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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603377/effect-of-prolonged-racing-on-muscle-activity-and-spatiotemporal-variables-double-poling-technique
#1
Kitae Kim, Siddhartha Bikram Panday, In-Sik Shin, Jin-Hae Kim, Hye-Young Kim, Gwang-Jae Yu
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 40-minute race on muscle activity and spatiotemporal cycle variables at four-time points during a 12-km roller skiing test using the double-poling technique. [Subjects and Methods] Five elite cross-country (XC) skiers on the Korean National reserve team participated in the study. Part of a biathlon course that consisted of both flat land and slopes was selected, and three measurements were recorded after every 4-km lap. Spatiotemporal variables, mean frequency and mean amplitude of 6 muscles were the chosen computational parameters...
May 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597103/the-effects-of-strength-training-versus-ski-ergometer-training-on-double-poling-capacity-of-elite-junior-cross-country-skiers
#2
Tomas Carlsson, Lars Wedholm, Johnny Nilsson, Magnus Carlsson
PURPOSE: To compare the effects of strength training versus ski-ergometer training on double-poling gross efficiency (GE), maximal speed (V max), peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) for elite male and female junior cross-country skiers. METHODS: Thirty-three elite junior cross-country skiers completed a 6-week training-intervention period with two additional 40-min training sessions per week. The participants were matched in pairs and within each pair randomly assigned to either a strength-training group (STR) or a ski-ergometer-training group (ERG)...
June 8, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593090/dynamic-hip-adduction-abduction-and-abdominal-exercises-from-the-holmich-groin-injury-prevention-program-are-intense-enough-to-be-considered-strengthening-exercises-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Kasper Krommes, Thomas Bandholm, Markus D Jakobsen, Lars L Andersen, Andreas Serner, Per Hölmich, Kristian Thorborg
BACKGROUND: Training intensity is an important variable in strength training and above 80% of one repetition maximum is recommended for promoting strength for athletes. Four dynamic and two isometric on-field exercises are included in the Hölmich groin-injury prevention study that initially failed to show a reduction in groin injuries in soccer players. It has been speculated that exercise-intensity in this groin-injury prevention program was too low to induce the strength gains necessary to protect against groin-related injuries...
June 2017: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566804/reticulocyte-and-erythrocyte-hypochromia-markers-in-detection-of-iron-deficiency-in-adolescent-female-athletes
#4
J Malczewska-Lenczowska, J Orysiak, B Szczepańska, D Turowski, K Burkhard-Jagodzińska, J Gajewski
The aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness of new haematology parameters related to reticulocytes and mature red blood cells to differentiate pre latent and latent iron deficiency. The study included 219 female athletes (aged 15-20 years) representing volleyball, handball, cycling, canoeing, cross-country skiing, swimming and judo. To assess iron status the concentration of ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), iron and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined in serum. In addition to blood morphology, the mean cellular haemoglobin content in erythrocytes (CH) and reticulocytes (CHr), mean cellular haemoglobin concentration in reticulocytes (CHCMr), the percentage of erythrocytes (HYPOm) and reticulocytes (HYPOr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin concentration, the percentage of erythrocytes (LowCHm) and reticulocytes (LowCHr) with decreased cellular haemoglobin content, and percentage of erythrocytes with decreased volume (MICROm) were determined...
June 2017: Biology of Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538302/physiological-demands-of-elite-cross-country-skiing-during-a-real-competition
#5
Cristina Gonzalez-Millan, Dario Perez-Brunicardi, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicen, Francisco Areces, Diana Ruiz-Vicente, Lidon Soriano, Juan Del Coso
The aim of this study was to assess different physiological variables before and after a 5-km (women) and 10-km (men) cross-country skiing competition to determine potential mechanisms of fatigue. Fourteen elite-level skiers competed in an official cross-country skiing competition using the classical style (9 men and 5 women). Instantaneous skiing velocity was measured during the race by means of 15-Hz global positioning system devices. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in blood lactate and serum electrolyte and myoglobin concentrations...
June 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532238/the-age-related-performance-decline-in-marathon-cross-country-skiing-the-engadin-ski-marathon
#6
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Beat Knechtle
Demographic and performance data from 197,825 athletes competing in "Engadin Ski Marathon" between 1998 and 2016 were analysed. When all finishers per age group were considered, there was no gender difference in time (2:59:00 in women versus 2:59:09 h:min:s in men; P = 0.914, η(2) < 0.001) and the main effect of age group on time was trivial (P < 0.001, η(2) = 0.007). When the top 10 finishers per age group were considered, men were faster than women (1:27:32 versus 1:34:19 h:min:s, respectively; P < 0...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508404/changes-in-biomechanics-of-skiing-at-maximal-velocity-caused-by-simulated-20-km-skiing-race-using-v2-skating-technique
#7
O Ohtonen, S J Lindinger, C Göpfert, W Rapp, V Linnamo
This study investigated how the fatigue caused by a 20-km simulated skating cross-country skiing race on snow affects the final spurt performance from a biomechanical perspective. Subjects performed a 100-m maximal skiing trial before and at the end of the simulated race. Cycle characteristics, ground reaction forces from skis and poles, and muscle activity from eight muscles were recorded during each trial. Results showed that subjects were in a fatigued state after the simulated race manifested by 11.6% lower skiing speed (P<...
May 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459360/strength-training-for-middle-and-long-distance-performance-a-meta-analysis
#8
Nicolas Berryman, Inigo Mujika, Denis Arvisais, Marie Roubeix, Carl Binet, Laurent Bosquet
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the net effects of strength training on middle- and long-distance performance through a meta-analysis of the available literature. METHODS: Three databases were searched from which 28 out of 554 potential studies met all inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and weighted by the inverse of variance to calculate an overall effect and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether the strength-training intensity, duration and frequency, and population performance level, age, sex and sport were outcomes that may influence the magnitude of the effect...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398944/alpine-skiing-as-winter-time-high-intensity-training
#9
Thomas Stöggl, Christoph Schwarzl, Edith E Müller, Masaru Nagasaki, Julia Stöggl, Martin Schönfelder, Josef Niebauer
INTRODUCTION: To counteract the winter activity deficit, we set out to analyze cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses of two high intensity training (HIT) protocols during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and indoor cycling (IC) and the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects (two age and fitness groups, both sexes) performed AS, XCS, and IC with measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2), energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion, determined during 4-min of continuous high intensity (HITc: 90% HRmax for XCS and IC or short turn skiing during AS) or 10-min intermittent HIT [HITint: 5x1' high intensity (>90% HRmax or short turn skiing), 1' active recovery]...
April 11, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382550/sitting-position-affects-performance-in-cross-country-sit-skiing
#10
M Lund Ohlsson, M S Laaksonen
PURPOSE: In cross-country sit-skiing (XCSS), athletes with reduced trunk control predominantly sit with the knees higher than the hips (KH); a position often associated with large spinal flexion. Therefore, to improve spinal curvature a new sledge with frontal trunk support, where knees are lower than hips (KL) was created. It was hypothesized that the KL position would improve respiratory function and enhance performance in seated double-poling compared to KH. METHODS: Ten female able-bodied cross-country skiers (age 25...
June 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336545/changes-in-intestinal-microbiota-composition-and-metabolism-coincide-with-increased-intestinal-permeability-in-young-adults-under-prolonged-physiologic-stress
#11
J Philip Karl, Lee M Margolis, Elisabeth H Madslien, Nancy E Murphy, John W Castellani, Yngvar Gundersen, Allison V Hoke, Michael W Levangie, Raina Kumar, Nabarun Chakraborty, Aarti Gautam, Rasha Hammamieh, Svein Martini, Scott J Montain, Stefan M Pasiakos
The magnitude, temporal dynamics, and physiologic effects of intestinal microbiome responses to physiologic stress are poorly characterized. This study used a systems biology approach and multiple-stressor military training environment to determine the effects of physiologic stress on intestinal microbiota composition and metabolic activity, and intestinal permeability (IP). 73 Soldiers were provided three rations/d with or without protein- or carbohydrate-based supplements during a four day cross-country ski march (STRESS)...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314090/prevalence-age-at-onset-and-risk-factors-of-self-reported-asthma-among-swedish-adolescent-elite-cross-country-skiers
#12
L M Eriksson, T Irewall, Anne Lindberg, Nikolai Stenfors
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group...
March 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291666/risk-and-protective-factors-for-sudden-cardiac-death-during-leisure-activities-in-the-mountains-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Martin Burtscher
INTRODUCTION: Annually, more than 100 million tourists with widely varying health and fitness status are attracted by the mountainous areas around the world. Whereas mountaineering activities may contribute to the well established beneficial effects of regular exercise, for certain individuals these activities are also associated with a relatively high risk of death. METHODS: This manuscript presents an updated overview of risk and protective factors for sudden cardiac death during leisure activities in the mountains...
February 28, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287028/technique-analysis-in-elite-athletes-using-principal-component-analysis
#14
Øyvind Gløersen, Håvard Myklebust, Jostein Hallén, Peter Federolf
The aim of this study was to advance current movement analysis methodology to enable a technique analysis in sports facilitating (1) concurrent comparison of the techniques between several athletes; (2) identification of potentially beneficial technique modifications and (3) a visual representation of the findings for feedback to the athletes. Six elite cross-country skiers, three world cup winners and three national elite, roller ski skated using the V2 technique on a treadmill while their movement patterns were recorded using 41 reflective markers...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270769/the-role-of-power-fluctuations-in-the-preference-of-diagonal-vs-double-poling-sub-technique-at-different-incline-speed-combinations-in-elite-cross-country-skiers
#15
Christine Dahl, Øyvind Sandbakk, Jørgen Danielsen, Gertjan Ettema
In classical cross-country skiing, diagonal stride (DIA) is the major uphill sub-technique, while double poling (DP) is used on relatively flat terrain. Although, the dependence of incline and speed on the preference of either sub-technique seems clearly established, the mechanisms behind these preferences are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare kinetics and energy consumption in DP and DIA at the same submaximal workload in cross-country skiing under two different incline-speed combinations...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241030/effects-of-upper-body-sprint-interval-training-on-strength-and-endurance-capacities-in-female-cross-country-skiers
#16
Kristine Vandbakk, Boye Welde, Andrea Hovstein Kruken, Julia Baumgart, Gertjan Ettema, Trine Karlsen, Øyvind Sandbakk
This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45-75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202374/walking-on-four-limbs-a-systematic-review-of-nordic-walking-in-parkinson-disease
#17
REVIEW
Federica Bombieri, Federico Schena, Barbara Pellegrini, Paolo Barone, Michele Tinazzi, Roberto Erro
Nordic Walking is a relatively high intensity activity that is becoming increasingly popular. It involves marching using poles adapted from cross-country skiing poles in order to activate upper body muscles that would not be used during normal walking. Several studies have been performed using this technique in Parkinson disease patients with contradictory results. Thus, we reviewed here all studies using this technique in Parkinson disease patients and further performed a meta-analysis of RCTs where Nordic Walking was evaluated against standard medical care or other types of physical exercise...
May 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095083/physiological-capacity-and-training-routines-of-elite-cross-country-skiers-approaching-the-upper-limits-of-human-endurance
#18
Øyvind Sandbakk, Hans-Christer Holmberg
Cross-country skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095069/the-evolution-of-champion-cross-country-skier-training-from-lumberjacks-to-professional-athletes
#19
Øyvind Sandbakk
Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC-skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources...
February 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035587/prevalence-of-back-pain-in-sports-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Katharina Trompeter, Daniela Fett, Petra Platen
BACKGROUND: Back pain is a frequent health problem in the general population. The epidemiology of back pain in the general population is well researched, but detailed data on the prevalence and risk factors of back pain in athletes are rare. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to review articles about back pain in athletes to provide an overview of its prevalence in different sports and compare its prevalence among various types of sports and the general population...
June 2017: Sports Medicine
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