity of respiratory chain complexes, and impaired ability to synthesize adenosine triphosphate are observed in liver tissues from patients with alcohol-associated and non-associated liver diseases. Increased lipogenesis with decreased fatty acid β-oxidation leads to the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which, combined with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, contributes to insulin resistance in patients with steatohepatitis...
September 2018: Gastroenterology
Rahul Krishnan, K Jeena, Kurcheti Pani Prasad
Member of the dynamin family of large GTPases, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) dependent mitochondrial fission is an intricate process regulating both cellular and organ dynamics. Present study shows that NNV perturbs mitochondrial dynamics by promoting Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission, which attenuates MAVS mediated downstream signaling. NNV infected SISS cells revealed induction in Drp1 expression and subsequent translocation into mitochondria. The level of MAVS expression was up-regulated over a period of 24 hpi and declined with the progression of NNV infection at 48 and 72 hpi confirmed by western blot and mRNA transcript analysis...
September 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Chin-Wen Wei, Chia-Ying Lee, Ding-Jin Lee, Chang-Feng Chu, Ju-Chu Wang, Tien-Chiao Wang, Wann-Neng Jane, Zee-Fen Chang, Chuen-Miin Leu, Ivan L Dzhagalov, Chia-Lin Hsu
T cells are a versatile immune cell population responding to challenges by differentiation and proliferation followed by contraction and memory formation. Dynamic metabolic reprogramming is essential for T cells to meet the biosynthetic needs and the reutilization of biomolecules, processes that require active participation of metabolite transporters. Here, we show that equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3) is highly expressed in peripheral T cells and has a key role in maintaining T cell homeostasis by supporting the proliferation and survival of T cells...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
Ankit Shah, Cassandra I Mankus, Alison M Vermilya, Ferri Soheilian, Jeffrey D Clogston, Marina A Dobrovolskaia
Despite attractive properties for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications, the clinical use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) is limited to iron replacement in severely anemic patient populations. While several studies have reported about the immunotoxicity of IONPs, the mechanisms of this toxicity are mostly unknown. We conducted a mechanistic investigation using an injectable form of IONP, Feraheme®. In the cultures of primary human T cells, Feraheme induced miotochondrial oxidative stress and resulted in changes in mitochondrial dynamics, architecture, and membrane potential...
July 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Qing Yan
Studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) would provide better insights into the "whole mind-body system." Systems biology models of the complex adaptive systems (CASs), such as a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics," may be helpful for identifying systems-based biomarkers and targets for more effective prevention and treatment. The disturbances in the Yin-Yang dynamical balance may result in stress, inflammation, and various disorders including insomnia, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, skin disorders, and cancer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Youngjin Han, Untack Cho, Soochi Kim, In Sil Park, Jae Hyun Cho, Danny N Dhanasekaran, Yong Sang Song
Mitochondria, evolutionally acquired symbionts of eukaryotic cells, are essential cytoplasmic organelles. They are structurally dynamic organelles that continually go through fission and fusion processes in response to various stimuli. Tumour tissue is composed of not just cancer cells but also various cell types like fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem and immune cells. Mitochondrial dynamics of cancer cells has been shown to be significantly affected by features of tumour microenvironment such as hypoxia, inflammation and energy deprivation...
April 19, 2018: Free Radical Research
Stephen J Beebe, Brittany P Lassiter, Siqi Guo
Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS) eliminates mouse and rat tumor types in several different animal models. NPS induces protective, vaccine-like effects after ablation of orthotopic rat N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we review some general concepts of NPS in the context of studies with mouse metastatic 4T1 mammary cancer showing that the postablation, vaccine-like effect is initiated by dynamic, multilayered immune mechanisms. NPS eliminates primary 4T1 tumors by inducing immunogenic, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD)...
March 30, 2018: Cancers
Salvatore Rizza, Simone Cardaci, Costanza Montagna, Giuseppina Di Giacomo, Daniela De Zio, Matteo Bordi, Emiliano Maiani, Silvia Campello, Antonella Borreca, Annibale A Puca, Jonathan S Stamler, Francesco Cecconi, Giuseppe Filomeni
S -nitrosylation, a prototypic redox-based posttranslational modification, is frequently dysregulated in disease. S -nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulates protein S -nitrosylation by functioning as a protein denitrosylase. Deficiency of GSNOR results in tumorigenesis and disrupts cellular homeostasis broadly, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune function. Here, we demonstrate that GSNOR expression decreases in primary cells undergoing senescence, as well as in mice and humans during their life span...
April 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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