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Mitochondria dynamic immune

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30050539/diverse-roles-of-mitochondria-in-immune-responses-novel-insights-into-immuno-metabolism
#1
REVIEW
Anusha Angajala, Sangbin Lim, Joshua B Phillips, Jin-Hwan Kim, Clayton Yates, Zongbing You, Ming Tan
Lack of immune system cells or impairment in differentiation of immune cells is the basis for many chronic diseases. Metabolic changes could be the root cause for this immune cell impairment. These changes could be a result of altered transcription, cytokine production from surrounding cells, and changes in metabolic pathways. Immunity and mitochondria are interlinked with each other. An important feature of mitochondria is it can regulate activation, differentiation, and survival of immune cells. In addition, it can also release signals such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) to regulate transcription of immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040832/an-integrated-analysis-of-membrane-remodeling-during-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication-and-assembly
#2
Wei Zhang, Keren Chen, Xueqing Zhang, Chunhe Guo, Yaosheng Chen, Xiaohong Liu
BACKGROUND: Recently, three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques have been used to detect viral invasion and the appearance of specialized structures established in virus-infected cells. These methods have had a positive impact in the field of virology and helped to further our knowledge of how viruses invade cells. Nearly all positive-strand RNA viruses propagate their viral genomes in part through intracellular membranes. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), an Arterivirus, accumulates viral RNA that forms replication complexes (RCs) in infected cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031032/cigarette-smoke-condensate-may-disturb-immune-function-with-apoptotic-cell-death-by-impairing-function-of-organelles-in-alveolar-macrophages
#3
Eun-Jung Park, Hong-Soo Lee, Sang Jin Lee, Yoo-Jin Park, Son-Il Park, Jaerak Chang, Kyuhong Lee
Considering that cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) is primarily absorbed through the alveoli in the lungs, herein, we used a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line (MH-S cells). After 24 h exposure, CSC decreased dose-dependently cell viability accompanying an increase in intracellular ROS and NO level. CSC structurally or functionally damaged organelles including mitochondria, ER and lysosome and enhanced the expression of proteins related to apoptosis, ER stress and DNA damage accompanying an elevated proportion of annexin V-bound cells...
July 18, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030364/mitochondrial-dynamics-overview-of-molecular-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Lisa Tilokani, Shun Nagashima, Vincent Paupe, Julien Prudent
Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles undergoing coordinated cycles of fission and fusion, referred as 'mitochondrial dynamics', in order to maintain their shape, distribution and size. Their transient and rapid morphological adaptations are crucial for many cellular processes such as cell cycle, immunity, apoptosis and mitochondrial quality control. Mutations in the core machinery components and defects in mitochondrial dynamics have been associated with numerous human diseases. These dynamic transitions are mainly ensured by large GTPases belonging to the Dynamin family...
July 20, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30012333/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-signaling-in-chronic-liver-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Abdellah Mansouri, Charles-Henry Gattolliat, Tarik Asselah
Mitochondria regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. Ultrastructural mitochondrial lesions, altered mitochondrial dynamics, decreased activity of respiratory chain complexes, and impaired ability to synthesize adenosine triphosphate are observed in liver tissues from patients with alcohol-associated and non-associated liver diseases. Increased lipogenesis with decreased fatty acid β-oxidation leads to the accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which, combined with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, contributes to insulin resistance in patients with steatohepatitis...
August 1, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981473/preliminary-investigations-on-the-role-of-drp-1-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-in-attenuating-rlr-downstream-signaling-during-nervous-necrosis-virus-infection
#6
Rahul Krishnan, K Jeena, Kurcheti Pani Prasad
Member of the dynamin family of large GTPases, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) dependent mitochondrial fission is an intricate process regulating both cellular and organ dynamics. Present study shows that NNV perturbs mitochondrial dynamics by promoting Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fission, which attenuates MAVS mediated downstream signaling. NNV infected SISS cells revealed induction in Drp1 expression and subsequent translocation into mitochondria. The level of MAVS expression was up-regulated over a period of 24 hpi and declined with the progression of NNV infection at 48 and 72 hpi confirmed by western blot and mRNA transcript analysis...
September 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791845/equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-3-regulates-t-cell-homeostasis-by-coordinating-lysosomal-function-with-nucleoside-availability
#7
Chin-Wen Wei, Chia-Ying Lee, Ding-Jin Lee, Chang-Feng Chu, Ju-Chu Wang, Tien-Chiao Wang, Wann-Neng Jane, Zee-Fen Chang, Chuen-Miin Leu, Ivan L Dzhagalov, Chia-Lin Hsu
T cells are a versatile immune cell population responding to challenges by differentiation and proliferation followed by contraction and memory formation. Dynamic metabolic reprogramming is essential for T cells to meet the biosynthetic needs and the reutilization of biomolecules, processes that require active participation of metabolite transporters. Here, we show that equilibrative nucleoside transporter 3 (ENT3) is highly expressed in peripheral T cells and has a key role in maintaining T cell homeostasis by supporting the proliferation and survival of T cells...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715466/feraheme%C3%A2-suppresses-immune-function-of-human-t-lymphocytes-through-mitochondrial-damage-and-mitoros-production
#8
Ankit Shah, Cassandra I Mankus, Alison M Vermilya, Ferri Soheilian, Jeffrey D Clogston, Marina A Dobrovolskaia
Despite attractive properties for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications, the clinical use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) is limited to iron replacement in severely anemic patient populations. While several studies have reported about the immunotoxicity of IONPs, the mechanisms of this toxicity are mostly unknown. We conducted a mechanistic investigation using an injectable form of IONP, Feraheme®. In the cultures of primary human T cells, Feraheme induced miotochondrial oxidative stress and resulted in changes in mitochondrial dynamics, architecture, and membrane potential...
July 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705839/stress-and-systemic-inflammation-yin-yang-dynamics-in-health-and-diseases
#9
Qing Yan
Studies in psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) would provide better insights into the "whole mind-body system." Systems biology models of the complex adaptive systems (CASs), such as a conceptual framework of "Yin-Yang dynamics," may be helpful for identifying systems-based biomarkers and targets for more effective prevention and treatment. The disturbances in the Yin-Yang dynamical balance may result in stress, inflammation, and various disorders including insomnia, Alzheimer's disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, skin disorders, and cancer...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607684/tumour-microenvironment-on-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-chemoresistance-in-cancer
#10
Youngjin Han, Untack Cho, Soochi Kim, In Sil Park, Jae Hyun Cho, Danny N Dhanasekaran, Yong Sang Song
Mitochondria, evolutionally acquired symbionts of eukaryotic cells, are essential cytoplasmic organelles. They are structurally dynamic organelles that continually go through fission and fusion processes in response to various stimuli. Tumour tissue is composed of not just cancer cells but also various cell types like fibroblasts, mesenchymal stem and immune cells. Mitochondrial dynamics of cancer cells has been shown to be significantly affected by features of tumour microenvironment such as hypoxia, inflammation and energy deprivation...
April 19, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601471/nanopulse-stimulation-nps-induces-tumor-ablation-and-immunity-in-orthotopic-4t1-mouse-breast-cancer-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Stephen J Beebe, Brittany P Lassiter, Siqi Guo
Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS) eliminates mouse and rat tumor types in several different animal models. NPS induces protective, vaccine-like effects after ablation of orthotopic rat N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we review some general concepts of NPS in the context of studies with mouse metastatic 4T1 mammary cancer showing that the postablation, vaccine-like effect is initiated by dynamic, multilayered immune mechanisms. NPS eliminates primary 4T1 tumors by inducing immunogenic, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD)...
March 30, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581312/-s-nitrosylation-drives-cell-senescence-and-aging-in-mammals-by-controlling-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-mitophagy
#12
Salvatore Rizza, Simone Cardaci, Costanza Montagna, Giuseppina Di Giacomo, Daniela De Zio, Matteo Bordi, Emiliano Maiani, Silvia Campello, Antonella Borreca, Annibale A Puca, Jonathan S Stamler, Francesco Cecconi, Giuseppe Filomeni
S -nitrosylation, a prototypic redox-based posttranslational modification, is frequently dysregulated in disease. S -nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulates protein S -nitrosylation by functioning as a protein denitrosylase. Deficiency of GSNOR results in tumorigenesis and disrupts cellular homeostasis broadly, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and immune function. Here, we demonstrate that GSNOR expression decreases in primary cells undergoing senescence, as well as in mice and humans during their life span...
April 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491398/the-role-of-the-mitochondria-and-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-contact-sites-in-the-development-of-the-immune-responses
#13
REVIEW
Denis Martinvalet
Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites (MERCs) are dynamic modules enriched in subset of lipids and specialized proteins that determine their structure and functions. The MERCs regulate lipid transfer, autophagosome formation, mitochondrial fission, Ca2+ homeostasis and apoptosis. Since these functions are essential for cell biology, it is therefore not surprising that MERCs also play a critical role in organ physiology among which the immune system stands by its critical host defense function...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438347/mitochondrial-dynamics-in-basal-and-stressful-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Naima Zemirli, Etienne Morel, Diana Molino
The historical role of mitochondria resides in converting the energy released during the oxidation of macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) into adenosine tri-phosphate, a major form of chemically stored energy which sustains cell growth and homeostasis. Beyond this role in bioenergetics regulation, mitochondria play a role in several other cellular processes including lipid metabolism, cellular calcium homeostasis, autophagy and immune responses. Furthermore, mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles: as all other cellular endomembranes, they are continuously moving along cytoskeleton, and, most importantly, they constantly interact one with each other by membrane tethering, fusion and fission...
February 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351723/mitochondrial-uncoupling-proteins-subtle-regulators-of-cellular-redox-signaling
#15
Petr Ježek, Blanka Holendová, Keith D Garlid, Martin Jabůrek
SIGNIFICANCE: Mitochondria are the energetic, metabolic, redox, and information signaling centers of the cell. Substrate pressure, mitochondrial network dynamics, and cristae morphology state are integrated by the protonmotive force Δp or its potential component, ΔΨ, which are attenuated by proton backflux into the matrix, termed uncoupling. The mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP1-5) play an eminent role in the regulation of each of the mentioned aspects, being involved in numerous physiological events including redox signaling...
September 1, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#16
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271525/mitoimmunity-when-mitochondria-dictates-macrophage-function
#17
REVIEW
Felipe Corrêa-da-Silva, Jéssica A S Pereira, Cristhiane F de Aguiar, Pedro M M de Moraes-Vieira
In the past decade, several reports have appointed the importance of mitochondria in the immune response. Our understanding of mitochondria evolved from a simple supplier of energy into a platform necessary for immunorregulation. Proinflammatory responses are associated with enhanced glycolytic activity and breakdown of the TCA cycle. Mitochondrial reactive species of oxygen (mROS) are key regulators of classically activated macrophages, with substantial impact in the anti-microbicidal activity and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of macrophages...
June 2018: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246869/the-essential-role-of-mitochondrial-dynamics-in-antiviral-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Seong-Jun Kim, Dae-Gyun Ahn, Gulam H Syed, Aleem Siddiqui
Viruses alter cellular physiology and function to establish cellular environment conducive for viral proliferation. Viral immune evasion is an essential aspect of viral persistence and proliferation. The multifaceted mitochondria play a central role in many cellular events such as metabolism, bioenergetics, cell death, and innate immune signaling. Recent findings accentuate that viruses regulate mitochondrial function and dynamics to facilitate viral proliferation. In this review, we will discuss how viruses exploit mitochondrial dynamics to modulate mitochondria-mediated antiviral innate immune response during infection...
July 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180626/mitochondrial-dynamics-controls-anti-tumour-innate-immunity-by-regulating-chip-irf1-axis-stability
#19
Zhengjun Gao, Yiyuan Li, Fei Wang, Tao Huang, Keqi Fan, Yu Zhang, Jiangyan Zhong, Qian Cao, Tong Chao, Junling Jia, Shuo Yang, Long Zhang, Yichuan Xiao, Ji-Yong Zhou, Xin-Hua Feng, Jin Jin
Macrophages, dendritic cells and other innate immune cells are involved in inflammation and host defense against infection. Metabolic shifts in mitochondrial dynamics may be involved in Toll-like receptor agonist-mediated inflammatory responses and immune cell polarization. However, whether the mitochondrial morphology in myeloid immune cells affects anti-tumor immunity is unclear. Here we show that FAM73b, a mitochondrial outer membrane protein, has a pivotal function in Toll-like receptor-regulated mitochondrial morphology switching from fusion to fission...
November 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050288/the-protective-effects-of-polysaccharide-of-atractylodes-macrocephala-koidz-pamk-on-the-chicken-spleen-under-heat-stress-via-antagonizing-apoptosis-and-restoring-the-immune-function
#20
Danning Xu, Bingxin Li, Nan Cao, Wanyan Li, Yunbo Tian, Yunmao Huang
Heat stress can cause immune organ dysfunction and apoptosis. Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz may have protective effects on immune organs. In this study, we established chicken models of Polysaccharide of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz-heat stress interaction and detected the oxidative index, activities of mitochondrial complexes and ATPases as well as the ultrastructure in chicken spleens. Expression levels of cytokines, mitochondrial dynamics- and apoptosis-related genes were also measured...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
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