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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915067/the-feasibility-and-effects-of-acupuncture-in-an-adolescent-nordic-ski-population
#1
Kristin L Garlanger, William H Fredericks, Alexander Do, Brent A Bauer, Edward R Laskowski
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the use and effectiveness of acupuncture in adults post exercise have been well documented. Fewer studies involving acupuncture have been completed in the adolescent athlete population. To our knowledge there are no published studies that investigate the use of acupuncture in adolescent athletes within their field of play. OBJECTIVE: To primarily assess the feasibility of performing acupuncture in adolescent Nordic skiers within their athletic environment, and secondarily to measure the effect of acupuncture on muscle soreness and sense of well-being...
November 30, 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889683/biomechanics-of-simulated-versus-natural-cross-country-sit-skiing
#2
V Rosso, L Gastaldi, W Rapp, S Lindinger, Y Vanlandewijck, V Linnamo
The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of cross-country sit-skiing in simulated and natural skiing. Thirteen international level athletes participated in a ski ergometer test (simulated conditions) and a test on snow in a ski-tunnel (natural conditions) using their personal sit-ski. Tests in both conditions were performed at individual maximal speed. When comparing the two conditions the main results were: (1) maximal speed in simulated conditions was lower (p<0.05) but correlated well with the natural condition (r=0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877070/aerobic-power-and-lean-mass-are-indicators-of-competitive-sprint-performance-among-elite-female-cross-country-skiers
#3
Tomas Carlsson, Michail Tonkonogi, Magnus Carlsson
The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation's ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine [Formula: see text] (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry...
2016: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776250/atrial-fibrillation-in-highly-trained-endurance-athletes-description-of-a-syndrome
#4
Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Carme Perez-Quilis, Giuseppe Lippi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Roman Leischik, Herbert Löllgen, Enrique Serrano-Ostáriz, Alejandro Lucia
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia, the risk of which typically increases with age. This condition is commonly associated with major cardiovascular diseases and structural heart damage, while it is rarely observed in healthy young people. However, increasing evidence indicates that paroxysmal AF can also onset in young or middle-aged and otherwise healthy endurance athletes (e.g., cyclists, runners and cross-country skiers). Here we review the topic of AF associated with strenuous endurance exercise (SEE), for example cycling, running and cross-country skiing, especially at a competitive level, and we propose the definition of a new syndrome based on the accumulating data in the literature: SEE-related AF under the acronym of 'PAFIYAMA' ('paroxysmal AF in young and middle-aged athletes')...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726202/changes-in-upper-and-lower-body-muscle-involvement-at-increasing-double-poling-velocities-an-ecological-study
#5
C Zoppirolli, B Pellegrini, R Modena, A Savoldelli, L Bortolan, F Schena
This study evaluated muscle activity changes in different body compartments during on-snow double poling at increasing velocities. 21 well-trained, male cross-country skiers performed five 3-min double poling trials on a snowy track at 15, 16.5, 18, 19.5, and 21 km/h (set by an audio-pace system). A sixth trial was performed by maintaining a constant maximal speed. Actual skiing velocities were verified using a photocell system. Only 11 subjects met the pre-defined inclusion criteria during the trials and were included in the data analysis...
October 10, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686117/kinematical-analysis-of-the-v2-ski-skating-technique-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Thomas Losnegard, Håvard Myklebust, Angela Ehrhardt, Jostein Hallén
To characterise timing of movements and evaluate performance effects of technique alterations in V2 ski skating, 13 elite male cross-country skiers (age, 23 ± 2 years; stature, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 V̇O2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) were tested four times during the preparation and competition phase on a roller ski treadmill. Each test consisted of submaximal intensities of exercise for determination of oxygen cost followed by one 1000-m performance test. Hip movement (from accelerometer data) and joint angles (2D video) were determined for high-intensity exercise (6° and 3...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548789/physiological-demands-of-elite-cross-country-skiing-during-a-real-competition
#7
Cristina Gonzalez-Millan, Dario Perez-Brunicardi, Juan Jose Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicen, Francisco Areces, Diana Ruiz-Vicente, Lidon Soriano, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this study was to assess different physiological variables before and after a 5 km (women) and 10 km (men) cross-country skiing competition to determine potential mechanisms of fatigue. Fourteen elite-level skiers competed in an official cross-country skiing competition using the classical style (9 men and 5 women). Instantaneous skiing velocity was measured during the race by means of 15-Hz GPS devices. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in blood lactate and serum electrolyte and myoglobin concentrations...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536245/analysis-of-classical-time-trial-performance-and-technique-specific-physiological-determinants-in-elite-female-cross-country-skiers
#8
Øyvind Sandbakk, Thomas Losnegard, Øyvind Skattebo, Ann M Hegge, Espen Tønnessen, Jan Kocbach
The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27414686/metabolic-responses-and-pacing-strategies-during-successive-sprint-skiing-time-trials
#9
Erik Andersson, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Niels Ørtenblad, Glenn Björklund
PURPOSE: To examine the metabolic responses and pacing strategies during the performance of successive sprint time trials (STTs) in cross-country skiing. METHODS: Ten well-trained male cross-country skiers performed four self-paced 1300-m STTs on a treadmill, each separated by 45 min of recovery. The simulated STT course was divided into three flat (1°) sections (S1, S3 and S5) involving the double poling sub-technique interspersed with two uphill (7°) sections (S2 and S4) involving the diagonal stride sub-technique...
July 12, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393414/measuring-spatio-temporal-parameters-of-uphill-ski-mountaineering-with-ski-fixed-inertial-sensors
#10
Benedikt Fasel, Caroline Praz, Bengt Kayser, Kamiar Aminian
In this study an algorithm designed for the diagonal stride in classical cross-country skiing was adapted to compute spatio-temporal parameters for uphill ski mountaineering using a ski fixed inertial sensor. Cycle duration, thrust duration, cycle speed, cycle distance, elevation gain, and slope angle were computed and validated against a marker-based motion capture system during indoor treadmill skiing. Skiing movement of 12 experienced, recreational level athletes was measured for nine different speed and slope angle combinations...
June 23, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334280/factors-that-influence-the-performance-of-elite-sprint-cross-country-skiers
#11
Kim Hébert-Losier, Christoph Zinner, Simon Platt, Thomas Stöggl, Hans-Christer Holmberg
BACKGROUND: Sprint events in cross-country skiing are unique not only with respect to their length (0.8-1.8 km), but also in involving four high-intensity heats of ~3 min in duration, separated by a relatively short recovery period (15-60 min). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to systematically review the scientific literature to identify factors related to the performance of elite sprint cross-country skiers. METHODS: Four electronic databases were searched using relevant medical subject headings and keywords, as were reference lists, relevant journals, and key authors in the field...
June 22, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307272/high-incidence-of-injury-at-the-sochi-2014-winter-paralympic-games-a-prospective-cohort-study-of-6564-athlete-days
#12
W Derman, M P Schwellnus, E Jordaan, P Runciman, P Van de Vliet, C Blauwet, N Webborn, S Willick, J Stomphorst
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of injuries at the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games. METHODS: A total of 547 athletes from 45 countries were monitored daily for 12 days during the Sochi 2014 Winter Paralympic Games (6564 athlete days). Daily injury data were obtained from teams with their own medical support (32 teams, 510 athletes) and teams without their own medical support (13 teams, 37 athletes) through electronic data capturing systems. RESULTS: There were 174 total injuries reported, with an injury incidence rate (IR) of 26...
September 2016: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293016/central-and-peripheral-fatigue-in-knee-and-elbow-extensor-muscles-after-a-long-distance-cross-country-ski-race
#13
G Boccia, D Dardanello, C Zoppirolli, L Bortolan, C Cescon, A Schneebeli, G Vernillo, F Schena, A Rainoldi, B Pellegrini
Although elbow extensors (EE) have a great role in cross-country skiing (XC) propulsion, previous studies on neuromuscular fatigue in long-distance XC have investigated only knee extensor (KE) muscles. In order to investigate the origin and effects of fatigue induced by long-distance XC race, 16 well-trained XC skiers were tested before and after a 56-km classical technique race. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) were measured for both KE and EE. Furthermore, electrically evoked double twitch during MVC and at rest were measured...
June 12, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27274666/the-association-analysis-between-ace-and-actn3-genes-polymorphisms-and-endurance-capacity-in-young-cross-country-skiers-longitudinal-study
#14
Agnes Mägi, Eve Unt, Ele Prans, Liina Raus, Jaan Eha, Alar Veraksitš, Külli Kingo, Sulev Kõks
Endurance performance depends on the integration of several phenotypic traits influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the genotypic frequencies of the ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and endurance performance-related phenotypes, (2) to evaluate the dynamics of endurance performance parameters during a 5-year period in relation to ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes in Estonian young skiers. Determination of VO2peak was performed in 58 skiers aged 15-19 years (41 males, 17 females) during a 5-year period...
June 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27213946/-the-application-of-the-emulsified-turpentine-baths-for-the-correction-of-the-functional-state-of-the-cross-country-skiers
#15
I O Garnov, A V Kuchin, T P Loginova, N G Varlamova, E R Boiko
The baths with emulsified turpentine find the wide application in balneotherapy. They produce especially pronounced beneficial prophylactic effects in the patients presenting with microtrombosis and microvascular stasis. Moreover, these baths may be prescribed to improve microcirculation, increase the functional reserves and physical capacity in the athletes. At the same time, the current literature appears to contain no scientific publications on the application of emulsified turpentine baths for the restoration of the physical capacity of the professional ski runners...
March 2016: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27203597/how-hinge-positioning-in-cross-country-ski-bindings-affect-exercise-efficiency-cycle-characteristics-and-muscle-coordination-during-submaximal-roller-skiing
#16
Conor M Bolger, Øyvind Sandbakk, Gertjan Ettema, Peter Federolf
The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding's hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27193356/the-influence-of-pole-length-on-performance-o2-cost-and-kinematics-in-double-poling
#17
Thomas Losnegard, Håvard Myklebust, Øyvind Skattebo, Hans Kristian Stadheim, Øyvind Sandbakk, Jostein Hallén
PURPOSE: In the double poling cross-country skiing technique, the propulsive forces are transferred solely through the poles. The aim of the present study was to investigate how pole length influences double poling performance, O2-cost and kinematics during treadmill roller skiing. METHODS: Nine male competitive cross-country skiers (24±3 yrs, 180±5 cm, 72±5 kg, VO2max running: 76±6 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed two identical test protocols using self-selected (84±1% of body height) and long poles (self-selected + 7...
May 18, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176786/many-non-elite-multisport-endurance-athletes-do-not-meet-sports-nutrition-recommendations-for-carbohydrates
#18
Geneviève Masson, Benoît Lamarche
Little is known regarding the dietary intake of non-elite athletes involved in multisport endurance events. The primary objective of this observational study was to characterize the dietary intake of non-elite athletes participating in winter triathlon (snowshoeing, skating, and cross-country skiing), winter pentathlon (winter triathlon sports + cycling and running), Ironman (IM: swimming, cycling, running), and half-distance Ironman (IM 70.3) in relation with current sports nutrition recommendations. A total of 116 non-elite athletes (32 women and 84 men) who had participated in one of those events in 2014 were included in the analyses...
July 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145340/biomechanical-analysis-of-different-starting-strategies-utilized-during-cross-country-skiing-starts
#19
Victor Wennemar Wiltmann, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Pasi Pelttari, Jussi Mikkola, Keijo Häkkinen, Olli Ohtonen, Vesa Linnamo
The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track...
November 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049388/automatic-identification-of-subtechniques-in-skating-style-roller-skiing-using-inertial-sensors
#20
Yoshihisa Sakurai, Zenya Fujita, Yusuke Ishige
This study aims to develop and validate an automated system for identifying skating-style cross-country subtechniques using inertial sensors. In the first experiment, the performance of a male cross-country skier was used to develop an automated identification system. In the second, eight male and seven female college cross-country skiers participated to validate the developed identification system. Each subject wore inertial sensors on both wrists and both roller skis, and a small video camera on a backpack...
2016: Sensors
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