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Yingbin Shen, Tianyao Hao, Shiyi Ou, Churan Hu, Long Chen
Vaccines show great potential for both prophylactic and therapeutic use in infections, cancer, and other diseases. With the rapid development of bio-technologies and materials sciences, nanomaterials are playing essential roles in novel vaccine formulations and can boost antigen effectiveness by operating as delivery systems to enhance antigen processing and/or as immune-potentiating adjuvants to induce or potentiate immune responses. The effect of nanoparticles in vaccinology showed enhanced antigen stability and immunogenicity as well as targeted delivery and slow release...
February 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Fadil A Bidmos, Simon Nadel, Gavin R Screaton, J Simon Kroll, Paul R Langford
The threat from invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) remains a serious source of concern despite the licensure and availability of vaccines. A limitation of current serogroup B vaccines is the breadth of coverage afforded, resulting from the capacity for extensive variation of the meningococcus and its huge potential for the generation of further diversity. Thus, the continuous search for candidate antigens that will compose supplementary or replacement vaccines is mandated. Here, we describe successful efforts to utilize the reverse vaccinology 2...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Christiane Gerke, Armelle Phalipon, Frédéric Tangy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 26, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Alexandre Chenal, Daniel Ladant
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is one of the major virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis , the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is able to invade eukaryotic cells where, upon activation by endogenous calmodulin, it synthesizes massive amounts of cAMP that alters cellular physiology. The CyaA toxin is a 1706 residues-long bifunctional protein: the catalytic domain is located in the 400 amino-proximal residues, whereas the carboxy-terminal 1306 residues are implicated in toxin binding to the cellular receptor, the αM β₂ (CD11b/CD18) integrin, and subsequently in the translocation of the catalytic domain across the cytoplasmic membrane of the target cells...
July 20, 2018: Toxins
January Weiner, Robert P Mohney, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Recent technological advances have provided deeper insights into the role of small molecules in biological processes. Metabolic profiling has thus entered the arena of -omics studies and rapidly proven its value both as stand-alone and as complement to other more advanced approaches, notably transcriptomics. Here we describe the potential of metabolic profiling for vaccinology embedded in the context of infection and immunity. This discussion is preceded by a description of the relevant technical and analytical tools for biological interpretation of metabolic data...
July 19, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Dominik Dunsch, Sabine Wicker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Vaccine
Gabriela Navarro-Tovar, Denisse Rocha-García, Alejandra Wong-Arce, Gabriela Palestino, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
Vaccinology faces the challenge of developing improved immunization approaches that are able to induce long-term immunity with the desired Th profile according to the pathology. In this context, new vehicles for efficient antigen delivery that exert adjuvant effects play a critical role in addressing this goal. Herein, mesoporous silicon particles (PSiP) were assessed as carriers for a peptide-based vaccine targeting the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a relevant receptor in Alzheimer´s disease and other diseases...
June 26, 2018: Materials
Vanessa C Harris
Despite unprecedented advances in understanding the intestinal microbiome, its potential to improve fields such as vaccinology has yet to be realized. This review briefly outlines the immunologic potential of the intestinal microbiome for vaccinology and highlights areas where the microbiome holds specific promise in vaccinology. Oral rotavirus vaccine effectiveness in low-income countries is used as a case study to describe how the intestinal microbiome may be employed to improve a vaccine's immunogenicity...
June 26, 2018: Drugs
Aldo Tagliabue, Rino Rappuoli
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently the most alarming issue for human health. AMR already causes 700,000 deaths/year. It is estimated that 10 million deaths due to AMR will occur every year after 2050. This equals the number of people dying of cancer every year in present times. International institutions such as G20, World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO), UN General Assembly, European Union, and the UK and USA governments are calling for new antibiotics. To underline this emergency, a list of antibiotic-resistant "priority pathogens" has been published by WHO...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Vandana Solanki, Vishvanath Tiwari
The emergence of drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii is the global health problem associated with high mortality and morbidity. Therefore it is high time to find a suitable therapeutics for this pathogen. In the present study, subtractive proteomics along with reverse vaccinology approaches were used to predict suitable therapeutics against A. baumannii. Using subtractive proteomics, we have identified promiscuous antigenic membrane proteins that contain the virulence factors, resistance factors and essentiality factor for this pathogenic bacteria...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ehud Shahar, Ruth Haddas, Dana Goldenberg, Avishai Lublin, Itai Bloch, Noa Bachner Hinenzon, Jacob Pitcovski
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major cause of infectious mortality and morbidity in poultry worldwide. It is an enveloped virus with two outer-membrane proteins-haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion protein (F)-that induce neutralizing antibodies. All NDV strains belong to one serotype. Yet, NDV vaccines, derived from genotype II, do not fully prevent infection or shedding of viruses from other genotypes. The aim of this study was to test if an updated vaccine is required. For this purpose, NDVs isolated from infected, albeit heavily vaccinated, flocks were genetically and immunologically characterized...
July 5, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Alice Harper, Katie L Flanagan
It is well established that vaccination does not affect males and females equally. For example, females generally mount greater antibody responses to vaccination than males, but also suffer more adverse events following vaccination, probably as a result of more robust immunity. Despite this, most researchers in the field of vaccinology do not take biological sex into account when conducting their studies. This omission is likely to lead to a loss of important information in terms of both reactogenicity and immunogenicity following vaccination as well as those suffering adverse events...
June 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Paul-Henri Lambert, Audino Podda
Over the past 20 years, education of scientists and public health professionals in Vaccinology has increased dramatically. There are now many international, regional, and national courses that provide education in vaccinology. The proliferation of these courses and the high number of applications submitted demonstrate the increasing and continuous need for improved education in this field since, generally, comprehensive vaccinology training is not offered to medical and/or biological sciences students as part of their Universities courses and consequently there is insufficient knowledge of vaccine topics among health-care providers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
David Redi, Chiara Spertilli Raffaelli, Barbara Rossetti, Andrea De Luca, Francesca Montagnani
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen in both community and hospital settings. It is a significant etiological agent to treat in healthcare-related infections due to both its ability to cause invasive infection as well as to form biofilm on biomaterials and the high prevalence of resistance to first line antibiotics. The most challenging preventive strategy is vaccine development to guarantee a full and durable protection from staphylococcal diseases in all different high-risk populations, even if the lack of a known correlate of protection from S...
June 6, 2018: New Microbiologica
Jiachen Huang, Qiangde Duan, Weiping Zhang
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) strains producing heat-labile toxin (LT) and/or heat-stable toxin (STa) are a top cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Holotoxin-structured GM1 -binding LT is a strong immunogen and an effective adjuvant, and can serve a carrier or a platform for multivalent vaccine development. However, the significance of peptide domains or epitopes of LT particularly enzymatic LTA subunit in association with LT enterotoxicity and immunogenicity has not been characterized...
August 1, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Giuseppe Del Giudice, Rino Rappuoli, Arnaud M Didierlaurent
After decades of slow progress, the last years have seen a rapid acceleration of the development of adjuvanted vaccines which have lately been approved for human use. These adjuvants consist of different components, e.g. aluminium salts, emulsions such as MF59 and AS03, Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists (CpG ormonophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adsorbed on aluminium salts as in AS04) or combination of immunopotentiators (QS-21 and MPL in AS01). Despite their distinctive features, most of these adjuvants share some key characteristics...
May 22, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Subhra Chakraborty, Arlo Randall, Tim J Vickers, Doug Molina, Clayton D Harro, Barbara DeNearing, Jessica Brubaker, David A Sack, A Louis Bourgeois, Philip L Felgner, Xiaowu Liang, Sachin Mani, Heather Wenzel, R Reid Townsend, Petra E Gilmore, Michael J Darsley, David A Rasko, James M Fleckenstein
Background: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of diarrheal illness in the developing world. ETEC vaccinology has been challenged by genetic diversity and heterogeneity of canonical antigens. Examination of the antigenic breadth of immune responses associated with protective immunity could afford new avenues for vaccine development. Methods: Antibody lymphocyte supernatants (ALS) and sera from 20 naïve human volunteers challenged with ETEC strain H10407 and from 10 volunteers re-challenged 4-6 weeks later with the same strain (9 of whom were completely protected on re-challenge) were tested against ETEC proteome microarrays containing 957 antigens...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alissa de Sarom, Arun Kumar Jaiswal, Sandeep Tiwari, Letícia de Castro Oliveira, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo, Carlo Jose Oliveira, Siomar de Castro Soares
Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi The control of chancroid is difficult and the only current available treatment is antibiotic therapy; however, antibiotic resistance has been reported in endemic areas. Owing to recent outbreaks of STIs worldwide, it is important to keep searching for new treatment strategies and preventive measures. Here, we applied reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomic approaches for the in silico prediction of potential vaccine and drug targets against 28 strains of H...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Sinthujan Jegaskanda
Despite global vaccination efforts, influenza virus continues to cause yearly epidemics and periodic pandemics throughout most of the world. Many of us consider the generation of broader, potent and long-lasting immunity against influenza viruses as critical in curtailing the global health and economic impact that influenza currently plays. To date, classical vaccinology has relied on the generation of neutralizing antibodies as the benchmark to measure vaccine effectiveness. However, recent developments in numerous related fields of biomedical research including, HIV, HSV and DENV have emphasized the importance of Fc-mediate effector functions in pathogenesis and immunity...
May 17, 2018: Vaccines
Sajjad Ahmad, Syed Sikander Azam
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the major cause of nosocomial infections around the globe. The emergence of hyper-virulent strains of the pathogen greatly narrows down therapeutic options for patients infected with this red alert superbug. Development of a peptide-based vaccine can offers an alternative, attractive, and cost-effective remedy for multidrug-resistant A. baumannii associated complications. Herein, we introduced a novel virulome based Reverse Vaccinology for screening peptide based vaccine candidates against A...
August 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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