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Jun Wu, Jian Lu, Cui Zhang, Zhenhua Zhang, Xiuyun Min
This study investigated the adsorptive removal of target fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines by biochar made by yak dung collected from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Yak dung biochar pyrolyzed at 700 °C possessed surface area of 198.745 m2  g-1 and multiple functional groups. Effects of different factors including biochar dosage, pH, temperature, and initial concentration on adsorption of antibiotics were discussed. The biochar dosage of 1 g L-1 was preferable for adsorptive removal of antibiotics. Adsorption of target antibiotics did not show pH-dependent features...
December 14, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Bin Zhang, Xinnuo Chen, Hua Yue, Wenqiang Ruan, Sinan Qin, Cheng Tang
BACKGROUND: Enteroviruses (Picornaviridae family) have been widely detected in the feces from cattle with diarrhea. However, the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenicity of enteroviruses in cattle remain unclear. Recently, we isolated a novel EV-F7 strain called SWUN-AB001 from diarrheal yak (Bos grunniens) feces. To explore the pathogenic mechanisms of this novel virus, we used a transcriptomics approach to find genes with differential expression patterns in Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells during infection with SWUN-AB001 over time...
December 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Xin Zhao, Yu Qian, Guijie Li, Ruokun Yi, Kun-Young Park, Jia-Le Song
The present study investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum YS2 (LP-YS2) that was isolated from yak yogurt on activated carbon-induced constipation in Kunming (KM) mice. The KM mice were orally administered LP-YS2 and reference strain Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. Administration of LP-YS2 [1.0 × 109 cfu/kg of body weight (BW)] promoted gastrointestinal peristalsis and reduced the first black stool defecation time (129 min), which clearly defines attenuation of the voiding difficulty in mice with constipation...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Xuebin Qi, Qu Zhang, Yaoxi He, Lixin Yang, Xiaoming Zhang, Peng Shi, Linping Yang, Zhengheng Liu, Fuheng Zhang, Fengyun Liu, Shiming Liu, Tianyi Wu, Chaoying Cui, Ouzhuluobu, Caijuan Bai, Baimakangzhuo, Jianlin Han, Shengguo Zhao, Chunnian Liang, Bing Su
Yak is one of the largest native mammalian species at the Himalayas, the highest plateau area in the world with an average elevation of more than 4,000 meters above the sea level. Yak is well adapted to high altitude environment with a set of physiological features for a more efficient blood flow for oxygen delivery under hypobaric hypoxia. Yet, the genetic mechanism underlying its adaptation remains elusive. We conducted a cross-tissue, cross-altitude and cross-species study to characterize the transcriptomic landscape of domestic yaks...
December 4, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Bikram Shrestha, Joxerra Aihartza, Pavel Kindlmann
Visual attractiveness and rarity often results in large carnivores being adopted as flagship species for stimulating conservation awareness. Their hunting behaviour and prey selection can affect the population dynamics of their prey, which in turn affects the population dynamics of these large carnivores. Therefore, our understanding of their trophic ecology and foraging strategies is important for predicting their population dynamics and consequently for developing effective conservation programs. Here we concentrate on an endangered species of carnivores, the snow leopard, in the Himalayas...
2018: PloS One
Yak-Nam Wang, Tatiana D Khokhlova, Sergey Buravkov, Valeriy Chernikov, Wayne Kreider, Ari Partanen, Navid Farr, Adam Maxwell, George R Schade, Vera A Khokhlova
High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is rapidly advancing as an alternative therapy for non-invasively treating specific cancers and other pathological tissues through thermal ablation. A new type of HIFU therapy-boiling histotripsy (BH)-aims at mechanical fractionation of into subcellular fragments, with a range of accompanying thermal effects that can be tuned from none to substantial depending on the requirements of the application. The degree of mechanical tissue damage induced by BH has been shown to depend on the tissue type, with collagenous structures being most resistant, and cellular structures being most sensitive...
December 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Jie Pei, Pengjia Bao, Min Chu, Chunnian Liang, Xuezhi Ding, Hongbo Wang, Xiaoyun Wu, Xian Guo, Ping Yan
Background: Yak ( Bos grunniens ) is the most important domestic animal for people living at high altitudes. Yak ordinarily feed by grazing, and this behavior impacts the accuracy of the pedigree record because it is difficult to control mating in grazing yak. This study aimed to evaluate the pedigree system and individual identification in polled yak. Methods: A total of 71 microsatellite loci were selected from the literature, mostly from the studies on cattle...
2018: PeerJ
Jidong Wang, Kim R Blasdell, Hong Yin, Peter J Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Cheng Guo, Yue Xie, Yuchen Liu, Ning Wang, Jiafei Zhan, Xuan Zhou, Christiana Angel, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Coenurus cerebralis , the metacestode of Taenia multiceps , causes coenurosis, a disease severely affecting goat, sheep, cattle and yak farming and resulting in huge economic losses annually. Annexins bind calcium ions and play an important role in flatworm parasite development. To explore potential functions of annexins in T. multiceps , three homologous genes, namely, TmAnxB2 , TmAnxB3 and TmAnxB12 , were screened from the transcriptome dataset, amplified from C. cerebralis cDNA and subjected to bioinformatics analysis...
November 19, 2018: Genes
Meng Wang, Yun Wang, Abdul Rasheed Baloch, Yangyang Pan, Lili Tian, Fang Xu, Shaobo Chen, Qiaoying Zeng
We detected Chuzan virus (CHUV) in domestic yaks from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, western China, indicating CHUV probably has been transmitted to yaks in recent years. Awareness for CHUV surveillance and transmission and livestock health management in these special regions should be raised to avoid outbreaks and animal loss.
December 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Sonika Ahlawat, Rekha Sharma, Reena Arora, Namita Kumari, A K Mishra, M S Tantia
Crossbreds of low-producing indigenous cattle and high-producing exotic dairy bulls (Holstein Friesian and Jersey) have contributed in ensuring that India continues to be the world's top milk-producing country. However, subfertility observed in crossbred male progenies has been a major obstacle in exploitation of heterosis due to crossbreeding. There is sufficient scientific evidence in support of genetic and epigenetic regulation of key physiological processes including spermatogenesis. Bovine Vasa Homology (Bvh) is considered a molecular marker for the study of gametogenesis...
November 6, 2018: Theriogenology
Ravneet Vohra, Joshua Park, Yak-Nam Wang, Kayla Gravelle, Stella Whang, Joo-Ha Hwang, Donghoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a fatal disease with very poor prognosis. Development of sensitive and noninvasive methods to monitor tumor progression in PDA is a critical and unmet need. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can noninvasively provide information regarding underlying pathophysiological processes such as necrosis, inflammatory changes and fibrotic tissue deposition. METHODS: A genetically engineered KPC mouse model that recapitulates human PDA was used to characterize disease progression...
November 8, 2018: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Jie Zhao, Zhenzhen Xu, Ailiang Chen, Xinyong You, Yan Zhao, Wenjing He, Luyao Zhao, Shuming Yang
Correct species identification is necessary for meat product quality assurance. Genetic markers are useful tools to accurately determine the animal source of meat products. To better protect yak meat and its products, ten single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci from bovine meat-related genes and one positive control primer set were selected to discriminate meat sourced from yak or cattle. A multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and capillary electrophoresis method was employed for SNP genotyping...
February 2019: Meat Science
Benjamin E Curtis, Sally A Nofs, Megan Ahearne, Monica List, Matti Kiupel
A 19.5-y-old, male domestic yak ( Bos grunniens) with a history of sudden unexpected death was submitted for autopsy. The yak had hemoabdomen, and a large blood clot was attached to the liver and forestomachs. The hepatic artery had a saccular aneurysm with a 1-cm tear. The arterial wall at the site of the rupture was thin, and the luminal surface was roughened with yellow streaks. The arterial wall adjacent to the rupture was thickened, white, firm, and less elastic than normal arterial walls. Cause of death was concluded to be acute exsanguination...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Feng Xing, Chaoyang Zhang, Zhengquan Kong
Objective: Recent studies have demonstrated that LIN28B/let-7 plays a role in the regulation of pubertal onset in mammals. However, the role of LIN28B/ let-7 in the onset of ovine puberty remains unknown. We cloned the Duolang sheep Lin28B cDNA sequence, detected the expression change of LIN28B, let-7a and let-7g in hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary tissues at three different pubertal stages. Methods: The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to clone the cDNA sequence of LIN28B gene from Duolang sheep and the bioinformatics methods were applied to analyze the amino acid sequence of LIN28B protein...
October 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Xuezhi Ding, Chao Yang, Pengjia Bao, Xiaoyun Wu, Jie Pei, Ping Yan, Xian Guo
Objective: As an iconic symbol of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and of high altitude, yak is subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. Matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP3) is assumed to be a key target gene of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) that function as a master regulator of the cellular response to hypoxia. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to identify the DNA polymorphism of MMP3 gene in domestic yak and to explore its possible association with high-altitude adaptation...
October 29, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Juan Sun, Yan Cui, Si-Jiu Yu, Yuan-Fang Xu, Jun-Feng He, Peng-Gang Liu, Yu-Feng Huang, Qin Li
This study aimed to describe the morphology, expression of IgA and IgG in adult yak tonsils. The twelve clinically healthy yak tonsils [3-6 years old, n = 12] were examined for morphology using light, and transmission electron microscopes. Expression of IgA and IgG was measured by qRT-PCR, ELISA and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the palatine tonsil, the tonsil of the soft palate, and the lingual tonsil were oropharyngeal tonsils. The stratified squamous epithelia covering them had a thick underlying layer of connective tissue and their crypts were heavily infiltrated by lymphocytes...
October 26, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jiang-Yong Zeng, Ian D Robertson, Qiu-Mei Ji, Yang-La Dawa, Mieghan Bruce
Brucellosis is considered as an endemic disease in yaks (Bos grunniens) in China, but few economic analyses describing the cost of the disease and potential benefits of control have been reported. The aim of the study was to estimate the economic cost of brucellosis in yaks and the economic value of three control strategies: (a) vaccination; (b) test-and-slaughter; and (c) a combination of vaccination and test-and-slaughter programs in Damxung and Maizhokunggar counties and Pali township of Yadong county in Tibet...
October 26, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Leticia Gonzalez, Melissa E MacDonald, Yak D Deng, Bernardo L Trigatti
Diabetes is a risk factor for development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Animal model studies in mice revealed that hyperglycemia increases development of atherosclerosis in the aorta as well as myocardial fibrosis in surgical models of coronary artery ligation; however, the impact of hyperglycemia on coronary artery atherosclerosis and subsequent heart disease is less clear. To investigate the effect of hyperglycemia on atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, we used a mouse model of diet-induced coronary artery atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction, the high fat/high cholesterol (HFC) diet fed SR-B1 knockout (KO) /apoE-hypomorphic (HypoE) mouse...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
George R Schade, Yak-Nam Wang, Samantha D'Andrea, Joo Ha Hwang, W Conrad Liles, Tatiana D Khokhlova
Boiling histotripsy (BH) is an experimental focused ultrasound technique that produces non-thermal mechanical ablation. We evaluated the feasibility, short-term histologic effects and the resulting acute inflammatory response to BH ablation of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the Eker rat. Genotyped Eker rats were monitored for de novo RCCs with serial ultrasound (US) imaging. When tumors were ≥8mm, rats underwent ultrasound-guided extracorporeal ablation of the tumor with BH, a pulsed focused US technique that produces non-thermal mechanical ablation of targeted tissues, or a sham US procedure...
October 16, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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