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Kristina Coop Gordon, James V Cordova, Patricia N E Roberson, Melanie Miller, Tatiana Gray, Katherine A Lenger, Matt Hawrilenko, Kerri Martin
Couples with the greatest need for relationship health maintenance and intervention are often least able to afford and access it; therefore, accessible, affordable, effective, and brief interventions are needed to improve relationship health for those who need it most. Consequently, this paper examined whether a brief relationship intervention could be effectively implemented with a low-income, underserved population. All enrolled participants (N = 1,312) received the Relationship Checkup, which consists of an assessment and a feedback session delivered in their homes or at a local clinic at their request...
October 11, 2018: Family Process
Kaspar S Schmocker, Fabian S Zwahlen, Kerstin Denecke
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes can be affected by several comorbidities that require immediate action when occurring as they may otherwise cause fatal or consequential damage. For this reason, patients must closely monitor their metabolism and inject insulin when necessary. The documentation of glucose values and other relevant measurements is often still on paper in a diabetes diary. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work is to develop and implement a novel mobile health system for the secure collection of relevant data referring to a person's metabolis and to digitize the diabetes diary to enable continuous monitoring for both patients and treating physicians...
February 26, 2018: JMIR diabetes
Chad R Johnson, Mohd Imran Ansari, Andrew Coop
A rapid, transition metal-free, high-yielding, tetrabutylammonium bromide-promoted method of N-arylation is reported within. The optimized conditions tolerated a wide range of secondary amines and was equally effective with bromo- and chlorobenzene-including substituted aryl halides. The developed method is found to be effective for N-arylation when compared to earlier methods which involve harsh conditions, transition metals, lack of scalability, and long reaction times. Our method utilizes conventional heating only; it is readily scalable; and the products are facile to purify...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Hazel Coop, Clare Marlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Tatiana Peretolchina, Márcio G Pavan, Jessica Corrêa-Antônio, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Marli M Lima, Fernando A Monteiro
BACKGROUND: Rhodnius nasutus, a vector of the etiological agent Trypanosoma cruzi, is one of the epidemiologically most relevant triatomine species of the Brazilian Caatinga, where it often colonizes rural peridomestic structures such as chicken coops and occasionally invades houses. Historical colonization and determination of its genetic diversity and population structure may provide new information towards the improvement of vector control in the region. In this paper we present thoughtful analyses considering the phylogeography and demographic history of R...
September 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Megin Nichols, Lauren Stevenson, Laura Whitlock, Kristy Pabilonia, Misha Robyn, Colin Basler, Tom Gomez
The number of outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to live poultry contact increased from 1990 to 2016. In 2016, the number of human illnesses linked to live poultry was the highest reported, with more than 900 cases, including 209 hospitalizations and three deaths. Live poultry harboring Salmonella typically appear healthy but can intermittently shed bacteria in their droppings, contaminating their feathers, beaks, and the areas where they live and roam. Thus, both direct contact with poultry and indirect contact with anything in areas where animals live and roam can result in human Salmonella infection...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
Ariadne de Almeida Branco Oliveira, Nayara de Freitas Martins Melo, Érica Dos Santos Vieira, Pedro Augusto Silva Nogueira, Andressa Coope, Lício Augusto Velloso, Rômulo Sperduto Dezonne, Carlos Ueira-Vieira, Francoise Vasconcelos Botelho, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes, Renata Graciele Zanon
Excessive fat consumption increases the level of fatty acids (FAs) in the blood, which reach the hypothalamus and damage the circuit related to energy balance. In the present study, we used palmitate in a primary culture of purified astrocytes to mimic the fat-rich environment found in obesity. Our results showed increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) reactivity in hypothalamic astrocytes compared to cortical astrocytes. In addition, palmitate-treated astrocytes showed no significant changes in cytokine expression and an upregulation of glutathione in the culture medium that may serve as an intrinsic neuroprotective property against excess FA...
November 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jessica H Leibler, Komal Basra, Thomas Ireland, Alyssa McDonagh, Catherine Ressijac, Wendy Heiger-Bernays, Donna Vorhees, Marieke Rosenbaum
Backyard chicken ownership is rapidly increasing in urban areas in the United States, largely as a way to provide eggs for household consumption. Despite elevated levels of environmental lead contamination in many US cities, the role of backyard chicken eggs as a pathway for lead exposure, particularly for children, has received limited scrutiny. To characterize lead exposure from consumption of backyard chicken eggs for children and predict related effects on blood lead level (BLL), we conducted a cross-sectional study of backyard chicken owners in the Greater Boston area (n = 51)...
November 2018: Environmental Research
Amy Coopes, Claire E Henry, Estelle Llamosas, Caroline Elizabeth Ford
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy in developed nations, and its prevalence is rising as women defer or decide not to have children and as obesity rises, both key risk factors. Despite this, treatment options remain limited, particularly for advanced or refractory disease. New genomic analyses have revealed distinct mutational profiles with therapeutic and prognostic potential. Wnt signalling, which is pivotal in embryogenesis, healing and homeostasis, is of importance in the endometrium and has been linked to carcinogenesis...
August 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Felicia A Browne, Wendee M Wechsberg, Paul N Kizakevich, William A Zule, Courtney P Bonner, Ashton N Madison, Brittni N Howard, Leslie B Turner
BACKGROUND: Disparities in the prevalence of HIV persist in the southern United States, and young African American women have a disproportionate burden of HIV as compared with young women of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. As a result, engaging young African American women in the HIV care continuum through HIV testing is imperative. This study is designed to reach this key population at risk for HIV. The study seeks to test the efficacy of two formats of a gender-focused, evidence-based, HIV-risk reduction intervention-the Young Women's CoOp (YWC)-relative to HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among young African American women between the ages of 18 and 25 who use substances and have not recently been tested for HIV...
August 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Karla Bitencourth, Ana Beatriz Pais Borsoi, Francisca Samya Silva de Freitas, Gerlene Castelo Branco Coelho, Marinete Amorim, Gilberto Salles Gazeta
The soft tick, Ornithodoros rietcorreai, is a parasite of the rodent, Kerodon rupestris, and, to a lesser extent, of bats living in rock cavities in Northeastern Brazil. This report describes the first recorded episodes of human parasitism by this argasid tick, reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in September 2017. We assessed outdoor environments, roofs, animal nests and chicken coops in five houses located in an urban area of Russas City, Ceará State, Brazil. Our results confirmed the presence of the tick in two of the assessed houses...
September 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ida E H Madsen, Nidhi Gupta, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Jens Peter Bonde, Elisabeth Framke, Esben Meulengracht Flachs, Sesilje Bondo Petersen, Annemette Coop Svane-Petersen, Andreas Holtermann, Reiner Rugulies
OBJECTIVES: Determining exposure to occupational factors by workers' job titles is extensively used in epidemiological research. However, the correspondence of findings regarding associations to health between job exposure matrices (JEMs) and individual-level exposure data is largely unknown. We set out to examine the prospective associations of physical work demands and psychosocial working conditions with musculoskeletal pain, comparing JEMs with individual-level self-reported exposures...
October 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Marie Herr, Bernard Jeune, Stefan Fors, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Joël Ankri, Yasu Arai, Sarah Cubaynes, Brigitte Santos-Eggimann, Dina Zekry, Marti Parker, Yasuhiko Saito, François Herrmann, Jean-Marie Robine
BACKGROUND: The global number of centenarians is still strongly growing and information about the health and healthcare needs of this segment of the population is needed. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of frailty among centenarians included in a multinational study and to investigate associated factors. METHODS: The 5-COOP study is a cross-sectional survey including 1,253 centenarians in 5 countries (Japan, France, Switzerland, Denmark, and Sweden)...
2018: Gerontology
Gideon S Bradburd, Graham M Coop, Peter L Ralph
A classic problem in population genetics is the characterization of discrete population structure in the presence of continuous patterns of genetic differentiation. Especially when sampling is discontinuous, the use of clustering or assignment methods may incorrectly ascribe differentiation due to continuous processes ( e.g. , geographic isolation by distance) to discrete processes, such as geographic, ecological, or reproductive barriers between populations. This reflects a shortcoming of current methods for inferring and visualizing population structure when applied to genetic data deriving from geographically distributed populations...
September 2018: Genetics
Caralyn Reisle, Karen L Mungall, Caleb Choo, Daniel Paulino, Dustin W Bleile, Amir Muhammadzadeh, Andrew J Mungall, Richard A Moore, Inna Shlafman, Robin Coope, Stephen Pleasance, Yussanne Ma, Steven J M Jones
Summary: Reliably identifying genomic rearrangements and interpreting their impact is a key step in understanding their role in human cancers and inherited genetic diseases. Many short read algorithmic approaches exist but all have appreciable false negative rates. A common approach is to evaluate the union of multiple tools increasing sensitivity, followed by filtering to retain specificity. Here we describe an application framework for the rapid generation of structural variant consensus, unique in its ability to visualize the genetic impact and context as well as process both genome and transcriptome data...
July 17, 2018: Bioinformatics
Wendee M Wechsberg, Felicia A Browne, Tara Carney, Bronwyn Myers, Alexandra Minnis, Robert MacDonald, Jacqueline W Ndirangu, Leslie B Turner, Brittni N Howard, Nathaniel Rodman
BACKGROUND: South Africa remains the global epicentre of HIV infection, and adolescent women have the highest incidence of HIV in the country. South Africa also has high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, violence, and gender inequality. Violence converges with AOD use, gender inequities and other disparities, such as poverty, to increase sexual risk and poor educational attainment for adolescent women. This study seeks to test the efficacy of peer recruitment and cofacilitation of the Young Women's Health CoOp (YWHC), a comprehensive gender-focused intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviours and increase the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among out-of-school, adolescent women who use AODs...
July 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yuhao Lu, Nicholas C Coops
Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies' current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city's physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly, bridges the gap between science, policy drafting, and practical urban management. An increasing number of researchers are recognizing the benefits of innovative remotely sensed datasets, such as nighttime lights data (NTL), as a proxy to map urbanization and subsequently examine the driving socio-economic variables in cities...
2018: PloS One
Joanna May Kesten, Suzanne Audrey, Maya Holding, Caroline Coope, Nick Young, Colin S Brown, Jenny Harries, Matthew Hickman, Isabel Oliver
Introduction: In response to the 2013-2016 West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), Public Health England introduced enhanced screening at major UK ports of entry. Our aim was to explore screeners' and screened travellers' perceptions of screening as part of an evaluation of the screening programme. Methods: We undertook qualitative focus groups and semistructured interviews with screeners and travellers who had returned from affected countries before and after the introduction of screening in England...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Nicholas C Coops, Txomin Hermosilla, Michael A Wulder, Joanne C White, Douglas K Bolton
Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area...
2018: PloS One
Kirk Waibel, Rachel Lee, Christopher Coop, Yun Mendoza, Kevin White
A diagnosis of food allergy adversely affects one's ability to join or remain in the military. Inadequate knowledge or misconceptions of current military-specific standards regarding food allergy and how these apply to enlistment, induction, and retention in the US military can lead potentially to inaccurate counseling because each military service has specific regulations that affect the evaluation and decision-making process. Recognizing this knowledge gap, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology's Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly established a work group that reviewed and summarized all aspects of military instructions, policies, and regulations regarding IgE-mediated food allergy...
July 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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