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Measurable residual disease

Jean-Alain Martignoles, François Delhommeau, Pierre Hirsch
Recent advances in the field of cancer genome analysis revolutionized the picture we have of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Pan-genomic studies, using either single nucleotide polymorphism arrays or whole genome/exome next generation sequencing, uncovered alterations in dozens of new genes or pathways, intimately connected with the development of leukemia. From a simple two-hit model in the late nineties, we are now building clonal stories that involve multiple unexpected cellular functions, leading to full-blown AML...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wen Dai, Ziyu Zhang, Shuiping Zhao
BACKGROUND: The contributions of inflammation, triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) to the residual risk of cardiovascular events have not been determined in a large cohort of Chinese population before. This study was aimed to investigate the association of serum levels of high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP), TG and HDL-C with the residual risk of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: We enrolled 4090 patients with stable CAD from 13 hospitals in China...
December 3, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Acute meningitis has a high case-fatality rate and survivors can have severe lifelong disability. We aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the levels and trends of global meningitis burden that could help to guide introduction, continuation, and ongoing development of vaccines and treatment programmes. METHODS: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) 2016 study estimated meningitis burden due to one of four types of cause: pneumococcal, meningococcal, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a residual category of other causes...
December 2018: Lancet Neurology
Gregory W Roloff, Elizabeth A Griffiths
Mutational profiling has fundamentally changed our approach to patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients with AML are routinely profiled for the presence of mutations in FLT3 , NPM1 , CEBPA , and, more recently, TP53 In this chapter, we review the role of mutational profiling to help define disease biology in AML, particularly among patients with putatively intermediate-risk disease. We describe the body of evidence supporting the utility of mutational profiling when performed at the time of diagnosis (to identify prognostic and targetable mutations), at the time of complete remission (to assess minimal residual disease as a marker for relapse), and at the time of relapse (to identify therapeutic targets and eligibility for clinical trials)...
November 30, 2018: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
Dong Hyuk Lee, Peter Lee, Sang Won Seo, Jee Hoon Roh, Minyoung Oh, Jungsu S Oh, Seung Jun Oh, Jae Seung Kim, Yong Jeong
The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) originated from discrepancies between the degree of brain pathology and the severity of clinical manifestations. CR has been characterized through CR proxies, such as education and occupation complexity; however, such approaches have inherent limitations. Although several methods have been developed to overcome these limitations, they fail to reflect the entire Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Meanwhile, graph theory analysis, one of most powerful and flexible approaches, have established remarkable network properties of the brain...
November 29, 2018: NeuroImage
Ulrich Ronellenfitsch, Peter Hohenberger
Background: The principles of surgery for primary gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) are resection with clear margins without lymphadenectomy, thus enabling organ-preserving resection in many cases. Tumor rupture needs to be avoided, because it entails peritoneal sarcomatosis. Given these preconditions, there is a rationale for laparoscopic resection of primary GIST. In metastatic GIST, surgery cannot achieve cure, but constitutes an important cornerstone of treatment. Resection can be performed either for residual lesions in responding patients, for focally progressive lesions, or as palliative measure in generalized progression...
October 2018: Visceral Medicine
Chiara Cimmaruta, Valentina Citro, Giuseppina Andreotti, Ludovica Liguori, Maria Vittoria Cubellis, Bruno Hay Mele
BACKGROUND: Severity gradation of missense mutations is a big challenge for exome annotation. Predictors of deleteriousness that are most frequently used to filter variants found by next generation sequencing, produce qualitative predictions, but also numerical scores. It has never been tested if these scores correlate with disease severity. RESULTS: wANNOVAR, a popular tool that can generate several different types of deleteriousness-prediction scores, was tested on Fabry disease...
November 30, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Ruben D van der Bogt, Bo J Noordman, Kausilia K Krishnadath, Carlijn A M Roumans, Erik J Schoon, Liekele E Oostenbrug, Peter D Siersema, Frank P Vleggaar, J Jan B van Lanschot, Manon C W Spaander
BACKGROUND:  Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) measurements of residual thickness and residual area have been suggested to correlate with histopathological residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) for esophageal cancer. This study assessed the predictive value of EUS-based measurements using tumor thickness and tumor area before nCRT, and residual thickness and residual area 6 and 12 weeks after completion of nCRT for detection of residual disease. METHODS:  This was a substudy of the diagnostic multicenter preSANO trial...
November 29, 2018: Endoscopy
Keith R Thulborn, Aiming Lu, Ian C Atkinson, Mohan Pauliah, Kathryn Beal, Timothy A Chan, Antonio M P Omuro, Yoshiya Yamada, Michelle S Bradbury
PURPOSE: Spatial and temporal patterns of response of human glioblastoma to fractionated chemoradiation are described by changes in the bioscales of residual tumor volume, tumor cell volume fraction and tumor cell kill, as derived from tissue sodium concentration measured by quantitative sodium magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla. These near real-time patterns during treatment are compared with overall survival. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Bioscales were mapped during fractionated chemoradiation therapy in patients with glioblastomas (n=20) using tissue sodium concentration obtained from serial quantitative sodium magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla and a two-compartment model of tissue sodium distribution...
November 28, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Yuan Zhang, Ling-Long Tang, Ying-Qin Li, Xu Liu, Qing Liu, Jun Ma
Detectable post-therapy plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA predicts poor survival in non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, some patients subsequently experience spontaneous remission of residual EBV DNA during follow-up and it was unclear whether these patients were still at high risk of disease failure. Using the NPC database from an established big-data intelligence platform, 3269 NPC patients who had the plasma EBV DNA load measured at the end of therapy (+ 1 week) were identified. In total, 93...
November 28, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Woo-Jin Shin, Daiki Hara, Francisca Gbormittah, Hana Chang, Byeong S Chang, Jae U Jung
As oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) causes vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, the polio endgame strategy introduced by the Global Polio Eradication Initiative calls for a phased withdrawal of OPV and an introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). The introduction of IPV creates challenges in maintaining the cold chain for vaccine storage and distribution. Recent advances in lyophilization have helped in finding a temperature-stable formulation for multiple vaccines; however, poliovirus vaccines have yet to capture a stable, safe formula for lyophilization...
November 27, 2018: MBio
Ahmad Waseem Ghauri, Yaser Daanial Khan, Nouman Rasool, Sher Afzal Khan, Kuo-Chen Chou
BACKGROUND: Closely related to causes of various diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, septic shock, and coeliac disease; tyrosine nitration is considered as one of the most important post-translational modification in proteins. Inside a cell, protein modifications occur accurately by the action of sophisticated cellular machinery. Specific enzymes present in endoplasmic reticulum accomplish this task. The identification of potential tyrosine residues in a protein primary sequence, which can be nitrated, is a challenging task...
November 26, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Maarten Lanclus, Johan Clukers, Cedric Van Holsbeke, Wim Vos, Glenn Leemans, Birgit Holbrechts, Katherine Barboza, Wilfried De Backer, Jan De Backer
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations (AECOPD) have a significant negative impact on the quality of life and accelerate progression of the disease. Functional respiratory imaging (FRI) has the potential to better characterize this disease. The purpose of this study was to identify FRI parameters specific to AECOPD and assess their ability to predict future AECOPD, by use of machine learning algorithms, enabling a better understanding and quantification of disease manifestation and progression...
November 23, 2018: Academic Radiology
Houman Goudarzi, Satoshi Konno, Hirokazu Kimura, Hironi Makita, Munehiro Matsumoto, Nozomu Takei, Hiroki Kimura, Kaoruko Shimizu, Masaru Suzuki, Yoichi M Ito, Masaharu Nishimura
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown the association of anthropometric measures with poor asthma symptoms, especially among women. However, the potential influence of visceral adiposity on asthma symptoms has not been investigated well. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have evaluated whether visceral adiposity is related to poor adult asthma symptoms independent of anthropometric measures and sex. If this relationship presented, we investigated whether it is explained by influence on pulmonary functions and/or obesity-related comorbidities...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Richard Tawiah, Kelvin K W Yau, Geoffrey J McLachlan, Suzanne K Chambers, Shu-Kay Ng
We present a multilevel frailty model for handling serial dependence and simultaneous heterogeneity in survival data with a multilevel structure attributed to clustering of subjects and the presence of multiple failure outcomes. One commonly observes such data, for example, in multi-institutional, randomized placebo-controlled trials in which patients suffer repeated episodes (eg, recurrent migraines) of the disease outcome being measured. The model extends the proportional hazards model by incorporating a random covariate and unobservable random institution effect to respectively account for treatment-by-institution interaction and institutional variation in the baseline risk...
November 25, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Daojun Hong, Lu Cong, Shanshan Zhong, Yang He, Ling Xin, Xuguang Gao, Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the SYNJ1 gene have been associated with early-onset of atypical Parkinson's disease or severe neurodegeneration with intractable seizures. Due to the rarity of the disease, there were limitations in the quality of available treatment options for SYNJ1-related diseases. METHODS: Two affected siblings from a non-consanguineous family were evaluated through a set of clinical and laboratory tests. The genetic screening was performed through exome next generation sequencing...
November 19, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Beth E Wagner, Carrie L Langstraat, Michaela E McGree, Amy L Weaver, Shikha Sarangi, Bahareh Mokri, Sean C Dowdy, William A Cliby, Amanika Kumar, Jamie N Bakkum-Gamez
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE) within six months after primary debulking surgery (PDS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: In a historical cohort, we estimated the cumulative incidence of clinically diagnosed VTE within 6 months among consecutive women who underwent PDS for EOC at a single institution from 1/1/2003 to 12/31/2011. We evaluated perioperative variables as potential risk factors of VTE within 6 months during the postoperative period using univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models...
November 21, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Emmanuelle Hoareau, Nicolas Belley, Kristina Klinker, Bernard Desbat, Élodie Boisselier
Neurocalcin delta (NCALD) is a member of the neuronal calcium sensors protein family. In the retina, NCALD is expressed by ganglion and amacrine cells. NCALD is composed of 4 EF-hand motifs but only 3 of them may bind calcium. The binding of calcium induces a conformational change of the protein which leads to the extrusion of its N-terminal myristoyl group as well as some hydrophilic residues. This mechanism, named calcium-myristoyl switch, is presumably involved in its membrane binding. The parameters responsible for the interaction of NCALD with membranes are only partially known...
November 12, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Frederick R Appelbaum
The persistence of measurable residual disease (MRD) following induction chemotherapy is the single most powerful prognostic factor available to clinicians treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). How to use this information to guide subsequent therapy is complex, and influenced by the category of AML being treated, the assays used to measure MRD, MRD levels and kinetics, and the spectrum of therapies available to the patient. In this literature-based review, each of these issues will be discussed, with a particular emphasis on the role of hematopoietic cell transplantation in the treatment of MRD-positive patients...
December 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
Farhad Ravandi
Interest in detecting minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been increasing, but numerous issues need to be addressed if MRD assessment is to be routinely incorporated into practice. Assays, their reliability, standardization, and availability all must be considered, and a strategy developed to eradicate residual leukemia. This paper reviews some issues surrounding the routine incorporation of MRD assessment into practice.
December 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Haematology
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