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Duan Huang, Rendong Li, Juan Qiu, Xiangdong Sun, Ruixia Yuan, Yuanyuan Shi, Yubing Qu, Yingnan Niu
The study aimed to reveal the risk factors and predict the prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Western China. To do this, we analyzed county-wide data relating to the prevalence of human CE in seven provinces of Western China, along with associated human, natural geographical environmental data. We then used spatial analysis and multiple regression analysis to investigate the correlation between the prevalence of human CE and associated environmental factors and to create a risk map of the disease in the seven provinces...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Miao Wei, Meng Feng, Yue Guan, Ce Guo, Hang Zhou, Yongfeng Fu, Hiroshi Tachibana, Xunjia Cheng
Entamoeba nuttalli infection is prevalent in captive and wild macaques. Recent studies have suggested that genotypes of E. nuttalli isolates are correlated with the geographical distribution of host macaques. Correlation of amoebic genotypes with genetic diversity of host macaques was analyzed in present study. Sixty fresh stool samples were obtained from wild Tibetan macaques living in Mount Huang (HS) of the An-hui Province in China. PCR analysis revealed that the most prevalent Entamoeba species was E. chattoni (E...
August 10, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Hong Xiao, Zhen Peng, Chang Lin Xu, De Gang Zhang, Jin Long Chai, Tao Tao Pan, Xiao Jun Yu
Livestock grazing affects grassland stability, resilience, and productivity owing to trampling, foraging, and excretion. Over time, trampling influences a wide range of grassland components and can have lasting effects. Trampling helps maintain grassland health but may also cause its degradation. In a field experiment over two growing seasons, we simulated yak and sheep trampling at different intensities and investigated their effects on the reproductive and photosynthetic characteristics of Medicago ruthenica var...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yao Hu, Ciyang, Dunzhuyongzong, Awangluosong, Zuoqing Yang, Aqing
Although hepatitis B vaccine (HepB1 ) was first recommended through China's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1992, Tibet was able to offer universal HepB1 vaccination starting only in early 2004. This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess, 12 years after administration of HepB1 , the seroepidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children in Qamdo, Tibet. Focusing on a population of individuals ≤ 15 years of age living in Tibet, we analyzed serum samples from 261 healthy children for HBV status based on the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies against HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs)...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Jin Ding, Lan Cuo, Yongxin Zhang, Fuxin Zhu
In this study, the spatiotemporal distributions of monthly and annual temperature minima (Tmin ) and maxima (Tmax ), extreme Tmin and Tmax , the highest (lowest) Tmin (Tmax ), frost day (FD), icing day (ID), summer day (SD) and tropical night (TR) at 112 stations and over the ten large river basins on the Tibetan Plateau and its surroundings (TPS) during 1963-2015 are examined. Mann-Kendall test is applied for the trends. The analyses show: the northwest experiences the hottest summer while the central TPS has the coldest winter and most frequent frost and icing days...
August 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kelly A Hopping, Alan K Knapp, Tsechoe Dorji, Julia A Klein
Alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau comprise the largest alpine ecosystem in the world and provide critical ecosystem services, including forage production and carbon sequestration, on which people depend from local to global scales. However, the provision of these services may be threatened by climate warming combined with land use policies that are altering if and how pastoralists can continue to graze livestock, the dominant livelihood practice in this region for millennia. We synthesized findings from a climate warming and yak grazing experiment with landscape-level observations in central Tibet to gain insight into the trajectories of change that Tibet's alpine meadows will undergo in response to expected changes in climate and land use...
August 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Wei Guo, Sisi Bi, Jingpeng Kang, Ying Zhang, Ruijun Long, Xiaodan Huang, M N Shan, Robin C Anderson
The objectives of this current study were to characterize the overall rumen bacterial community in grazing yak and two sheep species (Tibetan and Small Tail Han sheep) reared in the unique environmental conditions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, as well as the bacterial community associated with the detoxification of a phytotoxin, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA), during in vitro culture with 4.2 mM NPA. Using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, it was found that the yak rumen harbored populations showing a higher bacterial diversity compared to Tibetan sheep...
August 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Xinju Zhang, Lei Jin, Zhiyuan Wu, Weizhe Ma, Yuming Chen, Gang Chen, Lixin Wang, Ming Guan
The goal of this research was to investigate the linkage disequilibrium between rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 in different Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, and Hui) and to study the feasibility of rs9263726 replacing HLA-B*58:01 as an efficient indicator of potential allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. In this study, rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 were detected in all samples. For samples of individuals whose rs9263726 genotypes were not consistent with HLA-B*58:01, we did high-resolution typing of HLA-B gene to further confirm the correlation of rs9263726 genotype and special HLA-B alleles...
August 2, 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Yan-Yan Guo, Yong-Qiang Zhang, Guo-Qiang Zhang, Lai-Qiang Huang, Zhong-Jian Liu
Deceptive pollination is key to the species richness of Orchidaceae. However, the genetic basis of species diversification is still under study. Section Trigonopedia is a monophyletic clade of genus Cypripedium distributed in the southwest of China. The species of this section are pollinated by different flies. Pollinator differentiation makes section Trigonopedia an ideal group for studying the genetic basis underlying species diversification. Here, we sequenced the transcriptomes of eight species of the genus Cypripedium, including six co-flowering species of section Trigonopedia and two species outside this section as an outgroup...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nguyen Thuy Duong, Enrico Macholdt, Nguyen Dang Ton, Leonardo Arias, Roland Schröder, Nguyen Van Phong, Vo Thi Bich Thuy, Nguyen Hai Ha, Huynh Thi Thu Hue, Nguyen Thi Xuan, Kim Thi Phuong Oanh, Le Thi Thu Hien, Nguyen Huy Hoang, Brigitte Pakendorf, Mark Stoneking, Nong Van Hai
Vietnam is an important crossroads within Mainland Southeast Asia (MSEA) and a gateway to Island Southeast Asia, and as such exhibits high levels of ethnolinguistic diversity. However, comparatively few studies have been undertaken of the genetic diversity of Vietnamese populations. In order to gain comprehensive insights into MSEA mtDNA phylogeography, we sequenced 609 complete mtDNA genomes from individuals belonging to five language families (Austroasiatic, Tai-Kadai, Hmong-Mien, Sino-Tibetan and Austronesian) and analyzed them in comparison with sequences from other MSEA countries and Taiwan...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
J X Li, L P Yue, A P Roberts, A M Hirt, F Pan, Lin Guo, Y Xu, R G Xi, Lei Guo, X K Qiang, C C Gai, Z X Jiang, Z M Sun, Q S Liu
Tibetan Plateau uplift has been suggested as the main driving force for mid-latitude Asian inland aridity (AIA) and for deposition of thick aeolian sequences in northern China since the Miocene. However, the relationship between earlier AIA and Tibetan Plateau mountain building is uncertain because of a lack of corresponding thick aeolian sequences with accurate age constraints. We here present results for a continuous aeolian sequence that spans the interval from >51 to 39 Ma from the eastern Xorkol Basin, Altun Shan, northeastern Tibetan Plateau...
August 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Jia-Tang Li, Yue-Dong Gao, Liang Xie, Cao Deng, Peng Shi, Meng-Long Guan, Song Huang, Jin-Long Ren, Dong-Dong Wu, Li Ding, Zi-Yan Huang, Hu Nie, Devon P Humphreys, David M Hillis, Wen-Zhi Wang, Ya-Ping Zhang
Several previous genomic studies have focused on adaptation to high elevations, but these investigations have been largely limited to endotherms. Snakes of the genus Thermophis are endemic to the Tibetan plateau and therefore present an opportunity to study high-elevation adaptations in ectotherms. Here, we report the de novo assembly of the genome of a Tibetan hot-spring snake ( Thermophis baileyi ) and then compare its genome to the genomes of the other two species of Thermophis , as well as to the genomes of two related species of snakes that occur at lower elevations...
July 31, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Liyuan Wu, Jiahua Yu, Qiufang Shen, Lu Huang, Dezhi Wu, Guoping Zhang
BACKGROUND: Barley is relatively sensitive to Aluminum (Al) toxicity among cereal crops, but shows a wide genotypic difference in Al tolerance. The well-known Al-tolerant mechanism in barley is related to Al exclusion mediated by a citrate transporter HvAACT1 (Al-activated citrate transporter 1). A 1-kb insertion in the promoter region of HvAACT1 gene results in a dramatic increase of its expression level, which only occurs in some Al-tolerant cultivars. However, Al-tolerant Tibetan wild barley accession XZ29 did not have the 1-kb insertion...
July 31, 2018: BMC Genomics
Kai Cui, Wujiao Li, Jake George James, Changjun Peng, Jiazheng Jin, Chaochao Yan, Zhenxin Fan, Lianming Du, Megan Price, Yongjie Wu, Bisong Yue
The monal genus (Lophophorus) is a branch of Phasianidae and its species inhabit the high-altitude mountains of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The Chinese monal, L. lhuysii, is a threatened endemic bird of China that possesses high-altitude adaptability, diversity of plumage color and potentially low reproductive life history. This is the first study to describe the monal genome using next generation sequencing technology. The Chinese monal genome size is 1.01 Gb, with 16,940 protein-coding genes. Gene annotation yielded 100...
July 28, 2018: Genomics
Jiangtao Li, Xiaodong Song
What happened to the Indian mantle lithosphere (IML) during the Indian-Eurasian collision and what role it has played on the plateau growth are fundamental questions that remain unanswered. Here, we show clear images of the IML from high-resolution P and S tomography, which suggest that the subducted IML is torn into at least four pieces with different angles and northern limits, shallower and extending further in the west and east sides while steeper in the middle. Intermediate-depth earthquakes in the lower crust and mantle are located almost exclusively in the high-velocity (and presumably strong) part of the Indian lithosphere...
July 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaowei Fan, Lifeng Ma, Zhiying Zhang, Yi Li, Meng Hao, Zhipeng Zhao, Yiduo Zhao, Fang Liu, Lijun Liu, Xingguang Luo, Peng Cai, Yansong Li, Longli Kang
BACKGROUND: High-altitude polycythemia (HAPC) is a chronic high-altitude disease that can lead to an increase in the production of red blood cells in the people who live in the plateau, a hypoxia environment, for a long time. The most frequent symptoms of HAPC include headache, dizziness, breathlessness, sleep disorders, and dilation of veins. Although chronic hypoxia is the main cause of HAPC, the fundamental pathophysiologic process and related molecular mechanisms responsible for its development remain largely unclear yet...
July 27, 2018: Human Genomics
Lin Yang, Xiaoyan Kong, Shuli Yang, Xinxing Dong, Jianfa Yang, Xiao Gou, Hao Zhang
The Tibetan horse is a species endemic to the Tibetan plateau, with considerable economic value in the region. However, we currently have little genetic evidence to verify whether the breed originated in Tibet or if it entered the area via an ancient migratory route. In the present study, we analyzed the hypervariable segment I sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 2,050 horses, including 290 individuals from five Tibetan populations and 1,760 from other areas across Asia. Network analysis revealed multiple maternal lineages in the Tibetan horse...
2018: PloS One
Y J Liu, L H Guo, J Li, J T Yue, M S Shi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the genetic polymorphisms of 27 Y-STR in Dongxiang population of Gansu province, and to explore the population genetic relationship and the value of forensic application. METHODS: The genotyping of 27 Y-STR loci in 526 unrelated male individuals in Dongxiang population of Gansu province were detected by STRtyper-27Y kit. The allele frequencies and haplotype diversity were also calculated. Combining with other genetics data of 14 loci in same populations, which have been published at home and abroad, the genetic distance and clustering relationship in Dongxiang population of Gansu province were calculated...
June 2018: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
Lihong Zhang, Shucheng Huang, Kun Li, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Xiong Jiang, Xiaole Tong, Hui Zhang, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Khalid Mehmood, Suozhu Liu, Yaoqin Shen, Jiakui Li
Hepatitis E is an important public health concern throughout the world. Many molecular and serological surveys have reported the prevalence and genotypic characteristics of HEV in humans and animals worldwide. However, the genotypic characterization of this virus is very limited in Tibetan pigs. Hence, we aimed to explore the genotype of HEV, prevailing among Tibetan pigs in China. For this purpose, 253 bile samples of Tibetan pigs (free-range animals) were collected from different slaughterhouses during 2017-2018 and subsequently tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR...
July 26, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Hui Zhang, Robert John, Shidan Zhu, Hui Liu, Qiuyuan Xu, Wei Qi, Kun Liu, Han Y H Chen, Qing Ye
Although trait-based processes of community assembly during secondary succession invokes multiple factors that ultimately determine the presence or absence of a species, little is known regarding the impacts of functional traits on species abundance in successional plant communities. Here in species-rich subalpine secondary successional meadows of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, we measured photosynthesis rate and leaf proline content that are related to plant growth and abiotic stress resistance, respectively, and seed germination rate that is closely correlated with plant germination strategy to test their influence on species abundance during succession...
July 24, 2018: Oecologia
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