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René H M Raeven, Elly van Riet, Hugo D Meiring, Bernard Metz, Gideon F A Kersten
Systems vaccinology has proven a fascinating development in the last decade. Where traditionally vaccine development has been dominated by trial and error, systems vaccinology is a tool that provides novel and comprehensive understanding if properly used. Datasets retrieved from systems-based studies endorses rational design and effective development of safe and efficacious vaccines. In this review we first describe different omics-techniques that form the pillars of systems vaccinology. In the second part, the application of systems vaccinology in the different stages of vaccine development is described...
October 14, 2018: Immunology
Fernanda Cornejo-Granados, Juan Manuel Hurtado-Ramírez, Rogelio Hernández-Pando, Adrián Ochoa-Leyva
The secretome refers to all the Excreted/Secreted (ES) proteins, and these are involved in critical biological processes, such as cell-cell communication, and host immune response. Recently, we introduced the abundance of antigenic regions (AAR) value to assess the protein antigenic density and to evaluate the antigenic potential of secretomes. Here, to facilitate the AAR calculation, we implemented it as a user-friendly webserver. We extended the webserver capabilities implementing a sequence-based tool for searching homologous proteins across secretomes, including experimental and predicted secretomes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Taenia solium...
October 11, 2018: Genomics
Natalie A Prow, Rocio Jimenez Martinez, John D Hayball, Paul M Howley, Andreas Suhrbier
With the increasing number of vaccines and vaccine-preventable diseases, the pressure to generate multi-valent and multi-pathogen vaccines grows. Combining individual established vaccines to generate single-shot formulations represents an established path, with significant ensuing public health and cost benefits. Poxvirus-based vector systems have the capacity for large recombinant payloads and have been widely used as platforms for the development of recombinant vaccines encoding multiple antigens, with considerable clinical trials activity and a number of registered and licensed products...
October 9, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Karthikeyan Gengaimuthu
Standard infection control bundles have not been consistently effective in combating sepsis due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). Recent trials showing the beneficial effects of probiotics in controlling late-onset sepsis, the so-called "cross-contamination" or "cross-colonization" phenomenon that draws a parallel with the herd immunity concept in vaccinology. This editorial highlights the putative benefits of adapting the vaccinology-based concept using probiotic bacteria in our combat against MDROs...
July 31, 2018: Curēus
Cody S Nelson, Betsy C Herold, Sallie R Permar
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the beta-herpesvirus family, is the most common cause of congenital infection worldwide as well as an important cause of morbidity in transplant recipients and immunosuppressed individuals. An estimated 1 in 150 infants are infected with HCMV at birth, which can result in lifelong, debilitating neurologic sequelae including microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and cognitive impairment. Natural maternal immunity to HCMV decreases the frequency of reinfection and reduces risk of congenital transmission but does not completely protect against neonatal disease...
2018: NPJ vaccines
Qurat Ul Ain, Sajjad Ahmad, Syed Sikander Azam
Yersinia enterocolitica is the third most common cause of gastrointestinal manifestations in Europe. Statistically, every year the pathogen accounts for 640 hospitalizations, 117,000 illnesses, and 35 deaths in the United States. The associated mortality rate of the pathogen is 50% and is virtually resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin and cephalotin. The development of new and effective therapeutic procedures is urgently needed to counter the multi-drug-resistant phenotypes imposed by the said pathogen. Based on subtractive reverse vaccinology and immunoinformatics approaches, we have successfully predicted novel antigenic peptide vaccine candidates against Y...
September 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hizbullah, Zarghoona Nazir, Sahib Gul Afridi, Mohibullah Shah, Sulaiman Shams, Asifullah Khan
The Burkholderia pseudomallei is a unique bio-threat and causative agent of melioidosis. The B. pseudomallei Bp1651 strain has been isolated from a chronic cystic fibrosis patient. The genome-level DNA sequences information of this strain has recently been published. Unfortunately, there is no commercial vaccine available till date to combat B. pseudomallei infection. The genome-wide prioritization approaches are widely used for the identification of potential therapeutic candidates against pathogens. In the present study, we utilized the recently available annotated genomic information of B...
September 19, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Sushmita Das, Vijaya Mahantesh, Akhilesh Kumar, Ashish Kumar Singh, Budheswar Dehury, Ajaya Kumar Rout, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Roshan Kamal Topno, Krishna Pandey, V N R Das, Sanjiva Bimal, Pradeep Das
To explore new protective measure against visceral leishmaniasis, reverse vaccinology approach was employed to identify key immunogenic regions which can mediate long-term immunity. In-depth computational analysis revealed nine promiscuous epitopes which can possibly be presented by 46 human leukocyte antigen, thereby broadening the worldwide population up to 94.16%. This is of reasonable significance that most of the epitopes shared 100% sequence homology with other Leishmania species and could evoke a common pattern of protective immune response...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bahareh Vakili, Mahboobeh Eslami, Gholam Reza Hatam, Bijan Zare, Nasrollah Erfani, Navid Nezafat, Younes Ghasemi
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar, the most severe form of the disease, is endemic in more than eighty countries across the world. To date, there is no approved vaccine against VL in the market. Recent advances in reverse vaccinology could be promising approach in designing the efficient vaccine for VL treatment. In this study, an efficient multi-epitope vaccine against Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of VL, was designed using various computational vaccinology methods. Potential immunodominant epitopes were selected from four antigenic proteins, including histone H1, sterol 24-c-methyltransferase (SMT), Leishmania-specific hypothetical protein (LiHy), and Leishmania-specific antigenic protein (LSAP)...
December 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Syed Ahmad Chan Bukhari, Martin J O'Connor, Marcos Martínez-Romero, Attila L Egyedi, Debra Willrett, John Graybeal, Mark A Musen, Florian Rubelt, Kei-Hoi Cheung, Steven H Kleinstein
The adaptation of high-throughput sequencing to the B cell receptor and T cell receptor has made it possible to characterize the adaptive immune receptor repertoire (AIRR) at unprecedented depth. These AIRR sequencing (AIRR-seq) studies offer tremendous potential to increase the understanding of adaptive immune responses in vaccinology, infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer. The increasingly wide application of AIRR-seq is leading to a critical mass of studies being deposited in the public domain, offering the possibility of novel scientific insights through secondary analyses and meta-analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
G Blanchard-Rohner, N Enriquez, B Lemaître, G Cadau, C Combescure, E Giostra, K Hadaya, P Meyer, P M Soccal, T Berney, C van Delden, C A Siegrist
Solid organ transplantation (SOT) candidates may not be immune against potentially vaccine-preventable diseases because of insufficient immunizations and/or limited vaccine responses. We evaluated the impact of a systematic vaccinology workup at listing including 1) pneumococcal ± influenza immunization, 2) serology-based vaccine recommendations against measles, varicella, hepatitis B, hepatitis A and tetanus and 3) the documentation of vaccines and serologies in a national electronic immunization registry (www...
August 24, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Yingbin Shen, Tianyao Hao, Shiyi Ou, Churan Hu, Long Chen
Vaccines show great potential for both prophylactic and therapeutic use in infections, cancer, and other diseases. With the rapid development of bio-technologies and materials sciences, nanomaterials are playing essential roles in novel vaccine formulations and can boost antigen effectiveness by operating as delivery systems to enhance antigen processing and/or as immune-potentiating adjuvants to induce or potentiate immune responses. The effect of nanoparticles in vaccinology showed enhanced antigen stability and immunogenicity as well as targeted delivery and slow release...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Fadil A Bidmos, Simon Nadel, Gavin R Screaton, J Simon Kroll, Paul R Langford
The threat from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) remains a serious source of concern despite the licensure and availability of vaccines. A limitation of current serogroup B vaccines is the breadth of coverage afforded, resulting from the capacity for extensive variation of the meningococcus and its huge potential for the generation of further diversity. Thus, the continuous search for candidate antigens that will compose supplementary or replacement vaccines is mandated. Here, we describe successful efforts to utilize the reverse vaccinology 2...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christiane Gerke, Armelle Phalipon, Frédéric Tangy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Alexandre Chenal, Daniel Ladant
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is one of the major virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis , the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is able to invade eukaryotic cells where, upon activation by endogenous calmodulin, it synthesizes massive amounts of cAMP that alters cellular physiology. The CyaA toxin is a 1706 residues-long bifunctional protein: the catalytic domain is located in the 400 amino-proximal residues, whereas the carboxy-terminal 1306 residues are implicated in toxin binding to the cellular receptor, the αM β₂ (CD11b/CD18) integrin, and subsequently in the translocation of the catalytic domain across the cytoplasmic membrane of the target cells...
July 20, 2018: Toxins
January Weiner, Robert P Mohney, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Recent technological advances have provided deeper insights into the role of small molecules in biological processes. Metabolic profiling has thus entered the arena of -omics studies and rapidly proven its value both as stand-alone and as complement to other more advanced approaches, notably transcriptomics. Here we describe the potential of metabolic profiling for vaccinology embedded in the context of infection and immunity. This discussion is preceded by a description of the relevant technical and analytical tools for biological interpretation of metabolic data...
July 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Dominik Dunsch, Sabine Wicker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Vaccine
Gabriela Navarro-Tovar, Denisse Rocha-García, Alejandra Wong-Arce, Gabriela Palestino, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
Vaccinology faces the challenge of developing improved immunization approaches that are able to induce long-term immunity with the desired Th profile according to the pathology. In this context, new vehicles for efficient antigen delivery that exert adjuvant effects play a critical role in addressing this goal. Herein, mesoporous silicon particles (PSiP) were assessed as carriers for a peptide-based vaccine targeting the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a relevant receptor in Alzheimer´s disease and other diseases...
June 26, 2018: Materials
Vanessa C Harris
Despite unprecedented advances in understanding the intestinal microbiome, its potential to improve fields such as vaccinology has yet to be realized. This review briefly outlines the immunologic potential of the intestinal microbiome for vaccinology and highlights areas where the microbiome holds specific promise in vaccinology. Oral rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income countries is used as a case study to describe how the intestinal microbiome may be employed to improve a vaccine's immunogenicity...
July 2018: Drugs
Aldo Tagliabue, Rino Rappuoli
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently the most alarming issue for human health. AMR already causes 700,000 deaths/year. It is estimated that 10 million deaths due to AMR will occur every year after 2050. This equals the number of people dying of cancer every year in present times. International institutions such as G20, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), UN General Assembly, European Union, and the UK and USA governments are calling for new antibiotics. To underline this emergency, a list of antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" has been published by WHO...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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