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Cross country ski

Thomas Stöggl, Boye Welde, Matej Supej, Chiara Zoppirolli, Carsten G Rolland, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Barbara Pellegrini
Here, female and male elite cross-country (XC) skiers were compared on varying terrain during an official 10-km (women) and 15-km (men) Norwegian championship race. On the basis of race performance, 82 skiers were classified as fast (FS) (20 women, 20 men) or slower (SS) (21, 21) skiers. All were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°), uphill (7.1°) and steep uphill (11°) terrain during the race at a distance of 0.8, 1.2, 2.1 and 7.1 km from the start, respectively. All skiers employed exclusively double-poling (DP) on the flat section and, except for the male winner, exclusively diagonal stride (DIA) on the uphill sections...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Erik P Andersson, Kerry McGawley
Purpose: The present study aimed to compare four methods of estimating anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise. Methods: Twenty-one junior cross-country skiers competing at a national and/or international level were tested on a treadmill during uphill (7°) diagonal-stride (DS) roller-skiing. After a 4-minute warm-up, a 4 × 4-min continuous submaximal protocol was performed followed by a 600-m time trial (TT). For the maximal accumulated O2 deficit (MAOD) method the [Formula: see text]O2 -speed regression relationship was used to estimate the [Formula: see text]O2 demand during the TT, either including (4+Y, method 1) or excluding (4-Y, method 2) a fixed Y-intercept for baseline [Formula: see text]O2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Philip von Rosen, Annette Heijne, Anna Frohm, Cecilia Friden, Anders Kottorp
CONTEXT:   Our understanding of the injury burden in elite adolescent athletes in most sports is limited or unknown because of the lack of prospective, long-term injury studies. OBJECTIVE:   To describe injury patterns in terms of type, location, prevalence and incidence, recurrence, and severity grade; time to first injury; and prevalence of illness in elite adolescent athletes and to compare differences in injury data by sex and sport type. DESIGN:   Cohort study...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
OBJECTIVES: Pacing strategies have mainly been investigated for runners, but little is known for cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether differences in pacing strategies do exist between younger and older cross-country skiers competing in the 42km 'Engadin Ski Marathon'. METHODS: Pacing was studied in 105,565 cross-country skiers (classified in 5-year age groups) competing between 1998 and 2016 in this race by examining changes of mean section velocity in 10km (Change A, i...
January 18, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Glenn Björklund, Marie Alricsson, Ulla Svantesson
The aim of this study was to evaluate the symmetry of anthropometry and muscle function in cross-country skiers and their association to vertical jumping power. Twenty cross-country skiers were recruited (21.7 ± 3.8 yrs, 180.6 ± 7.6 cm, 73.2 ± 7.6 kg). Anthropometric data was obtained using an iDXA scan. VO2max was determined using the diagonal stride technique on a ski treadmill. Bilateral functional tests for the upper and lower body were the handgrip and standing heel-rise tests. Vertical jump height and power were assessed with a counter movement jump...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
Ole Marius Hoel Rindal, Trine M Seeberg, Johannes Tjønnås, Pål Haugnes, Øyvind Sandbakk
The automatic classification of sub-techniques in classical cross-country skiing provides unique possibilities for analyzing the biomechanical aspects of outdoor skiing. This is currently possible due to the miniaturization and flexibility of wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) that allow researchers to bring the laboratory to the field. In this study, we aimed to optimize the accuracy of the automatic classification of classical cross-country skiing sub-techniques by using two IMUs attached to the skier's arm and chest together with a machine learning algorithm...
December 28, 2017: Sensors
P von Rosen, A Heijne
The relationship between injury and performance in young athletes is scarcely studied. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the association between injury prevalence and ranking position among adolescent elite athletes. One hundred and sixty-two male and female adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), competing in athletics (n = 59), cross-country skiing (n = 66), and orienteering (n = 37), were monitored weekly over 22-47 weeks using a web-based injury questionnaire. Ranking lists were collected...
April 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Wlodzimierz S Erdmann, Dorota Dancewicz-Nosko, Vasilios Giovanis
BACKGROUND: Within several investigated endurance sport disciplines the distribution of load of the best competitors has a manner of evenly or slightly rising velocity values. Unfortunately many other competitors have usually diminishing values or when they are very poor they have evenly values. The aim of this study was to investigate distribution of velocity within 30-km cross-country female skiers. METHODS: Cross-country skiing runs were investigated of Olympic Games 2002-2014 (Salt Lake City, Turin, Vancouver, Sochi)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Camilla Høivik Carlsen, Bjarne Rud, Håvard Myklebust, Thomas Losnegard
PURPOSE: In elite cross-country skiing, double poling is used in different terrain. This study compared O2 -cost and kinematics during double poling with four different pole lengths [self-selected (SS), SS - 5 cm, SS + 5 cm, SS + 10 cm] at Low versus Moderate incline. METHODS: Thirteen highly trained male cross-country skiers (mean ± SD 23 ± 3 years; 182 ± 4 cm; 77 ± 6 kg) completed eight submaximal trials with roller skis on a treadmill at two conditions: "Low incline" (1...
February 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Philip von Rosen, Frida Floström, Anna Frohm, Annette Heijne
Background: Prospective injury registration studies, monitoring adolescent elite athletes, are sparse in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing, yet essential for developing prevention programs. Purpose: The aims of this study were to describe the injury prevalence/incidence, severity grade, injury location, risk factors and the prevalence of illness in running (RU), orienteering (OR) and cross-country skiing athletes (CR). Study Design: Prospective cohort study...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Mikael Swarén, Anders Eriksson
Pacing strategies in cross-country skiing have been investigated in several studies. However, none of the previous studies have been verified by collected skiing data giving the skiing velocities along a measured track. These can be used to calculate the propulsive power output. Collected real-time positioning data from a cross-country sprint skiing race were used to estimate the propulsive power by applying a power balance model. Analyses were made for the time-trial and the final for one female and one male skier...
November 15, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
Boye Welde, Thomas L Stöggl, Gunnar E Mathisen, Matej Supej, Chiara Zoppirolli, Andreas K Winther, Barbara Pellegrini, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In this study the pacing strategy, cycle characteristics and choice of technique of elite male cross-country (XC) skiers during a three-lap, 15-km classical race with interval start were measured. During the Norwegian Championships in 2016, fast (n = 18, age: 26±4 yr; height: 182±4 cm; body mass: 78±3 kg (means±SD)) and slow skiers (n = 18, age: 22±2 yr; height: 183±5 cm; body mass: 78±6 kg) were video recorded on flat (0°), intermediate (3.5°) and uphill sections (7.1°) of the first and final laps...
2017: PloS One
S Øfsteng, Ø Sandbakk, M van Beekvelt, D Hammarström, R Kristoffersen, J Hansen, G Paulsen, B R Rønnestad
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training with or without vibration to cross-country (XC) skiers' endurance training on double poling (DP) performance, physiological and kinematic adaptations. Twenty-one well-trained male XC skiers combined endurance- and upper-body strength-training three times per week, either with (n=11) or without (n=10) superimposed vibrations for 8 weeks, whereas eight skiers performed endurance training only (CON). Testing included 1RM in upper-body exercises, work economy, neural activation, oxygen saturation in muscle and DP kinematics during a prolonged submaximal DP roller ski test which was directly followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test...
October 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Little is known for pacing profiles in age groups cross-country skiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sex, age and calendar year on pacing strategies in the largest ski marathon in the world. All finishers (n = 66,435) in ‘Vasaloppet’ from 2012 to 2016 were examined for 12 different age groups (G). There was an association between age group and sex (χ² = 1091.1, P < 0.001; Cramer’s V = 0.13, P < 0.001), where the men-to-women ratio in each age group ranged from 3.29 (in G₂₀) to 64...
October 31, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Jari A Laukkanen, Tanjaniina Laukkanen, Setor K Kunutsor
OBJECTIVES: The prospective relationship between leisure time cross-country skiing and any fatal events is uncertain. We aimed to assess the associations of leisure time cross-country skiing habits with the risk of all-cause mortality in a general population. METHODS: A 12-month physical activity questionnaire was used at baseline to assess the frequency, average duration, and intensity of cross-country skiing in a prospective population-based cohort of 2,087 middle-aged men from Eastern Finland...
September 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Roland Stöggl, Erich Müller, Thomas Stöggl
The aims of the current study were to analyze whether specific roller skiing tests and cycle length are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance, and to evaluate sex specific differences by applying non-invasive diagnostics. Forty-nine young XC skiers (33 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 yrs and 16 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 yrs) performed roller skiing tests consisting of both shorter (50 m) and longer durations (575 m). Test results were correlated with on snow XC skiing performance (PXC) based on 3 skating and 3 classical distance competitions (3 to 6 km)...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Jan Heller, Beat Knechtle
It is well known that athletes from a specific region or country are dominating certain sports disciplines such as marathon running or Ironman triathlon; however, little relevant information exists on cross-country skiing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the aspect of region and nationality in one of the largest cross-country skiing marathons in Europe, the "Engadin Ski Marathon." All athletes (n = 197,125) who finished the "Engadin Ski Marathon" between 1998 and 2016 were considered...
2017: BioMed Research International
J Philip Karl, Lee M Margolis, Nancy E Murphy, Christopher T Carrigan, John W Castellani, Elisabeth H Madslien, Hilde-Kristin Teien, Svein Martini, Scott J Montain, Stefan M Pasiakos
Military training studies provide unique insight into metabolic responses to extreme physiologic stress induced by multiple stressor environments, and the impacts of nutrition in mediating these responses. Advances in metabolomics have provided new approaches for extending current understanding of factors modulating dynamic metabolic responses in these environments. In this study, whole-body metabolic responses to strenuous military training were explored in relation to energy balance and macronutrient intake by performing nontargeted global metabolite profiling on plasma collected from 25 male soldiers before and after completing a 4-day, 51-km cross-country ski march that produced high total daily energy expenditures (25...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
M Lund Ohlsson, M S Laaksonen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Gertjan Ettema, Espen Kveli, Magne Øksnes, Øyvind Sandbakk
Cross-country skiers change technique depending on terrain (incline) and effort (work rate; speed at a particular incline or resistance). The literature is not unequivocal about the influence of incline or speed on the choice of technique, i.e., which of these act as a 'control parameter'. Identifying task related control parameters for spontaneous technique shifts assists elucidating which mechanisms are active for triggering technique transitions. The aim of this study was to investigate whether speed or incline acted as such control parameter for technique shifts during classic style roller skiing...
August 12, 2017: Human Movement Science
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