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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791464/the-influence-of-increased-distal-loading-on-metabolic-cost-efficiency-and-kinematics-of-roller-ski-skating
#1
Conor M Bolger, Veronica Bessone, Peter Federolf, Gertjan Ettema, Øyvind Sandbakk
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of increased loading of the roller ski on metabolic cost, gross efficiency, and kinematics of roller ski skating in steep and moderate terrain, while employing two incline-specific techniques. Ten nationally ranked male cross-country skiers were subjected to four 7-minute submaximal intervals, with 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 kg added beneath the roller-ski in a randomized order. This was done on two separate days, with the G2 skating at 12% incline and 7 km/h speed and G3 skating at 5% incline and 14 km/h speed, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781935/balance-training-reduces-postural-sway-and-improves-sport-specific-performance-in-visually-impaired-cross-country-skiers
#2
Alexander Kurz, Benedikt Lauber, Steffen Franke, Christian Leukel
Kurz, A, Lauber, B, Franke, S, and Leukel, C. Balance training reduces postural sway and improves sport-specific performance in visually impaired cross-country skiers. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Balance training is highly effective in reducing sport injuries and causes improvements in postural stability and rapid force production. So far, the positive effects of balance training have been described for healthy athletes. In the present experiments, we questioned whether athletes with disabilities of the visual system can also benefit from balance training...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760574/seasonal-variations-in-body-composition-maximal-oxygen-uptake-and-gas-exchange-threshold-in-cross-country-skiers
#3
Metin Polat, Selcen Korkmaz Eryılmaz, Sami Aydoğan
Introduction: In order to ensure that athletes achieve their highest performance levels during competitive seasons, monitoring their long-term performance data is crucial for understanding the impact of ongoing training programs and evaluating training strategies. The present study was thus designed to investigate the variations in body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), and gas exchange threshold values of cross-country skiers across training phases throughout a season. Materials and methods: In total, 15 athletes who participate in international cross-country ski competitions voluntarily took part in this study...
2018: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721101/the-effect-of-aging-on-pacing-strategies-of-cross-country-skiers-and-the-role-of-performance-level
#4
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Elias Villiger, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Background: The participation of master cross-country (XC) skiers in training and competition has increased during the last decades; however, little is known yet about whether these athletes differ from their younger counterparts in aspects of performance such as pacing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the combined effect of age and performance (race time) on pacing in cross-country (XC) skiing. We analyzed all finishers ( n  = 79,722) in 'Vasaloppet' from 2012 to 2017, the largest cross-country skiing race in the world, classified according to their race time into 10 groups: 3-4 h, 4-5 h, ...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651902/shoulder-and-lower-back-joint-reaction-forces-in-seated-double-poling
#5
Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind, L Joakim Holmberg
Overuse injuries in the shoulders and lower back are hypothesized to be common in cross-country sit-skiing. Athletes with reduced trunk muscle control mainly sits with their knees higher than hips (KH). To reduce spinal flexion, a position with the knees below the hips (KL) was enabled for these athletes using a frontal trunk support. The aim of the study was to compare the shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) and L4-L5 joint reactions between the sitting positions KL and KH. Five able-bodied female athletes performed submaximal and maximal exercise tests in the sitting positions KL and KH on a ski-ergometer...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649898/the-minne-loppet-motivation-study-an-intervention-to-increase-motivation-for-outdoor-winter-physical-activity-in-ethnically-and-racially-diverse-elementary-schools
#6
Jonathan M Miller, Julian Wolfson, Melissa N Laska, Toben F Nelson, Mark A Pereira
PURPOSE: To test the effectiveness of an intervention to increase motivation for physical activity in racially diverse third- through fifth-grade students. DESIGN: Natural experiment. SETTING: Elementary schools in Minneapolis, Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred ninety-one students in 18 Minne-Loppet Ski Program classes and 210 students in 12 control classrooms from the same schools. INTERVENTION: The Minne-Loppet Ski Program, an 8-week curriculum in elementary schools that teaches healthy physical activity behaviors through cross-country skiing...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628417/alaska-mountain-wilderness-ski-classic-alterations-in-caloric-expenditure-and-body-composition
#7
Michelle M Johannsen, Kenneth J Shin, Karolina Priebe, Robert H Coker
INTRODUCTION: The Alaska Mountain Wilderness Ski Classic is a self-supported ultramarathon cross-country skiing event that traverses one of the mountain ranges of Alaska each winter. Unique aspects of this event challenge athletes with a significant amount of physical and mental stress while in the chronically cold conditions of the Arctic. Assessment of energy requirements or body composition has never been performed during this event. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of the 2016 Alaska Mountain Wilderness Ski Classic on caloric expenditure and body composition...
April 5, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570600/the-age-of-peak-marathon-performance-in-cross-country-skiing-the-engadin-ski-marathon
#8
Beat Knechtle, Pantelis T Nikolaidis
Knechtle, B and Nikolaidis, PT. The age of peak marathon performance in cross-country skiing-the "Engadin Ski Marathon." J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1131-1136, 2018-The age of the best endurance performance has been well investigated in flat city running marathons. However, we have no knowledge about the age of peak marathon performance in cross-country skiing, which would be of great practical value for athletes and coaches. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the age of peak marathon performance in cross-country skiing...
April 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535586/impact-of-incline-sex-and-level-of-performance-on-kinematics-during-a-distance-race-in-classical-cross-country-skiing
#9
Thomas Stöggl, Boye Welde, Matej Supej, Chiara Zoppirolli, Carsten G Rolland, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Barbara Pellegrini
Here, female and male elite cross-country (XC) skiers were compared on varying terrain during an official 10-km (women) and 15-km (men) Norwegian championship race. On the basis of race performance, 82 skiers were classified as fast (FS) (20 women, 20 men) or slower (SS) (21, 21) skiers. All were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°), uphill (7.1°) and steep uphill (11°) terrain during the race at a distance of 0.8, 1.2, 2.1 and 7.1 km from the start, respectively. All skiers employed exclusively double-poling (DP) on the flat section and, except for the male winner, exclusively diagonal stride (DIA) on the uphill sections...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472871/a-comparison-between-different-methods-of-estimating-anaerobic-energy-production
#10
Erik P Andersson, Kerry McGawley
Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise. Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the [Formula: see text]O2 -speed regression relationship was used to estimate the [Formula: see text]O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline [Formula: see text]O2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412695/high-injury-burden-in-elite-adolescent-athletes-a-52-week-prospective-study
#11
Philip von Rosen, Annette Heijne, Anna Frohm, Cecilia Fridén, Anders Kottorp
CONTEXT:   Our understanding of the injury burden in elite adolescent athletes in most sports is limited or unknown because of the lack of prospective, long-term injury studies. OBJECTIVE:   To describe injury patterns in terms of type, location, prevalence and incidence, recurrence, and severity grade; time to first injury; and prevalence of illness in elite adolescent athletes and to compare differences in injury data by sex and sport type. DESIGN:   Cohort study...
March 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345960/pacing-strategies-by-age-in-marathon-cross-country-skiing
#12
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
OBJECTIVES: Pacing strategies have mainly been investigated for runners, but little is known for cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in pacing strategies do exist between younger and older cross-country skiers competing in the 42 km 'Engadin Ski Marathon'. METHODS: Pacing was studied in 105,565 cross-country skiers (classified in 5-year age groups) competing between 1998 and 2016 in this race by examining changes of mean section velocity in 10 km (Change A, i...
January 24, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339981/using-bilateral-functional-and-anthropometric-tests-to-define-symmetry-in-cross-country-skiers
#13
Glenn Björklund, Marie Alricsson, Ulla Svantesson
The aim of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of anthropometry and muscle function in cross-country skiers and their association to vertical jumping power. Twenty cross-country skiers were recruited (21.7 ± 3.8 yrs, 180.6 ± 7.6 cm, 73.2 ± 7.6 kg). Anthropometric data was obtained using an iDXA scan. VO2max was determined using the diagonal stride technique on a ski treadmill. Bilateral functional tests for the upper and lower body were the handgrip and standing heel-rise tests. Vertical jump height and power were assessed with a counter movement jump...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283421/automatic-classification-of-sub-techniques-in-classical-cross-country-skiing-using-a-machine-learning-algorithm-on-micro-sensor-data
#14
Ole Marius Hoel Rindal, Trine M Seeberg, Johannes Tjønnås, Pål Haugnes, Øyvind Sandbakk
The automatic classification of sub-techniques in classical cross-country skiing provides unique possibilities for analyzing the biomechanical aspects of outdoor skiing. This is currently possible due to the miniaturization and flexibility of wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) that allow researchers to bring the laboratory to the field. In this study, we aimed to optimize the accuracy of the automatic classification of classical cross-country skiing sub-techniques by using two IMUs attached to the skier's arm and chest together with a machine learning algorithm...
December 28, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226382/substantial-injuries-influence-ranking-position-in-young-elite-athletes-of-athletics-cross-country-skiing-and-orienteering
#15
P von Rosen, A Heijne
The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. One hundred and sixty-two male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n = 59), cross-country skiing (n = 66), and orienteering (n = 37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected...
April 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199781/velocity-distribution-of-women-s-30-km-cross-country-skiing-during-olympic-games-from-2002-2014
#16
Wlodzimierz S Erdmann, Dorota Dancewicz-Nosko, Vasilios Giovanis
BACKGROUND: Within several investigated endurance sport disciplines the distribution of load of the best competitors has a manner of evenly or slightly rising velocity values. Unfortunately many other competitors have usually diminishing values or when they are very poor they have evenly values. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of velocity within 30-km cross-country female skiers. METHODS: Cross-country skiing runs were investigated of Olympic Games 2002-2014 (Salt Lake City, Turin, Vancouver, Sochi)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196845/pole-lengths-influence-o-2-cost-during-double-poling-in-highly-trained-cross-country-skiers
#17
Camilla Høivik Carlsen, Bjarne Rud, Håvard Myklebust, Thomas Losnegard
PURPOSE: In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. METHODS: Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1...
February 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181259/injury-patterns-in-adolescent-elite-endurance-athletes-participating-in-running-orienteering-and-cross-country-skiing
#18
Philip von Rosen, Frida Floström, Anna Frohm, Annette Heijne
Background: Prospective injury registration studies, monitoring adolescent elite athletes, are sparse in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing, yet essential for developing prevention programs. Purpose: The aims of this study were to describe the injury prevalence/incidence, severity grade, injury location, risk factors and the prevalence of illness in running (RU), orienteering (OR) and cross-country skiing athletes (CR). Study Design: Prospective cohort study...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141496/power-and-pacing-calculations-based-on-real-time-locating-data-from-a-cross-country-skiing-sprint-race
#19
Mikael Swarén, Anders Eriksson
Pacing strategies in cross-country skiing have been investigated in several studies. However, none of the previous studies have been verified by collected skiing data giving the skiing velocities along a measured track. These can be used to calculate the propulsive power output. Collected real-time positioning data from a cross-country sprint skiing race were used to estimate the propulsive power by applying a power balance model. Analyses were made for the time-trial and the final for one female and one male skier...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117228/the-pacing-strategy-and-technique-of-male-cross-country-skiers-with-different-levels-of-performance-during-a-15-km-classical-race
#20
Boye Welde, Thomas L Stöggl, Gunnar E Mathisen, Matej Supej, Chiara Zoppirolli, Andreas K Winther, Barbara Pellegrini, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°) and uphill sections (7.1°) of the first and final laps...
2017: PloS One
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