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virus diagnosis

Yehudit Michelson, Yaniv Lustig, Shira Avivi, Eli Schwartz, Amos Danielli
Background: Zika virus has created global alarm as it has been associated with catastrophic fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, spontaneous abortion, and intrauterine growth restriction. Current serological assays that detect antiviral antibodies suffer from low sensitivity and high cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. Methods: Here, utilizing a novel Magnetic Modulation Biosensing (MMB) system and the Zika non-structural 1 (NS1) protein, we show highly sensitive and specific Zika serological assays...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Michael P Reichel, Lloyd C Wahl, Fraser I Hill
Infectious causes of reproductive failure in cattle are important in Australia and New Zealand, where strict biosecurity protocols are in place to prevent the introduction and spread of new diseases. Neospora caninum ranks highly as an important cause of reproductive wastage along with fungal and bacterial infections. Brucella , a leading cause of abortion elsewhere in the world, is foreign, following successful programs to control and eradicate the disease. Leptospirosis in cattle is largely controlled by vaccination, while Campylobacter and Tritrichomonas infections occur at low rates...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Nozomi Shiwa, Chikage Nakajima, Kazunori Kimitsuki, Daria Llenaresas Manalo, Akira Noguchi, Satoshi Inoue, Chun-Ho Park
Recently, we reported that follicle-sinus complexes (FSCs) in the muzzle skin are useful for postmortem diagnosis of rabid dogs. Here, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of detecting the viral antigen in the brain and FSCs of 226 suspected rabid dogs, and assessed whether the FSC harbored the virus genome and particles. The viral antigen was detected in 211 of 226 samples with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Viral RNA and particles were observed in the cytoplasm of Merkel cells (MCs). These results suggest that MCs are targets of virus infection and FSCs are useful material for diagnosing rabies...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Sachiyo Yoshio, Yohei Mano, Hiroyoshi Doi, Hirotaka Shoji, Tomonari Shimagaki, Yuzuru Sakamoto, Hironari Kawai, Michitaka Matsuda, Taizo Mori, Yosuke Osawa, Masaaki Korenaga, Masaya Sugiyama, Masashi Mizokami, Eiji Mita, Keiko Katayama, Junko Tanaka, Tatsuya Kanto
BACKGROUND: The clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss, defined as functional cure, is a clinical target in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CH). To understand the immune responses underlying functional cure, we evaluated cytokine and chemokine expression profiles from patients with resolving and nonresolving acute hepatitis B (AH). METHODS: We cross-sectionally evaluated 41 chemokines and cytokines at the peak of hepatitis in the sera from 41 self-limited AH patients who achieved HBsAg seroconversion, 8 AH patients who failed to clear HBsAg within 1 year after the diagnosis, 8 CH patients with hepatic flare, and 14 healthy volunteers...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
Erni J Nelwan
Dengue viral infection remains a major public health problem. As many as 400 million people are infected yearly. Even though the vaccine is available, the use of dengue vaccine is still limited due to some concerns. Among patient infected with dengue viral infection, early recognition of the virus and prompt supportive treatment are important to avoid complication and mortality.The clinical spectrum of dengue viral infection is diverse ranging from undifferentiated fever to dengue shock syndrome characterized by plasma leak and hemoconcentration...
July 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Sara Zamani, Amir Sohrabi, Seyed Masoud Hosseini, Marjan Rahnamaye-Farzami, Abolfazl Akbari
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis is an important factor to improve survival of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) patients. Molecular biomarkers such as micro RNA (miRNA) can be used in the early detection of ICC. The expression of miR-21 and miR-29a are deregulated in many types of human cancers. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in miR-21 and miR-29a expression patterns in Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection and various grades of cervical cancer among Iranian women...
October 17, 2018: MicroRNA
Caitlin N Dodd, Maria de Ridder, Wan-Ting Huang, Daniel Weibel, Maria Giner-Soriano, Silvia Perez-Vilar, Javier Diez-Domingo, Lawrence W Svenson, Salahddin M Mahmud, Bruce Carleton, Monika Naus, Jeffrey C Kwong, Brian J Murray, Lisen Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lars Pedersen, Rosa Morros, Francisco Javier Puertas, Steven Black, Miriam Sturkenboom
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Vaccine safety signals require investigation, which may be done rapidly at the population level using ecological studies, before embarking on hypothesis-testing studies. Incidence rates were used to assess a signal of narcolepsy following AS03-adjuvanted monovalent pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccination among children and adolescents in Sweden and Finland in 2010. We explored the utility of ecological data to assess incidence of narcolepsy following exposure to pandemic H1N1 virus or vaccination in 10 sites that used different vaccines, adjuvants, and had varying vaccine coverage...
2018: PloS One
Andrew H Talal, Phyllis Andrews, Anthony Mcleod, Yang Chen, Clewert Sylvester, Marianthi Markatou, Lawrence S Brown
Background and aims: Despite high hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence, opioid use disorder (OUD) patients on methadone rarely engage in HCV treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of HCV management via telemedicine in an opioid substitution therapy (OST) program. Methods: OUD patients on methadone underwent biweekly telemedicine sessions between a hepatologist and physician assistant during the entire HCV treatment course. All pretreatment labs (HCV RNA, genotype and noninvasive fibrosis assessments) were obtained onsite and direct acting antivirals were co-administered with methadone using modified directly observed therapy...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ho Yeh Li, Pedro Vitale Mendes, Livia Maria Garcia Melro, Daniel Joelsons, Bruno Adler Maccagnan Pinheiro Besen, Eduardo Leite Viera Costa, Adriana Sayuri Hirota, Edzangela Vasconcelos Santos Barbosa, Flavia Krepel Foronda, Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo, Thiago Gomes Romano, Marcelo Park
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the transport of severely ill patients with extracorporeal respiratory or cardiovascular support. METHODS: A series of 18 patients in the state of São Paulo, Brazil is described. All patients were consecutively evaluated by a multidisciplinary team at the hospital of origin. The patients were rescued, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was provided on site. The patients were then transported to referral hospitals for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Ingrid Christiane Silva, Bruna Teles Pinheiro, Akim Felipe Santos Nobre, Jaciana Lima Coelho, Cássia Cristine Costa Pereira, Louise de Souza Canto Ferreira, Camila Pâmela Santos de Almeida, Maria de Nazaré do Socorro de Almeida Viana, Danilo Souza de Almeida, Jairo Ribeiro Falcão, Yago Costa Vasconcelos Dos Santos, Marcos William Leão de Araújo, Mariza da Silva Borges, Lisandra Duarte Nascimento, Lorena Saldanha Valentim, Jorge Simão do Rosario Casseb, Carlos Araújo da Costa, Maísa Silva de Sousa
INTRODUCTION: The spread of the HTLV infection in families living in the metropolitan area of Belém, Pará, Brazil, and the lack of studies in the general population requires studies to better understand its prevalence in the region. METHODS: An anti-HTLV-1/HTLV-2 antibodies test was carried out on random adults in public places in Belém between November 2014 and November 2015. A proviral DNA test detected if the person was infected, and then a clinical evaluation and an intrafamilial investigation were carried out...
October 11, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
U Stölzel, I Kubisch, T Stauch
Porphyrias are caused by enzyme defects of heme biosynthesis. According to their clinical presentation and to each affected pathway, they are categorized into acute and non-acute as well as hepatic and erythropoietic porphyrias. Acute hepatic porphyrias, e.g. acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), porphyria variegata (VP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP) and 5‑aminolevulinic acid dehydratase-deficient porphyria (ALADP) are characterized by accumulation of the porphyrin precursors 5‑aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) that correlate with severe abdominal, psychiatric, neurological or cardiovascular symptoms...
October 17, 2018: Der Internist
Jian-Jun Ding, Ya-Lian Chen, Shui-Hong Zhou, Kui Zhao
Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. The clinicopathological features of NKTL are unique among lymphomas. NKTL is an aggressive disease with a poor prognosis in the absence of effective treatment. Accurate diagnosis and staging are essential to ensure an appropriate treatment strategy and accurate prognosis of NKTL. 18 F-Fluorodexoyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) is a valuable technique in the diagnosis, staging, and prognostic evaluation of various types of malignant tumors, including NKTL...
October 17, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Ainat Klein, Naomi Fischer, Michaella Goldstein, Shiri Shulman, Zohar Habot-Wilner
PURPOSE: Ocular manifestations of syphilis have been reported in 2-10% of systemic infection. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of ocular syphilis and various ocular manifestations, particularly optic nerve involvement, in newly diagnosed cases. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. Medical records of newly diagnosed syphilis patients between January 2009 and January 2017 in a tertiary medical centre were reviewed. RESULTS: There were 123 new systemic syphilis cases out of 569,222 (0...
October 17, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Cheng Qian, Rui Wang, Cui Wu, Liu Wang, Zunzhong Ye, Jian Wu, Feng Ji
Molecular diagnosis of genome is one of the major methods for pathogens detection. The commonly used PCR method can realize an exponential amplification of the target gene but is time-consuming. In this work, we proposed a duplex and visual method using rapid PCR combined with molecular beacons to specifically detect two kinds of shrimp pathogens in one reaction tube. We only need to observe the fluorescence change of the reaction tube with naked eye to determine the result. A home-made automatic transfer equipment allows reaction tubes shuttling quickly between two water baths to achieve rapid PCR amplification...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Shaun Ong, Robert D Levy, John Yee, Nilu Partovi, Andrew Churg, Philippe Roméo, Jean Chalaoui, Roland Nador, Alissa Wright, Hélène Manganas, Christopher J Ryerson
BACKGROUND: Until recently, lung transplantation was not considered in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV seropositive patients with suppressed viral loads can now expect long-term survival with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART); however, HIV remains a relative contraindication to lung transplantation. We describe, to our knowledge, the first HIV seropositive lung transplant recipient in Canada. We also review the literature of previously reported cases of solid-organ transplantation in patients with HIV with a focus on immunosuppression considerations...
October 16, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Haidong Wang, Lu Zhang, Ying Zhou, Keke Wang, Xiaoya Zhang, Jianhui Wu, Guoli Wang
BACKGROUND: Geosocial networking smartphone applications (apps) are popular tools for seeking sexual partners among men who have sex with men (MSM). We evaluated app use and risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in app-using MSM (app-users) by a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: A literature search for relevant studies was performed. We extracted date of STIs (ever being diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], syphilis, gonorrhea and chlamydia) and sexual behavior (e...
October 16, 2018: BMC Public Health
Nabeel Khan, Chinmay Trivedi, Himanshu Kavani, Elina Medvedeva, James Lewis, Yu-Xiao Yang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of herpes zoster virus infection is increased among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The herpes zoster vaccine (HZV) is therefore recommended for these patients, but little is known about its effectiveness, resulting in low use. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the national veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VAHS) from January 1, 2000 through June 30, 2016. We collected data from 39983 veterans with IBD who had not received the HZV by an age of 60 years...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Michael T Caton, Nityanand Miskin, Hyewon Hyun
A 62-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on long-standing highly active antiretroviral therapy presented for F-FDG PET/CT evaluation of a pulmonary nodule. The examination showed unusual radiotracer distribution accumulating in the subcutaneous and visceral fat with low cerebral and skeletal muscle uptake. Imaging features were consistent with HIV-associated lipodystrophy, an unsuspected diagnosis that was later confirmed on physical examination. Recognition of HIV-associated lipodystrophy by the nuclear medicine physician is critical as altered biodistribution may affect diagnostic yield or be mistaken for infectious pathology...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Jordan Aldersley, David R Lorenz, Vikas Misra, Hajime Uno, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVE(S): HIV-positive individuals have elevated rates of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and sexually transmitted infections with its causative agent, high-risk human papillomavirus, and other oncoviruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV infection can cause liver cancer, and has been associated with increased risk of some extra-hepatic cancers including biliary tract cancer, pancreatic cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Whether HBV is associated with anal SCC risk is unknown...
October 16, 2018: AIDS
Muniba Fayyaz, Syeda S Jaffery
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a fatal demyelinating disease caused by the John Cunningham virus. It causes white matter inflammation in multiple areas of the brain. Although rare, it has been known to occur in patients with immunodeficiency states and those taking chronic immunosuppressive medications for diseases such as multiple sclerosis and psoriasis. In this article, we will discuss about the drug-induced progressive multifocal encephalopathy and its diagnosis and management in patients taking natalizumab and other disease-modifying therapies among patients with multiple sclerosis...
August 3, 2018: Curēus
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