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Amy Coopes, Claire E Henry, Estelle Llamosas, Caroline Elizabeth Ford
Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy in developed nations, and its prevalence is rising as women defer or decide not to have children and as obesity rises, both key risk factors. Despite this, treatment options remain limited, particularly for advanced or refractory disease. New genomic analyses have revealed distinct mutational profiles with therapeutic and prognostic potential. Wnt signalling, which is pivotal in embryogenesis, healing and homeostasis, is of importance in the endometrium and has been linked to carcinogenesis...
August 9, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Felicia A Browne, Wendee M Wechsberg, Paul N Kizakevich, William A Zule, Courtney P Bonner, Ashton N Madison, Brittni N Howard, Leslie B Turner
BACKGROUND: Disparities in the prevalence of HIV persist in the southern United States, and young African American women have a disproportionate burden of HIV as compared with young women of other racial/ethnic backgrounds. As a result, engaging young African American women in the HIV care continuum through HIV testing is imperative. This study is designed to reach this key population at risk for HIV. The study seeks to test the efficacy of two formats of a gender-focused, evidence-based, HIV-risk reduction intervention-the Young Women's CoOp (YWC)-relative to HIV counseling and testing (HCT) among young African American women between the ages of 18 and 25 who use substances and have not recently been tested for HIV...
August 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
Stefan Vilges de Oliveira, Karla Bitencourth, Ana Beatriz Pais Borsoi, Francisca Samya Silva de Freitas, Gerlene Castelo Branco Coelho, Marinete Amorim, Gilberto Salles Gazeta
The soft tick, Ornithodoros rietcorreai, is a parasite of the rodent, Kerodon rupestris, and, to a lesser extent, of bats living in rock cavities in Northeastern Brazil. This report describes the first recorded episodes of human parasitism by this argasid tick, reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in September 2017. We assessed outdoor environments, roofs, animal nests and chicken coops in five houses located in an urban area of Russas City, Ceará State, Brazil. Our results confirmed the presence of the tick in two of the assessed houses...
July 23, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Ida E H Madsen, Nidhi Gupta, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Jens Peter Bonde, Elisabeth Framke, Esben Meulengracht Flachs, Sesilje Bondo Petersen, Annemette Coop Svane-Petersen, Andreas Holtermann, Reiner Rugulies
OBJECTIVES: Determining exposure to occupational factors by workers' job titles is extensively used in epidemiological research. However, the correspondence of findings regarding associations to health between job exposure matrices (JEMs) and individual-level exposure data is largely unknown. We set out to examine the prospective associations of physical work demands and psychosocial working conditions with musculoskeletal pain, comparing JEMs with individual-level self-reported exposures...
July 25, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Marie Herr, Bernard Jeune, Stefan Fors, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Joël Ankri, Yasu Arai, Sarah Cubaynes, Brigitte Santos-Eggimann, Dina Zekry, Marti Parker, Yasuhiko Saito, François Herrmann, Jean-Marie Robine
BACKGROUND: The global number of centenarians is still strongly growing and information about the health and healthcare needs of this segment of the population is needed. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of frailty among centenarians included in a multinational study and to investigate associated factors. METHODS: The 5-COOP study is a cross-sectional survey including 1,253 centenarians in 5 countries (Japan, France, Switzerland, Denmark, and Sweden)...
July 20, 2018: Gerontology
Gideon S Bradburd, Graham M Coop, Peter L Ralph
A classic problem in population genetics is the characterization of discrete population structure in the presence of continuous patterns of genetic differentiation. Especially when sampling is discontinuous, the use of clustering or assignment methods may incorrectly ascribe differentiation due to continuous processes (e.g., geographic isolation by distance) to discrete processes, such as geographic, ecological, or reproductive barriers between populations. This reflects a shortcoming of current methods for inferring and visualizing population structure when applied to genetic data deriving from geographically distributed populations...
July 19, 2018: Genetics
Caralyn Reisle, Karen L Mungall, Caleb Choo, Daniel Paulino, Dustin W Bleile, Amir Muhammadzadeh, Andrew J Mungall, Richard A Moore, Inna Shlafman, Robin Coope, Stephen Pleasance, Yussanne Ma, Steven J M Jones
Summary: Reliably identifying genomic rearrangements and interpreting their impact is a key step in understanding their role in human cancers and inherited genetic diseases. Many short read algorithmic approaches exist but all have appreciable false negative rates. A common approach is to evaluate the union of multiple tools increasing sensitivity, followed by filtering to retain specificity. Here we describe an application framework for the rapid generation of structural variant consensus, unique in its ability to visualize the genetic impact and context as well as process both genome and transcriptome data...
July 17, 2018: Bioinformatics
Wendee M Wechsberg, Felicia A Browne, Tara Carney, Bronwyn Myers, Alexandra Minnis, Robert MacDonald, Jacqueline W Ndirangu, Leslie B Turner, Brittni N Howard, Nathaniel Rodman
BACKGROUND: South Africa remains the global epicentre of HIV infection, and adolescent women have the highest incidence of HIV in the country. South Africa also has high rates of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, violence, and gender inequality. Violence converges with AOD use, gender inequities and other disparities, such as poverty, to increase sexual risk and poor educational attainment for adolescent women. This study seeks to test the efficacy of peer recruitment and cofacilitation of the Young Women's Health CoOp (YWHC), a comprehensive gender-focused intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviours and increase the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT) among out-of-school, adolescent women who use AODs...
July 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Yuhao Lu, Nicholas C Coops
Cities are arguably both the cause, and answer, to societies' current sustainability issues. Urbanization is the interplay between a city's physical growth and its socio-economic development, both of which consume a substantial amount of energy and resources. Knowledge of the underlying driver(s) of urban expansion facilitates not only academic research but, more importantly, bridges the gap between science, policy drafting, and practical urban management. An increasing number of researchers are recognizing the benefits of innovative remotely sensed datasets, such as nighttime lights data (NTL), as a proxy to map urbanization and subsequently examine the driving socio-economic variables in cities...
2018: PloS One
Joanna May Kesten, Suzanne Audrey, Maya Holding, Caroline Coope, Nick Young, Colin S Brown, Jenny Harries, Matthew Hickman, Isabel Oliver
Introduction: In response to the 2013-2016 West African outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD), Public Health England introduced enhanced screening at major UK ports of entry. Our aim was to explore screeners' and screened travellers' perceptions of screening as part of an evaluation of the screening programme. Methods: We undertook qualitative focus groups and semistructured interviews with screeners and travellers who had returned from affected countries before and after the introduction of screening in England...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Nicholas C Coops, Txomin Hermosilla, Michael A Wulder, Joanne C White, Douglas K Bolton
Fire as a dominant disturbance has profound implications on the terrestrial carbon cycle. We present the first ever multi-decadal, spatially-explicit, 30 meter assessment of fire regimes across the forested ecoregions of Canada at an annual time-step. From 1985 to 2015, 51 Mha burned, impacting over 6.5% of forested ecosystems. Mean annual area burned was 1,651,818 ha and varied markedly (σ = 1,116,119), with 25% of the total area burned occurring in three years: 1989, 1995, and 2015. Boreal forest types contained 98% of the total area burned, with the conifer-dominated Boreal Shield containing one-third of all burned area...
2018: PloS One
Kirk Waibel, Rachel Lee, Christopher Coop, Yun Mendoza, Kevin White
A diagnosis of food allergy adversely affects one's ability to join or remain in the military. Inadequate knowledge or misconceptions of current military-specific standards regarding food allergy and how these apply to enlistment, induction, and retention in the US military can lead potentially to inaccurate counseling because each military service has specific regulations that affect the evaluation and decision-making process. Recognizing this knowledge gap, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology's Military Allergy and Immunology Assembly established a work group that reviewed and summarized all aspects of military instructions, policies, and regulations regarding IgE-mediated food allergy...
July 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mohd Imran Ansari, Jason R Healy, Kellie Hom, Jeffrey R Deschamps, Rae R Matsumoto, Andrew Coop
During optimization of the synthesis of the mixed μ opioid agonist/δ opioid antagonist 5-(hydroxymethyl)oxymorphone (UMB425) for scale-up, it was unexpectedly discovered that the 4,5-epoxy bridge underwent rearrangement on treatment with boron tribromide (BBr3 ) to yield a novel opioid with a little-studied pyranomorphinan skeleton. This finding opens the pyranomorphinans for further investigations of their pharmacological profiles and represents a novel drug class with the dual profile (μ vs δ) predicted to yield lower tolerance and dependence...
May 18, 2018: Organic Letters
Sonal Tuli, Matthew Gray, Ankit Shah
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss the options for, and recent developments in, the surgical treatment of herpes keratitis. Although the mainstay of treatment of herpetic keratitis is topical or oral antiviral agents, surgical intervention may be necessary for corneal melting or long-term complications such as scarring, lipid keratopathy, necrotizing keratitis, and neurotrophic keratitis. RECENT FINDINGS: There are a number of surgical therapies available for herpes keratitis...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
Bruna Bombassaro, Leticia M Ignacio-Souza, Carla E Nunez, Daniela S Razolli, Rafael M Pedro, Andressa Coope, Eliana P Araujo, Elinton A Chaim, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator- 1alpha (PGC-1α) plays an important role in whole body metabolism and, particularly in glucose homeostasis. Its expression is highly regulated and, small variations in tissue levels can have a major impact in a number of physiological and pathological conditions. Recent studies have shown that the ubiquitin/proteasome system plays a role in the control of PGC-1α degradation. METHODS: Here we evaluated the interaction of PGC-1α with the protein A20, which plays a dual-role in the control of the ubiquitin/proteasome system acting as a deubiquitinase and as an E3 ligase...
April 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Yunfeng Chen, Zaverio M Ruggeri, Xiaoping Du
Members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins function as adapters/modulators that recognize phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-based binding motifs in many intracellular proteins and play fundamental roles in signal transduction pathways of eukaryotic cells. In platelets, 14-3-3 plays a wide range of regulatory roles in phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways, including G-protein signaling, cAMP signaling, agonist-induced phosphatidylserine exposure, and regulation of mitochondrial function. In particular, 14-3-3 interacts with several phosphoserine-dependent binding sites in the major platelet adhesion receptor, the glycoprotein Ib-IX complex (GPIb-IX), regulating its interaction with von Willebrand factor (VWF) and mediating VWF/GPIb-IX-dependent mechanosignal transduction, leading to platelet activation...
May 31, 2018: Blood
Kristina Coop Gordon, Patricia N E Roberson, Jessica A Hughes, Alexander M Khaddouma, Geeta K Swamy, Devon Noonan, Alicia M Gonzalez, Laura Fish, Kathryn I Pollak
Many couples tend to report steadily decreasing relationship quality following the birth of a child. However, little is known about the postpartum period for Latino couples, a rapidly growing ethnic group who are notably underserved by mental and physical health caregivers in the United States. Thus, this study investigated whether a brief couples' intervention focused on helping couples support each other while increasing healthy behaviors might improve dyadic functioning postpartum. This study presents secondary analyses of data regarding couple functioning from a larger randomized controlled trial with 348 Latino couples to promote smoking cessation...
March 30, 2018: Family Process
Jeremy Berger, Michael P Carroll, Edward Champoux, Christopher A Coop
We present a case with extremely late diagnosis of type II hereditary angioedema (HAE). Given recent advances in HAE treatment, we want to bring physician awareness to this condition and aid in earlier detection. HAE is a disorder associated with episodes of angioedema of the face, larynx, lips, abdomen, or extremities. Late diagnosis of HAE can lead to significant morbidity and is severely impairing due to recurring attacks. The diagnosis of HAE is ordinarily made during childhood and adolescence. Delayed diagnoses in early and middle adulthood have been documented in the literature...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
Jing Cheng, Caroline Coope, Jing Chai, Isabel Oliver, Anthony Kessel, Debin Wang, Yehuan Sun
OBJECTIVES: To examine antibiotic-related knowledge and behaviors in rural Anhui, identify factors associated with knowledge, and explore the relationship between knowledge and antibiotic use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 2760 residents of rural China using structured interviews. RESULTS: The response rate was 94.6%. A total of 2390 respondents (91.6%) believed that antibiotics can control viruses; 2007 (77.5%) respondents thought that a combination of antibiotics is more effective than a single class; and 590 (22...
June 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Sparkle L Malone, Anna W Schoettle, Jonathan D Coop
Like many other high elevation alpine tree species, Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata Engelm.) may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. To evaluate its potential vulnerability to shifts in climate, we defined the suitable climate space for each of four genetic lineages of bristlecone pine and for other subalpine tree species in close proximity to bristlecone pine forests. Measuring changes in the suitable climate space for lineage groups is an important step beyond models that assume species are genetically homogenous...
2018: PloS One
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