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Measurable residual disease

Pratik B Sandesara, Salim S Virani, Sergio Fazio, Michael D Shapiro
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-established mediator of atherosclerosis and a key target for intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, despite significant reduction in LDL-C, patients continue to have recurrent ASCVD events. Hypertriglyceridemia maybe an important contributor of this residual risk. Observational and genetic epidemiological data strongly support a causal role of triglycerides and the cholesterol content within triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) and/or remnant cholesterol (RC) in the development of ASCVD...
October 11, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Lauren Veltri, Katayoun Rezvani, Betul Oran, Rohtesh Mehta, Gabriela Rondon, Partow Kebriaei, Uday Popat, Yago Nieto, Chitra Hosing, Muzaffar Qazilbash, Issa Khouri, Elizabeth Shpall, Richard Champlin, David Marin
Outcome of persons >65 years with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is poor. A transplant from an HLA-identical sibling or an HLA-matched unrelated donor can cure some of these patients but is associated with a substantial transplant-related mortality and a high relapse risk. We analyzed 185 subjects >65 years with high-risk AML receiving conventional (n=42) or reduced-intensity (n=143) pre-transplant conditioning and a transplant from an HLA-identical sibling (n=66) or a 10/10 loci HLA-matched unrelated donor (n=119)...
October 8, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Hulda S Jonasdottir, Hilde Brouwers, René E M Toes, Andreea Ioan-Facsinay, Martin Giera
Metabolomics and lipidomics are of fundamental importance to personalized healthcare. Particularly the analysis of bioactive lipids is of relevance to a better understanding of various diseases. Within clinical routines, blood derived samples are widely used for diagnostic and research purposes. Hence, standardized and validated procedures for blood collection and storage are mandatory, in order to guarantee sample integrity and relevant study outcomes. We here investigated different plasma storage conditions and their effect on plasma fatty acid and oxylipid levels...
October 8, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids
James Yarmolinsky, Katie Berryman, Ryan Langdon, Carolina Bonilla, George Davey Smith, Richard M Martin, Sarah J Lewis
PURPOSE: Observational studies suggest that dietary and serum calcium are risk factors for prostate cancer. However, such studies suffer from residual confounding (due to unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders), undermining causal inference. Mendelian randomization uses randomly assigned (hence unconfounded and pre-disease onset) germline genetic variation to proxy for phenotypes and strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We tested the hypothesis that serum calcium is associated with an increased risk of overall and advanced prostate cancer...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Yukio Kobayashi
The treatment outcomes of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved. Furthermore, the introduction of pediatric specific therapies has enhanced ALL treatment results in adolescents and young adult (AYAs). Age-related molecular signatures have also been identified, such as Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-like ALL and DUX4/ERG gene-associated ALL. The measurement of minimal residual disease (MRD) has enabled the early detection of patients susceptible to relapse, and they become candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT)...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Dingani Chinula, Busiku Hamainza, Elizabeth Chizema, Deogratius R Kavishe, Chadwick H Sikaala, Gerry F Killeen
BACKGROUND: Across most of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes from the Anopheles gambiae complex, comprising seven morphologically indistinguishable but behaviourally-diverse sibling species with ecologically-distinct environmental niches. Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis are the mostly widely distributed major malaria vectors within the complex, while An. quadriannulatus is sparsely distributed. METHODS: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl (PM) was conducted four times between 2011 and 2017 in the Luangwa Valley, south-east Zambia...
October 11, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Shikma Katz, Nissim Arish, Ariel Rokach, Yacov Zaltzman, Esther-Lee Marcus
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) are routinely performed in the upright position due to measurement devices and patient comfort. This systematic review investigated the influence of body position on lung function in healthy persons and specific patient groups. METHODS: A search to identify English-language papers published from 1/1998-12/2017 was conducted using MEDLINE and Google Scholar with key words: body position, lung function, lung mechanics, lung volume, position change, positioning, posture, pulmonary function testing, sitting, standing, supine, ventilation, and ventilatory change...
October 11, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
David Musoke, George Miiro, Rawlance Ndejjo, George Karani, Keith Morris, Simon Kasasa, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, David Guwatudde, Miph Boses Musoke
BACKGROUND: Besides use of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), other complimentary measures including suitable housing structures, and environmental management that reduce breeding of malaria vectors, can be implemented at households to prevent the disease. However, most studies on malaria prevention have focused mainly on ITNs and IRS. The aim of this study was therefore to assess malaria prevention practices beyond ITNs and IRS, and associated environmental risk factors including housing structure in rural Wakiso district, Uganda...
2018: PloS One
Mathijs C Bodde, Maaike P J Hermans, J Wouter Jukema, Martin J Schalij, Willem M Lijfering, Frits R Rosendaal, Fred P H T M Romijn, L Renee Ruhaak, Arnoud van der Laarse, Christa M Cobbaert
INTRODUCTION: The current way to assess the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is to measure conventional lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions. Despite the success of statin treatment, residual cardiovascular risk remains high. Therefore, the value of extensive serum apolipoprotein (apo) profiling to assess the risk of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with STEMI was investigated in a case-control design...
October 8, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Michael Koch, Mirco Schapher, Konstantinos Mantsopoulos, Miguel Goncalves, Heinrich Iro
Objective Persistent, residual, or recurrent stones after transoral duct surgery are always associated with hilar to intraparenchymal and/or multiple sialolithiasis, causing difficulties in the treatment. This study was performed to assess the value of intraductal lithotripsy in the treatment of persistent, residual, or recurrent sialolithiasis after extended duct surgery in the submandibular gland. Study Design Retrospective study covering February 2015 to June 2018. Study Setting Tertiary referral center for salivary gland diseases...
October 9, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Zeba N Singh, Vu H Duong, Rima Koka, Ying Zou, Sameer Sawhney, Li Tang, Maria R Baer, Nicholas Ambulos, Firas El Chaer, Ashkan Emadi
We describe two patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with an unusual immunophenotype with co-expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) with cytoplasmic CD3 (cCD3) representing myeloid and T-lineage differentiation. Both harbored FLT3 -ITD mutations. One additionally had a deletion in the PML gene affecting the primer binding site, thus limiting measurable residual disease (MRD) analysis during follow-up. Both patients achieved durable remission with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO)-based therapy, thus mitigating the need for repetitive conventional chemotherapy cycles and allogeneic stem cell transplantation...
September 2018: Journal of Hematopathology
Dunia Alarkawi, M Sanni Ali, Dana Bliuc, Jacqueline R Center, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra
Pharmacoepidemiology is used extensively in osteoporosis research and involves the study of the use and effects of drugs in large numbers of people. Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard in assessing treatment efficacy and safety. However, their results can have limited external validity when applied to day-to-day patients. Pharmacoepidemiological studies aim to assess the effect/s of treatments in actual practice conditions, but they are limited by the quality, completeness, and inherent bias due to confounding...
July 2018: JBMR Plus
Adam C ElNaggar, Erinn M Hade, David M O'Malley, Margaret I Liang, Larry J Copeland, Jeffrey M Fowler, Ritu Salani, Floor J Backes, David E Cohn
OBJECTIVE: To assess compliance with, and outcomes related to, the Society of Gynecologic Oncology quality measure in ovarian cancer to administer chemotherapy within 42 days of cytoreductive surgery in patients with epithelial ovarian/fallopian tube/peritoneal cancer. METHODS: Institutional ovarian cancer database was evaluated for compliance with the quality measure to administer chemotherapy within 42 days of cytoreductive surgery. The influence of chemotherapy timing on the risk of death was evaluated, and factors related to the timing of chemotherapy after surgery was assessed...
September 30, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Sarah A Buckley, Mary-Elizabeth Percival, Megan Othus, Anna B Halpern, Emily M Huebner, Pamela S Becker, Carole Shaw, Mazyar Shadman, Roland B Walter, Elihu H Estey
Patients with newly diagnosed (ND) and relapsed/refractory (RR) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, ≥10% blasts) often receive intensive chemotherapy at diagnosis and relapse. We retrospectively identified 365 patients and categorized the reasons for receiving treatment off study (medical, logistical, or unclear). The pretreatment characteristics of the on and off study groups were similar. Rates of the complete remission (CR) without measurable residual disease were significantly higher for ND patients treated on versus off study (61% versus 35%), but CR rates and survival were low for all RR patients regardless of study assignment...
October 2, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Rajib Chowdhury, Vashkar Chowdhury, Shyla Faria, Saiful Islam, Narayan Prosad Maheswary, Shireen Akhter, Md Sahidul Islam, Aditya Prasad Dash, Axel Kroeger, Qamar Banu
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent is a fatal disease if left untreated. Between 1994 to 2013, the Ministry of Health of Bangladesh reported 1,09,266 cases of VL and 329 VL related deaths in 37 endemic districts. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) using dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used by the national programme in the 1960s to control malaria. Despite findings of research trials demonstrating that the synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin 5 WP was very effective at reducing vector densities, no national VL vector control operations took place in Bangladesh between 1999 to early 2012...
October 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Katarina Lalić, Nataša Rajković, Ljiljana Popović, Sandra Singh Lukač, Ljubica Stošić, Iva Rasulić, Nebojša M Lalić
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the use of statins, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients often have increased LDL-cholesterol (Ch) and high risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This study aimed to analyze the effect of statin therapy on attainment of LDL-Ch treatment targets and appearance of new ASCVD and diabetes in FH patients. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of data from medical records of 302 FH patients treated continuously with statins during 3 years...
October 2018: Atherosclerosis
Pere Barba, Mireia Morgades, Pau Montesinos, Cristina Gil, María-Laura Fox, Juana Ciudad, María-José Moreno, José González-Campos, Eulàlia Genescà, Daniel Martínez-Carballeira, Rodrigo Martino, Susana Vives, Ramon Guardia, Santiago Mercadal, María-Teresa Artola, Antonia Cladera, Mar Tormo, Jordi Esteve, Juan Bergua, Ferran Vall-Llovera, Jordi Ribera, Pilar Martínez-Sanchez, María-Luz Amigo, Arantxa Bermúdez, María Calbacho, Jesús-Maria Hernández-Rivas, Evaristo Feliu, Alberto Orfao, Josep-María Ribera
OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Pediatric-inspired regimens have been adopted by several groups as the treatment strategy for adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Whether subsequent modifications of these protocols have led to an improvement in the outcome of patients is uncertain, especially in T-cell ALL. We analyzed 169 patients with high risk T-cell ALL included in 2 consecutive trials of the PETHEMA Group (HR-ALL03 [n=104] and the more contemporary HR-ALL11 [n=65]). RESULTS: Patients- and disease-characteristics were balanced between both groups...
September 29, 2018: European Journal of Haematology
Kei Endo, Takayoshi Oikawa, Keisuke Kakisaka, Akio Tamura, Shigeru Ehara, Yasuhiro Takikawa
OBJECTIVES: The clinical impact of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in cirrhotic patients remains unclear. The aim of the study is whether recanalization of acute PVT in nonmalignant cirrhotic patients is associated with their prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified subject with PVT in cirrhotic patients from institutional database. Patients with ≥50% reduction in thrombus size were classified into the improved group and those with ≤49% reduction in thrombus size, or thrombus development in other branches were classified into the deteriorated group...
September 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Bethany G Caulkins, Silvia A Cervantes, J Mario Isas, Ansgar B Siemer
Intrinsically disordered protein domains not only are found in soluble proteins but also can be part of large protein complexes or protein aggregates. For example, several amyloid fibrils have intrinsically disordered domains framing a rigid β-sheet-rich core. These disordered domains can often be observed using solution NMR methods in combination with modest magic angle spinning and without perdeuteration. But how can these regions be detected using solution NMR methods when they are part of a fibril that is not tumbling isotropically in solution? Here we addressed this question by investigating the dynamic C-terminus of huntingtin exon-1 (HTTex1 ) fibrils that are important in Huntington's disease...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Aurore Perrot, Valerie Lauwers-Cances, Jill Corre, Nelly Robillard, Cyrille Hulin, Marie-Lorraine Chretien, Thomas Dejoie, Sabrina Maheo, Anne-Marie Stoppa, Brigitte Pegourie, Lionel Karlin, Laurent Garderet, Bertrand Arnulf, Chantal Doyen, Nathalie Meuleman, Bruno Royer, Jean-Richard Eveillard, Lotfi Benboubker, Mamoun Dib, Olivier Decaux, Arnaud Jaccard, Karim Belhadj, Sabine Brechignac, Brigitte Kolb, Cecile Fohrer, Mohamad Mohty, Margaret Macro, Paul G Richardson, Victoria Carlton, Martin Moorhead, Tom Willis, Malek Faham, Kenneth C Anderson, Jean-Luc Harousseau, Xavier Leleu, Thierry Facon, Philippe Moreau, Michel Attal, Hervé Avet-Loiseau, Nikhil Munshi
The introduction of novel agents has led to major improvements in clinical outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma. In order to shorten evaluation times for new treatments, health agencies are currently examining minimal residual disease (MRD) as a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials. We assessed the prognostic value of MRD, measured during maintenance therapy by next-generation sequencing. MRD negativity was defined as the absence of tumor plasma cell within 1,000,000 bone marrow cells (<10-6 ). Data were analyzed from a recent clinical trial that evaluated the role of transplantation in newly diagnosed myeloma patients treated with lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVD)...
September 24, 2018: Blood
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