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Rino Rappuoli, Angela Santoni, Alberto Mantovani
Vaccines have made a key, cost-effective contribution to the prolongation of life expectancy and quality. Here we summarize challenges facing vaccinology and immunology at the level of society, scientific innovation, and technology in a global health perspective. We argue that vaccines represent a safety belt and life insurance for humankind.
December 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Young Su Kim, Nam-Kyung Yoon, Nadia Karisa, Sin-Hye Seo, Jeong-Soo Lee, Sung-Sik Yoo, In-Joong Yoon, Yeu-Chun Kim, Hongweon Lee, Jungoh Ahn
Streptococcus parauberis is the major infectious agent of streptococcosis in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), causing serious economic damage. In this study, we identified potential vaccine candidates against S. parauberis by reverse vaccinology. In total, the 2 out of 21 proteins were identified as vaccine candidates from two available S. parauberis genomes. The membrane-anchored protein SEC10/PgrA and the metal ABC transporter substrate-binding lipoprotein mtsA were potent antigenic proteins based on western blotting with mouse-derived antiserum against whole bacteria of S...
November 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ilham Naili, Juliette Vinot, Barbara C Baudner, Annick Bernalier-Donadille, Mariagrazia Pizza, Mickaël Desvaux, Grégory Jubelin, Ugo D'Oro, Cecilia Buonsanti
Emergence and dissemination of multidrug resistance among pathogenic Escherichia coli have posed a serious threat to public health across developing and developed countries. In combination with a flexible repertoire of virulence mechanisms, E. coli can cause a vast range of intestinal (InPEC) and extraintestinal (ExPEC) diseases but only a very limited number of antibiotics still remains effective against this pathogen. Hence, a broad spectrum E. coli vaccine could be a promising alternative to prevent the burden of such diseases, while offering the potential for covering against several InPEC and ExPEC at once...
November 29, 2018: Vaccine
M L Tomazic, A E Rodriguez, J Lombardelli, T Poklepovich, C Garro, R Galarza, K Tiranti, M Florin-Christensen, L Schnittger
The apicomplexan protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum is an important causative agent of diarrhea of neonatal bovines. Vaccination has been proposed as an advantageous strategy against cryptosporidiosis of calves since besides protection against disease it has also the potential to prevent dissemination of infective oocysts into the environment. Antigens anchored to the parasite surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) are implicated in host cell attachment and invasion and represent promising vaccine candidates...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Agnieszka Wesołowska, Monika Kozak Ljunggren, Luiza Jedlina, Katarzyna Basałaj, Andrzej Legocki, Halina Wedrychowicz, Małgorzata Kesik-Brodacka
Oral vaccination with edible vaccines is one of the most promising approaches in modern vaccinology. Edible vaccines are an alternative to conventional vaccines, which are typically delivered by injection. Here, freeze-dried transgenic lettuce expressing the cysteine proteinase of the trematode Fasciola hepatica (CPFhW) was used to orally vaccinate cattle and sheep against fasciolosis, which is the most important trematode disease due to the parasite's global distribution, wide spectrum of host species and significant economic losses of farmers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Y B Wang, L P Wang, P Li
Vaccination is a common routine for prevention and control of human and animal diseases by inducing antibody responses and cell-mediated immunity in the body. Through vaccinations, smallpox and some other diseases have been eradicated in the past few years. The use of a patho- gen itself or a subunit domain of a protein antigen as immunogens lays the basis for traditional vaccine development. But there are more and more newly emerged pathogens which have expe- rienced antigenic drift or shift under antibody selective pressures, rendering vaccine-induced im- munity ineffective...
September 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Abel Ramos-Vega, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Bernardo Bañuelos-Hernández, Carlos Angulo
Although oral subunit vaccines are highly relevant in the fight against widespread diseases, their high cost, safety and proper immunogenicity are attributes that have yet to be addressed in many cases and thus these limitations should be considered in the development of new oral vaccines. Prominent examples of new platforms proposed to address these limitations are plant cells and microalgae. Schizochytrium sp . constitutes an attractive expression host for vaccine production because of its high biosynthetic capacity, fast growth in low cost culture media, and the availability of processes for industrial scale production...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Satyavani Kaliamurthi, Gurudeeban Selvaraj, Muhammad Junaid, Abbas Khan, Keren Gu, Dong-Qing Wei
Cancer immunoinformatics have new directions towards in vaccine design from predicted potential epitope candidates, able to stimulate a correct cellular or humoral immune responses have been reported. It employed to accomplish an advanced vaccine design through Reverse vaccinology by replacing the whole organisms. In this review, computational tools play an essential role in evaluating multiple proteomes to identify and select the potential targeted epitopes or combinations of distinct epitopes candidates may afford a rationale design competent towards obtaining suitable cytotoxic T lymphocytes (T cell) or B cell-mediated immune responses...
November 5, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Catherine M Elton, Marilis Rodriguez, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Cheryl A Lobo, Gavin J Wright
Human babesiosis is an emerging tick-borne parasitic disease and blood transfusion-transmitted infection primarily caused by the apicomplexan parasite, Babesia microti. There is no licensed vaccine for B. microti and the development of a reliable serological screening test would contribute to ensuring the safety of the donated blood supply. The recent sequencing of the B. microti genome has revealed many novel genes encoding proteins that can now be tested for their suitability as subunit vaccine candidates and diagnostic serological markers...
October 24, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Daniil Korenkov, Irina Isakova-Sivak, Larisa Rudenko
One of the essential mechanisms of virus infection control is cell-mediated cytotoxicity, which can act in an antibody-dependent or -independent fashion and is provided by different effector cells. The role of CD8 T-cells in infection control and in affecting the pathological outcome of different types of infection has been demonstrated in numerous animal studies. Despite this, their role in controlling human influenza infection is not fully understood. Especially, knowledge about their induction and turnover in human influenza infection is limited...
October 26, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Stacey Bartlett, M Skwarczynski, Istvan Toth
BACKGROUND: Innate immune system plays an important role in pathogen detection and the recognition of vaccines, mainly through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that identify pathogen components (danger signals). One of the typically recognised bacterial components are lipids in conjugation with peptides, proteins and saccharides. Lipidic compounds are readily recognised by the immune system, and thus are ideal candidates for peptide-based vaccine delivery. Thus, bacterial or synthetic lipids mixed with, or conjugated to, antigens have shown adjuvanting properties...
October 25, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Gandharva Nagpal, Salman Sadullah Usmani, Gajendra P S Raghava
Evolution has led to the expansion of survival strategies in pathogens including bacteria and emergence of drug resistant strains proved to be a major global threat. Vaccination is a promising strategy to protect human population. Reverse vaccinology is a more robust vaccine development approach especially with the availability of large-scale sequencing data and rapidly dropping cost of the techniques for acquiring such data from various organisms. The present study implements an immunoinformatic approach for screening the possible antigenic proteins among various pathogenic bacteria to systemically arrive at epitope-based vaccine candidates against 14 pathogenic bacteria...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Fadil A Bidmos, Sara Siris, Camilla A Gladstone, Paul R Langford
The ongoing, and very serious, threat from antimicrobial resistance necessitates the development and use of preventative measures, predominantly vaccination. Polysaccharide-based vaccines have provided a degree of success in limiting morbidity from disseminated bacterial infections, including those caused by the major human obligate pathogens, Neisseria meningitidis , and Streptococcus pneumoniae . Limitations of these polysaccharide vaccines, such as partial coverage and induced escape leading to persistence of disease, provide a compelling argument for the development of protein vaccines...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Lian F Thomas, Camille Bellet, Jonathan Rushton
The drivers of vaccine development are many and varied. They include, for example, recognition of the burden of a vaccine-targeted disease, prioritisation of the multiple problems associated with a disease, consideration of the differing socio-economic situations under which vaccines are used, the influence of advocacy groups, and assessment of the feasibility of large-scale vaccine manufacture and distribution. In the field of human health, data-driven development of vaccines is becoming increasingly common through the availability of reliable information on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) and stringent evaluations of vaccination programmes utilising empirical data on costing and effectiveness, and standardised cost-effectiveness thresholds...
October 16, 2018: Vaccine
Joan Campbell-Tofte, Aristidis Vrahatis, Knud Josefsen, Jesper Mehlsen, Kaj Winther
In contrast to the insidious and poorly immunogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, vaccination with the HPV virus-like particles (vlps) is non-infectious and stimulates a strong neutralizing-antibody response that protects HPV-naïve vaccinees from viral infection and associated cancers. However, controversy about alleged adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with the vlps have led to extensive reductions in vaccine acceptance, with countries like Japan dropping it altogether. The AEFIs are grouped into chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)...
October 16, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
F Laurent, J Pingitore, C Rossi
Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of relatively rare invasive infections, but with very important morbi-mortality. Vaccines are already available for serogroups A, C, W, Y. A new vaccine against meningococcus B is on the Belgian market since March 2017. Serogroup B is the most prevalent in Western countries. The target populations are children and teenager, since it is at this age that peaks in the incidence of meningococcal disease are observed. The development of this vaccine has been made possible by a new process named " reverse vaccinology ", which uses the complete genome sequencing of the bacterium...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
René H M Raeven, Elly van Riet, Hugo D Meiring, Bernard Metz, Gideon F A Kersten
Systems vaccinology has proven a fascinating development in the last decade. Where traditionally vaccine development has been dominated by trial and error, systems vaccinology is a tool that provides novel and comprehensive understanding if properly used. Datasets retrieved from systems-based studies endorses rational design and effective development of safe and efficacious vaccines. In this review we first describe different omics-techniques that form the pillars of systems vaccinology. In the second part, the application of systems vaccinology in the different stages of vaccine development is described...
October 14, 2018: Immunology
Fernanda Cornejo-Granados, Juan Manuel Hurtado-Ramírez, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Adrián Ochoa-Leyva
The secretome refers to all the Excreted/Secreted (ES) proteins, and these are involved in critical biological processes, such as cell-cell communication, and host immune response. Recently, we introduced the abundance of antigenic regions (AAR) value to assess the protein antigenic density and to evaluate the antigenic potential of secretomes. Here, to facilitate the AAR calculation, we implemented it as a user-friendly webserver. We extended the webserver capabilities implementing a sequence-based tool for searching homologous proteins across secretomes, including experimental and predicted secretomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Taenia solium...
October 11, 2018: Genomics
Natalie A Prow, Rocio Jimenez Martinez, John D Hayball, Paul M Howley, Andreas Suhrbier
With the increasing number of vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases, the pressure to generate multi-valent and multi-pathogen vaccines grows. Combining individual established vaccines to generate single-shot formulations represents an established path, with significant ensuing public health and cost benefits. Poxvirus-based vector systems have the capacity for large recombinant payloads and have been widely used as platforms for the development of recombinant vaccines encoding multiple antigens, with considerable clinical trials activity and a number of registered and licensed products...
October 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Karthikeyan Gengaimuthu
Standard infection control bundles have not been consistently effective in combating sepsis due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Recent trials showing the beneficial effects of probiotics in controlling late-onset sepsis, the so-called "cross-contamination" or "cross-colonization" phenomenon that draws a parallel with the herd immunity concept in vaccinology. This editorial highlights the putative benefits of adapting the vaccinology-based concept using probiotic bacteria in our combat against MDROs...
July 31, 2018: Curēus
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