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Ting Wang, Yan Cui, Penggang Liu, Junfeng He, Qian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Kidney has long been thought to be a body's largest organ of elimination for maintain acid-base balance. In recent years, the research on kidneys has mainly focused on the structural characteristics of the kidney of single age group animals. In this Paper we used histological and immunohistochemical methods to observe and compare the structure characteristics of yak kidney and the expression of EGFR BMP-2 and p53 in the kidney of yaks of three different age groups. AIMS: To investigate histological characteristics of age-related changes in the kidney of yak and expression and localization of kidney related factors...
August 14, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Hong Xiao, Zhen Peng, Chang Lin Xu, De Gang Zhang, Jin Long Chai, Tao Tao Pan, Xiao Jun Yu
Livestock grazing affects grassland stability, resilience, and productivity owing to trampling, foraging, and excretion. Over time, trampling influences a wide range of grassland components and can have lasting effects. Trampling helps maintain grassland health but may also cause its degradation. In a field experiment over two growing seasons, we simulated yak and sheep trampling at different intensities and investigated their effects on the reproductive and photosynthetic characteristics of Medicago ruthenica var...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Kelly A Hopping, Alan K Knapp, Tsechoe Dorji, Julia A Klein
Alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau comprise the largest alpine ecosystem in the world and provide critical ecosystem services, including forage production and carbon sequestration, on which people depend from local to global scales. However, the provision of these services may be threatened by climate warming combined with land use policies that are altering if and how pastoralists can continue to graze livestock, the dominant livelihood practice in this region for millennia. We synthesized findings from a climate warming and yak grazing experiment with landscape-level observations in central Tibet to gain insight into the trajectories of change that Tibet's alpine meadows will undergo in response to expected changes in climate and land use...
August 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Wei Guo, Sisi Bi, Jingpeng Kang, Ying Zhang, Ruijun Long, Xiaodan Huang, M N Shan, Robin C Anderson
The objectives of this current study were to characterize the overall rumen bacterial community in grazing yak and two sheep species (Tibetan and Small Tail Han sheep) reared in the unique environmental conditions of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, as well as the bacterial community associated with the detoxification of a phytotoxin, 3-nitro-1-propionic acid (NPA), during in vitro culture with 4.2 mM NPA. Using 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing, it was found that the yak rumen harbored populations showing a higher bacterial diversity compared to Tibetan sheep...
August 3, 2018: Anaerobe
Jun Liu, Yan Cui, Sijiu Yu, Yufeng Huang, Penggang Liu, Liangli Song, Juan Sun, Qian Zhang, Junfeng He
Yaks (Bos grunniens) have special physiological structures that help them adapt to high-altitude environments. Survivin is actively studied in cancer tissues, but less in normal tissues. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analysis the relationship between survivin expression and apoptosis rate in yaks. A partial gene sequence of survivin was cloned and characterized using bioinformatics. The expression of survivin was investigated using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot (WB) analysis and localized using immunohistochemistry (IHC)...
August 2, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Alexis S Hammond, Michael J Paul, Joseph Hobelmann, Animesh R Koratana, Mark Dredze, Margaret S Chisolm
BACKGROUND: Substance use is a major issue for adolescents and young adults, particularly college students. With the importance of peer influence and the ubiquitous use of social media among these age groups, it is important to assess what is discussed on various social media sites regarding substance use. One particular mobile app (Yik Yak) allowed users to post any message anonymously to nearby persons, often in areas with close proximity to major colleges and universities. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the content, including attitude toward substances, of social media discussions that occurred near college campuses and involved substances...
August 2, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
X Xie, Y Yang, Q Ren, X Ding, P Bao, B Yan, X Yan, J Han, P Yan, Q Qiu
Deleterious mutations play an important functional role, affecting trait phenotypes in ways that decrease the fitness of organisms. Estimating the frequency of occurrence and abundance has been a topic of much interest, especially in crops and livestock. The processes of domestication and breeding allow deleterious mutations to persist at high frequency, and identifying such deleterious mutations is particularly important for breed improvement. Here, we assessed genome-wide patterns of deleterious variation in 59 domestic and 13 wild yaks using genome resequencing data...
July 30, 2018: Animal Genetics
Mingna Li, Xiaoyun Wu, Xian Guo, Pengjia Bao, Xuezhi Ding, Min Chu, Chunnian Liang, Ping Yan
Background: The practice of dehorning yak raises animal safety concerns, which have been addressed by selective breeding to obtain genetically hornless yak. The POLLED locus in yak has been studied extensively; however, little is known regarding the proteins that regulate horn bud development. Methods: A differential proteomic analysis was performed to compare the skin from the horn bud region of polled yak fetuses and the horn bud tissue of horned yak fetuses using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technology coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS...
2018: Proteome Science
Fan Jiangfeng, Luo Yuzhu, Yu Sijiu, Cui Yan, Xu Gengquan, Wang Libin, Pan Yangyang, He Honghong
Yak milk is superior to common cow milk in nutrients including protein, fat and calories. However, the milk yield of the yak is very much lower compared with other dairy bovines. To understand the molecular mechanisms of lactogenesis, lactation and mammary gland development, mammary tissue samples were taken from five yaks during a dry period (DP, n = 3) and lactation period (LP, n = 2). Two types of cDNA sequence libraries that reflected the different physiological states of the mammary gland were constructed using RNA sequencing technology...
2018: PloS One
Yan Wang, Ronghou Liu
The physicochemical properties and adsorption capacities of yak manure biochar (SP350-YMB) and modified yak manure biochar by H2 O2 (AC-YMB) were investigated. Results showed the oxygen content and the carboxyl group content of manure biochar increased by 63.4% and 101%, and the ash content decreased 42% after modification, respectively. Compared to SP350-YMB, the adsorption capacities of heavy metal ions (Pb2+ , Cu2+ , Cd2+ and Zn2+ ) were enhanced by AC-YMB in single-metal and multi-metal solutions. The maximum adsorption capacity of Pb2+ increased from 76...
July 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yufeng Huang, Yan Cui, Sijiu Yu, Junfeng He, Yanyu He, Qian Zhang, Penggang Liu, Yanhuan Pu, Juan Sun, Xinhua Kang
This experiment compared the histological characteristics and distribution of CD3 and CD79a among yak lymph nodes, hemal nodes and spleen. The three organs from ten clinically healthy newborn and adult yaks were studied using histology and immunohistochemistry. The yak hemal nodes, which consisted of blood sinuses, lymphoid follicles, diffuse lymphoid tissue and lymphoid cords, appeared to share the histological characteristics of the spleen and lymph nodes: the lymphoid follicles of the hemal nodes were much like those of the lymph nodes, which were not surrounded by the central artery and periarteriolar lymphoid sheath...
July 19, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Linlin Wang, Guoyuan Ma, Yubin Zhang, Xixiong Shi, Ling Han, Qunli Yu, Suonan Zhao, Junyi Ma
We aim to investigate the effect of mitochondrial cytochrome c release and its redox state on the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway and yak meat tenderization during postmortem aging. Results indicated that the internal environment factors considerably decreased, whereas mitochondrial dysfunction increased in the early stage (0-72 h). Moreover, the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, which was an apoptotic early event and the apoptosome elements in the cytoplasm changed remarkably with the increase of aging time...
September 2018: Food Research International
Anupama Mukherjee, Sabyasachi Mukherjee, Rajan Dhakal, Moonmoon Mech, Imsusosang Longkumer, Nazrul Haque, Kezhavituo Vupru, Kobu Khate, I Yanger Jamir, Pursenla Pongen, Chandan Rajkhowa, Abhijit Mitra, Bernt Guldbrandtsen, Goutam Sahana
The current study aimed at genomic characterization and improved understanding of genetic diversity of two Indian mithun populations (both farm, 48 animals and field, 24 animals) using genome wide genotype data generated with Illumina BovineHD BeadChip. Eight additional populations of taurine cattle (Holstein and NDama), indicine cattle (Gir) and other evolutionarily closely related species (Bali cattle, Yak, Bison, Gaur and wild buffalo) were also included in this analysis (N = 137) for comparative purposes...
July 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yinhai Jia, Xiurong Yang, Chengfu Zhang, Shangzhi Yang, Ming Li, Wenwen Xu, Qiumei Ji, Hesheng Jiang
The yak is one of the most important and economically useful animals for highlanders. The decline in the yak population requires effective measures for the conservation and multiplication of elite germplasm. A standardized protocol will simplify the freezing and warming of yak embryos in straw and facilitate embryo transfer. In this work, we investigated a one-step protocol that uses a stable basal medium, which comprised a warming medium (1.08 M sucrose) and a freezing medium (EFS40). We also assessed the effects of the new transfer method on embryo survival...
July 2, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Andrew A Brayman, Brian E MacConaghy, Yak-Nam Wang, Keith T Chan, Wayne L Monsky, Valery P Chernikov, Sergey V Buravkov, Vera A Khokhlova, Thomas J Matula
This study addresses inactivation of E. coli in either 5- or 10-mL volumes, which were 50- to 100-fold greater than used in an earlier study (Brayman et al. 2017). Cells were treated with 1-MHz pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (10 cycles, 2-kHz repetition frequency, +65/-12.8 MPa focal pressures). The surviving fraction was assessed by coliform assay, and inactivation demonstrated curvilinear kinetics. The reduction of surviving fraction to 50% required 2.5 or 6 min in 5- or 10-mL samples, respectively...
June 22, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Lindsay McDonald, Mathieu Cayla, Alasdair Ivens, Binny M Mony, Paula MacGregor, Eleanor Silvester, Kirsty McWilliam, Keith R Matthews
Trypanosoma brucei, the agents of African trypanosomiasis, undergo density-dependent differentiation in the mammalian bloodstream to prepare for transmission by tsetse flies. This involves the generation of cell-cycle arrested, quiescent, stumpy forms from proliferative slender forms. The signalling pathway responsible for the quorum sensing response has been catalogued using a genome-wide selective screen, providing a compendium of signalling protein kinases phosphatases, RNA binding proteins and hypothetical proteins...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yupeng Liao, Rui Hu, Zhisheng Wang, Quanhui Peng, Xianwen Dong, Xiangfei Zhang, Huawei Zou, Qijian Pu, Bai Xue, Lizhi Wang
This study was to determine differences in the global metabolic profiles of serum and urine of Xuanhan yellow cattle, Simmental crossbred cattle (Simmental × Xuanhan yellow cattle), and cattle-yaks (Jersey × Maiwa yak) under heat stress (temperature-humidity index remained above 80 for 1 week). A total of 55 different metabolites associated with the three breeds were identified in the serum and urine samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolic adaptations to heat stress are heterogeneous...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jizhang Zhou, Zhaocai Li, Zhongzi Lou, Yuanyuan Fei
Since the first case of Chlamydia infection in duck had been reported in 1956 and the first case from domestic animal had been reported in 1979 in China, the chlamydia prevalence in China was heavily according to the published data. The Chlamydi a in avian prevalence has been reported at least 11 provinces, Chlamydia in sheep and goats at least 11 provinces, in swine at least 15 provinces, in cows at least 13 provinces and in yaks at least 5 provinces with result of IHA detection. Different diagnostic method such as CFT, ELISA and ABC-ELISA (avidin-biotin-complex ELISA) had been established besides IHA...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Ningbo Chen, Yudong Cai, Qiuming Chen, Ran Li, Kun Wang, Yongzhen Huang, Songmei Hu, Shisheng Huang, Hucai Zhang, Zhuqing Zheng, Weining Song, Zhijie Ma, Yun Ma, Ruihua Dang, Zijing Zhang, Lei Xu, Yutang Jia, Shanzhai Liu, Xiangpeng Yue, Weidong Deng, Xiaoming Zhang, Zhouyong Sun, Xianyong Lan, Jianlin Han, Hong Chen, Daniel G Bradley, Yu Jiang, Chuzhao Lei
Cattle domestication and the complex histories of East Asian cattle breeds warrant further investigation. Through analysing the genomes of 49 modern breeds and eight East Asian ancient samples, worldwide cattle are consistently classified into five continental groups based on Y-chromosome haplotypes and autosomal variants. We find that East Asian cattle populations are mainly composed of three distinct ancestries, including an earlier East Asian taurine ancestry that reached China at least ~3.9 kya, a later introduced Eurasian taurine ancestry, and a novel Chinese indicine ancestry that diverged from Indian indicine approximately 36...
June 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhen Zhu, Yuxiang Shi, Xuzheng Zhou, Bing Li, Jiyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Members of the genus Shigella are intestinal pathogens and a major cause of seasonal outbreaks of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Although humans are the conventional hosts of Shigella species, expansion of the Shigella host range to certain animals was recently reported. To investigate the prevalence of Shigella sonnei (S. sonnei) in yaks and perform molecular characterization, we analyzed 1132 fresh yak diarrheal stool samples and collected a total of 44 S. sonnei isolates...
June 7, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
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