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Daming Sun, Zhiyong Huang, Zhuoli Zhuang, Zhiyao Ma, Lo Kar Man, Donghua Liao, Hans Gregersen
During defecation, solid, semisolid or liquid stools are eliminated via the anus in a complex physiological process. Up to 25% of the population are affected by anorectal disorders that are poorly recognized and treated. We developed a new bionics device, a simulated stool named Fecobionics, to replace several current tests of anorectal function. Fecobionics was developed to simulate the defecation process that depends on rectal forces, the anorectal size angle, and anorectal size and sensitivity. Fecobionics provided axial pressure signatures, measurement of bending (anorectal angle) and geometric mapping in a single examination...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Donatella Bulone, Pier Luigi San Biagio, Tatiana Quiñones-Ruiz, Manuel Rosario-Alomar, Igor K Lednev, Frank T Robb, Everly Conway de Macario, Alberto J L Macario
Chaperonopathies are diseases in which abnormal chaperones play an etiopathogenic role. A chaperone is mutated or otherwise abnormal (e.g., modified by an aberrant posttranslational modification) in structure/function. To understand the pathogenic mechanisms of chaperonopathies, it is necessary to elucidate the impact of the pathogenic mutation or posttranslational modification on the chaperone molecule's properties and functions. This impact is usually subtle because if it were more than subtle the overall effect on the cell and organism would be catastrophic, lethal...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mengxing Ye, Gábor B Halász, Lucile Savary, Leon Balents
We consider the effect of coupling between phonons and a chiral Majorana edge in a gapped chiral spin liquid with Ising anyons (e.g., Kitaev's non-Abelian spin liquid on the honeycomb lattice). This is especially important in the regime in which the longitudinal bulk heat conductivity κ_{xx} due to phonons is much larger than the expected quantized thermal Hall conductance κ_{xy}^{q}=(πT/12)(k_{B}^{2}/ℏ) of the ideal isolated edge mode, so that the thermal Hall angle, i.e., the angle between the thermal current and the temperature gradient, is small...
October 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Isabella Berardelli, Daniele Belvisi, Valentina Corigliano, Matteo Costanzo, Marco Innamorati, Giovanni Fabbrini, Alfredo Berardelli, Maurizio Pompili
BACKGROUND: Previous studies investigating the risk of suicide in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have reported conflicting results. This study evaluated suicide risk in PD and investigated the relationship between suicide risk and perceived disability, hopelessness and affective temperaments in PD. METHODS: One-hundred and twenty PD patients were consecutively enrolled. The diagnosis of PD was based on clinical criteria. All patients underwent a psychiatric evaluation that included the administration of the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the Italian Perceived Disability Scale, the Beck Hopelessness Inventory and the TEMPS-A questionnaire...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Lili Zhou, Jiling Yue, Yaxun Fan, Yilin Wang
Chiral cationic gemini surfactants 1,4-bis(dodecyl- N, N-dimethylammonium bromide)-2,3-butanediol (12-4(OH)2 -12) including racemate, mesomer, and two enantiomers were synthesized and their self-assembly in aqueous solution has been comparatively investigated by tensiometry, conductometry, 1 H NMR, small-angle neutron scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, and cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. The chirality at spacer induces different self-assembly behaviors due to the hydrogen-bonding interaction between the hydroxyl groups at the chiral centers...
October 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
B Mijnheer, A Jomehzadeh, P González, I Olaciregui-Ruiz, R Rozendaal, P Shokrani, H Spreeuw, R Tielenburg, A Mans
PURPOSE: To investigate the effectiveness of an EPID-based 3D transit dosimetry system in detecting deliberately introduced errors during VMAT delivery. METHODS: An Alderson phantom was irradiated using four VMAT treatment plans (one prostate, two head-and-neck and one lung case) in which delivery, thickness and setup errors were introduced. EPID measurements were performed to reconstruct 3D dose distributions of "error" plans, which were compared with "no-error" plans using the mean gamma (γmean ), near-maximum gamma (γ1% ) and the difference in isocenter dose (ΔDisoc ) as metrics...
October 2018: Physica Medica: PM
Mohammad I Daoud, Abdel-Latif Alshalalfah, Otmane Ait Mohamed, Rami Alazrai
Three-dimensional (3D) motorized curvilinear ultrasound probes provide an effective, low-cost tool to guide needle interventions, but localizing and tracking the needle in 3D ultrasound volumes is often challenging. In this study, a new method is introduced to localize and track the needle using 3D motorized curvilinear ultrasound probes. In particular, a low-cost camera mounted on the probe is employed to estimate the needle axis. The camera-estimated axis is used to identify a volume of interest (VOI) in the ultrasound volume that enables high needle visibility...
October 3, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Pei Zhao, Qihao Zhu, James C Fettinger, Philip Power
The reaction of Sm[N(SiMe3 )2 ]2 (THF)2 with 2 equiv of the bulky aryloxide ligand HOAr iPr6 [Ar iPr6 = -C6 H3 -2,6-(C6 H2 -2,4,6- i Pr3 )2 ] afforded the first monomeric homoleptic solvent-free bis(aryloxide) lanthanide complex Sm(OAr iPr6 )2 . The complex was characterized by crystallography and UV-visible and IR spectroscopy and magnetically by Evans' method. The O-Sm-O angle is highly bent at 111.08(9)°. The samarium ion in Sm(OAr iPr6 )2 also displays close contacts with the flanking aryl rings of the terphenyloxide ligands...
October 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Johnson Hoang, Chul Soon Park, Han Ju Lee, Maria D Marquez, Oussama Zenasni, Preethi H Gunaratne, T Randall Lee
The exposure of quaternary ammonium groups on surfaces allows self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to serve as architectural platforms for immobilizing oligonucleotides. The current study describes the preparation of SAMs derived from four unique bidentate adsorbates containing two different ammonium-termini (i.e., trimethyl- and triethyl-) and comparison to their monodentate analogs. Our studies found that SAMs derived from the bidentate adsorbates offered considerable enhancements in oligonucleotide binding when compared to SAMs derived from their monodentate analogs...
October 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Friedl De Groote, Kyle P Blum, Brian C Horslen, Lena H Ting
The pendulum test is a sensitive clinical assessment of spasticity where the lower leg is dropped from the horizontal position and features of limb motion are recorded. Three key kinematic features are associated with the degree of severity of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy: decreased initial limb excursion, reduced number of limb oscillations, and a non-vertical resting limb angle. While spasticity is attributed to increased velocity-dependent resistance to motion, prior models simulating increased sensorimotor feedback of muscle velocity fail to explain the key pendulum test kinematic outcomes in spastic individuals...
2018: PloS One
Cristina Roldán-Jiménez, Antonio I Cuesta-Vargas, Paul Bennett
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to measure trunk flexo-extension during different Sit-To-Stand (STS) tasks and to analyse differences in those variables when STS repetitions are increased, by using an inertial sensor. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study trunk flexo-extension was obtained through inertial measurements using an inertial sensor placed on the flat part of the sternum with the Y transversally oriented and attached using double-sided adhesive tape...
October 18, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Chun-Hui Tang, Gao-Wen Yao, Lin Wang, Wei Luo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of internal and external fixation after open reduction combined with suture anchors to repair the intercarpal ligaments for the treatment of perilunate injury, and to explore its operative techniques and therapeutic efficacy. METHODS: From September 2012 to September 2016, 11 patients with perilunate injury were surgically treated with Kirschner wires in intercarpal articulations, 3.0 mm cannulated screws for scaphoid fracture, absorbable anchor for intercarpal ligament repair, together with fixators at intercarpal joints, among whom 6 suffered from perilunate dislocations and 5 from trans-scaphoid fracture dislocations...
September 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Mohammad I Daoud, Ahmad Shtaiyat, Adnan R Zayadeen, Rami Alazrai
Curvilinear ultrasound transducers are commonly used in various needle insertion interventions, but localizing the needle in curvilinear ultrasound images is usually challenging. In this paper, a new method is proposed to localize the needle in curvilinear ultrasound images by exciting the needle using a piezoelectric buzzer and imaging the excited needle using a curvilinear ultrasound transducer to acquire a power Doppler image and a B-mode image. The needle-induced Doppler responses that appear in the power Doppler image are analyzed to estimate the needle axis initially and identify the candidate regions that are expected to include the needle...
October 16, 2018: Sensors
Karine Le Guen, Jean-Michel André, Meiyi Wu, Vita Ilakovac, Franck Delmotte, Sébatien de Rossi, Françoise Bridou, Evgueni Meltchakov, Angelo Giglia, Stefano Nannarone, Zhanshan Wang, Qiushi Huang, Zhong Zhang, Jingtao Zhu, Yuchun Tu, Yanyan Yuan, Ian Vickridge, Didier Schmaus, Emrick Briand, Sébastien Steydli, Philippe Walter, Philippe Jonnard
The Kossel effect is the diffraction by a periodically structured medium, of the characteristic X-ray radiation emitted by the atoms of the medium. We show that multilayers designed for X-ray optics applications are convenient periodic systems to use in order to produce the Kossel effect, modulating the intensity emitted by the sample in a narrow angular range defined by the Bragg angle. We also show that excitation can be done by using photons (X-rays), electrons or protons (or charged particles), under near normal or grazing incident geometries, which makes the method relatively easy to implement...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Meng Xu, Haihu Liu
Immiscible two-phase flow in porous media is commonly encountered in industrial processes and environmental issues, such as enhanced oil recovery and the migration of fluids in an unsaturated zone. To deepen the current understanding of its underlying mechanism, this work focuses on the factors that influence the relative permeability and specific interfacial length of a two-phase flow in porous media, i.e., fluid saturation, viscosity ratio and contact angle. The lattice Boltzmann color-gradient model is adopted for pore-scale investigations, and the main findings are obtained as follows...
October 18, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Michael Z Hu, Chaiwat Engtrakul, Brian L Bischoff, Mi Lu, Mussie Alemseghed
Surface wettability-tailored porous ceramic/metallic membranes (in the tubular and planar disc form) were prepared and studied for both vapor-phase separation and liquid pervaporative separations of water-ethanol mixtures. Superhydrophobic nanoceramic membranes demonstrated more selective permeation of ethanol (relative to water) by cross-flow pervaporation of liquid ethanol⁻water mixture (10 wt % ethanol feed at 80 °C). In addition, both superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic membranes were tested for the vapor-phase separations of water⁻ethanol mixtures...
October 12, 2018: Membranes
Flavien A A Toze, Maryana A Nadirova, Dmitriy F Mertsalov, Julya S Sokolova, Pavel V Dorovatovskii, Victor N Khrustalev
The title compounds C24 H21 NO3 S, I , and C24 H21 NO4 , II , are the products of the IMDAV reaction between phenyl-maleic anhydride and thien-yl(fur-yl)allyl-amines. Their mol-ecular structures comprise fused tricyclic systems containing thio-phene, cyclo-hexene and pyrrolidine rings ( I ) or furan, cyclo-hexene and pyrrolidine rings ( II ). The central cyclo-hexene and pyrrolidine rings in both compounds adopt slightly twisted boat and envelope conformations, respectively. The dihedral angles between the basal plane of the pyrrolidine ring and the thio-phene (in I ) or furan (in II ) ring plane are 22...
October 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Maxim Bykov, Saiana Khandarkhaeva, Timofey Fedotenko, Pavel Sedmak, Natalia Dubrovinskaia, Leonid Dubrovinsky
Iron tetra-nitride, FeN4 , was synthesized from the elements in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at 180 (5) GPa and 2700 (200) K. Its crystal structure was determined based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected from a submicron-sized grain at the synchrotron beamline ID11 of ESRF. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P . In the asymmetric unit, the Fe atom occupies an inversion centre (Wyckoff position 1 d ), while two N atoms occupy general positions (2 i ). The structure is made up from edge-sharing [FeN6 ] octa-hedra forming chains along [100] and being inter-connected through N-N bridges...
October 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Jessy Askar
Date of birth: 26/04/1998; gender: female. A. PRETREATMENT DOCUMENTS: 8 years old; 04/10/2006. DIAGNOSIS: Angle's Class: Class II division 1. MISSING TEETH BEFORE TREATMENT: None. TREATMENT PLANNING: Appliances or means: Phase I: interception with placement of an expander followed by a Pull type activator; Phase II: three years later, placement of a Damon's bimaxillary multi-bracket. BEGINNING OF PHASE I: 8 years old; 08/11/2006...
October 11, 2018: International Orthodontics
Pieter W M Bonnemaijer, Adriana I Iglesias, Girish N Nadkarni, Anna J Sanyiwa, Hassan G Hassan, Colin Cook, Mark Simcoe, Kent D Taylor, Claudia Schurmann, Gillian M Belbin, Eimear E Kenny, Erwin P Bottinger, Suzanne van de Laar, Susan E I Wiliams, Stephen K Akafo, Adeyinka O Ashaye, Linda M Zangwill, Christopher A Girkin, Maggie C Y Ng, Jerome I Rotter, Robert N Weinreb, Zheng Li, R Rand Allingham, Abhishek Nag, Pirro G Hysi, Magda A Meester-Smoor, Janey L Wiggs, Michael A Hauser, Christopher J Hammond, Hans G Lemij, Ruth J F Loos, Cornelia M van Duijn, Alberta A H J Thiadens, Caroline C W Klaver
Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease with a major genetic contribution. Its prevalence varies greatly among ethnic groups, and is up to five times more frequent in black African populations compared to Europeans. So far, worldwide efforts to elucidate the genetic complexity of POAG in African populations has been limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study in 1113 POAG cases and 1826 controls from Tanzanian, South African and African American study samples. Apart from confirming evidence of association at TXNRD2 (rs16984299; OR[T] 1...
October 13, 2018: Human Genetics
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