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virus diagnosis

N Golender, V Y Bumbarov, O Erster, M Beer, Y Khinich, K Wernike
Simbu serogroup viruses induce acute clinical diseases and abnormal courses of pregnancies in livestock. In Israel, two members of this serogroup, namely Akabane virus (AKAV) and Shuni virus (SHUV), were recently detected and, in Europe, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) poses a threat to ruminants. To address this emerging problem, a universal S-segment-based real-time RT-PCR assay (Uni-S) for the detection of Simbu serogroup viruses was established, which, additionally, enabled species identification of the detected viruses by subsequent sequencing...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Chi-Chi N Udeagu, Jamie Huang, Kavita Misra
Late presentation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is an important concern for clinical outcomes and HIV prevention. Significant proportions of HIV-diagnosed persons are not timely linked to care following HIV diagnosis. We implemented and evaluated an intervention to link to care persons never in HIV care (NIC). Disease intervention specialists (DIS) traced persons presumed to be NIC since HIV diagnosis, offered them assistance with linkage to care, and elicited reasons for NIC. We examined the overall outcomes of the intervention and reasons for NIC...
August 10, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Xiaoming Yu, Keji Miao, Changsheng Zhou, Yuelin Cai, Xiaoying Huang, Yanfan Chen, Mayun Chen, Hui Cai, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) is a thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungus that often causes fatal opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Although T. marneffei-infected cases have been increasingly reported among non-HIV-infected patients in recent years, no cases of T. marneffei infection have been reported in pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. In this case, we describe a T. marneffei infection in an HIV-negative patient diagnosed with pulmonary sarcoidosis...
August 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Kevin Pottie, Tamara Lotfi, Lama Kilzar, Pamela Howeiss, Nesrine Rizk, Elie A Akl, Sonia Dias, Beverly-Ann Biggs, Robin Christensen, Prinon Rahman, Olivia Magwood, Anh Tran, Nick Rowbotham, Anastasia Pharris, Teymur Noori, Manish Pareek, Rachael Morton
Migrants, defined as individuals who move from their country of origin to another, account for 40% of newly-diagnosed cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). Populations at high risk for HIV include migrants, from countries or living in neighbourhoods where HIV is prevalent, and those participating in high risk behaviour. These migrants are at risk of low CD4 counts at diagnosis, increased morbidity, mortality, and onward transmission. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HIV testing strategies in migrant populations and to estimate their effect on testing uptake, mortality, and resource requirements...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Li-Teh Liu, Tenneth Dalipanda, Rooney Jagilly, Ying-Hui Wang, Ping-Chang Lin, Ching-Yi Tsai, Wen-Ter Lai, Jih-Jin Tsai
Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes various clinical presentations, including asymptomatic infection, dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue. An early and accurate diagnosis of DENV infection during the first few days of illness supports clinical management and significantly reduces dengue-associated mortality and morbidity. However, it is very difficult to confirm DENV infection in endemic regions without qualified dengue diagnostic laboratories. In this study, we evaluated the performance of two commercially available rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) using serum samples collected in the Solomon Islands during the 2013 DENV-3 outbreak...
2018: PloS One
Koju Kamoi, Manabu Mochizuki, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
RATIONALE: Dengue fever is a notable emerging infectious disease that is now seen worldwide, with an estimated incidence of approximately 390 million cases per year. Although ocular complications are uncommon among dengue fever-infected patients, caution is needed to prevent vision loss. Here we report a potentially serious sight-threatening complication of dengue fever, dengue fever-associated necrotizing scleritis. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: After being bitten by mosquitoes, a 60-year-old Japanese female exhibited positive serologic tests of immunoglobulin M and G enzyme immunoassays for dengue viral infection along with a decrease of leukocytes and platelets...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rene Y Choi, Andreas Lauer, James T Rosenbaum
Purpose: To report a case of varicella zoster virus associated neuroretinitis confirmed via polymerase chain reaction analysis of ocular fluid. Observations: A 30-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of decreased vision in his left eye and ulcerative skin lesions above his left eyebrow. On exam, he had clinical findings consistent with neuroretinitis characterized by optic disc edema and formation of a macular star. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of aqueous fluid was positive for varicella zoster virus...
September 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
R Mukora, M Tlali, S Monkwe, S Charalambous, A S Karat, K L Fielding, A D Grant, A Vassall
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization recommends point-of-care (POC) lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in selected human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive people. South Africa had 438 000 new TB episodes in 2016, 58.9% of which were contributed by HIV-positive people. LF-LAM is being considered for scale-up in South Africa. METHODS: We estimated the costs of using LF-LAM in HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts  150 cells/μl enrolled in the TB Fast Track Trial in South Africa...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
J-H Han, A M Weir, J F Weston, C Heuer, M C Gates
The major impacts of bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) on cattle health and production have prompted many countries to embark on national elimination programmes. These programmes typically involve identifying and removing persistently infected (PI) cattle in infected herds and implementing biosecurity measures, such as pre- or post-movement testing. In order to design a systematic national control programme to eliminate BVD in New Zealand, that achieves the greatest benefits to the industries at the lowest cost to individual farmers, an accurate understanding is necessary of the epidemiology, economics and social motivation for BVD control in New Zealand...
August 9, 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Chris Hopkins, Murray Reid, Judy Gilmour, Suzanne Werder, Simon Briggs
BACKGROUND: Earlier diagnosis of HIV infection improves health outcomes and reduces transmission. In New Zealand half of new HIV diagnoses between 2005 and 2010 had a CD4 count below 350 cells/mm3 . HIV screening is already offered in antenatal settings in New Zealand, but not universally in hospital settings. AIMS: To assess the impact of missed opportunities to diagnose HIV infection in adults presenting to hospital services at Auckland District Health Board (ADHB)...
August 8, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Vijay K Chattu, Raman Kumar, Soosanna Kumary, Fnu Kajal, Joseph K David
Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis first reported in "Sungai Nipah" in Malaysia in 1999 has emerged as a global public health threat in the Southeast Asia region. From 1998 to 2018, more than 630 cases of NiV human infections were reported. NiV is transmitted by zoonotic (from bats to humans, or from bats to pigs, and then to humans) as well as human-to-human routes. Deforestation and urbanization of some areas have contributed to greater overlap between human and bat habitats resulting in NiV outbreaks...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Tomoo Sato, Naoko Yagishita, Keiko Tamaki, Eisuke Inoue, Daisuke Hasegawa, Misako Nagasaka, Hiroko Suzuki, Natsumi Araya, Ariella Coler-Reilly, Yasuhiro Hasegawa, Yoshio Tsuboi, Ayako Takata, Yoshihisa Yamano
Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a rare chronic neuroinflammatory disease. While the disease usually progresses slowly without remission, there is a subgroup of patients with rapid progression and another subgroup with very slow progression. However, there have been no reports to date that have successfully determined the criteria to differentiate these subgroups. Therefore, we initially conducted a statistical modeling analysis to explore representative patterns of disease progression using data from our nationwide HAM/TSP patient registration system ("HAM-net")...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Seong Jae Yeo, Hyun Seok Lee, Byung Ik Jang, Eun Soo Kim, Seong Woo Jeon, Sung Kook Kim, Kyeong Ok Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Hyun Jik Lee, Kyung Sik Park, Yun Jin Jung, Eun Young Kim, Chang Heon Yang
Background/Aims: This study aimed to elucidate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic markers in Korean patients newly diagnosed with, but not yet treated for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: We prospectively enrolled 210 patients newly diagnosed with IBD (109 with ulcerative colitis and 101 with Crohn's disease). Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels were measured and compared with those of 1,100 sex- and age-matched controls...
July 2018: Intestinal Research
José L Mendoza-García, Víctor Quirós-González, Mar Jiménez-Rodríguez, Ana Haro-Pérez, Mª Nieves Gutiérrez Zufiaurre, Paz Rodríguez-Pérez
OBJECTIVE: The increase in morbidity and mortality associated the influenza virus infections represents an important global challenge, with particular relevance within health institutions.The aim of the study was to highlight the impact, repercussions and characteristics of the nosocomial transmission of influenza virus. METHODS: A sample of 286 hospitalized patients in a third-level hospital with confirmed influenza (virus RNA in respiratory specimens) is included...
August 10, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Andres Moreira-Soto, Renata Cabral, Celia Pedroso, Monika Eschbach-Bludau, Alexandra Rockstroh, Ludy Alexandra Vargas, Ignacio Postigo-Hidalgo, Estela Luz, Gilmara Souza Sampaio, Christian Drosten, Eduardo Martins Netto, Thomas Jaenisch, Sebastian Ulbert, Manoel Sarno, Carlos Brites, Jan Felix Drexler
The Latin American 2015-2016 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak was associated with an increase in microcephaly predominantly in northeastern Brazil. To comparatively investigate infectious causes of congenital malformations, we performed a nested case-control study in 32 mothers of cases of suspected congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and 160 age-matched controls from Bahia, northeastern Brazil. We collected clinical and imaging data and assessed past exposure to ZIKV, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), dengue virus, and 8 established TORCH ( Toxoplasma gondii , Treponema pallidum , rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] and HSV-2, varicella-zoster virus, parvovirus B19) pathogens using multiple serological tests...
August 8, 2018: MSphere
Simona Cammarota, Anna Citarella, Lamberto Manzoli, Maria Elena Flacco, Giustino Parruti
Background: Due to the success of antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been transformed into a lifelong condition. In Italy, little is known about the impact of comorbidities (CMs) on the risk of hospitalization and related costs for people who live with HIV (PWLHIV). The objective of the study was to quantify the risk of hospitalization and costs associated with CMs in an Italian cohort of PWLHIV. Methods: The study population included subjects aged ≥18 years with HIV infection, identified in the Abruzzo's hospital discharge database among files stored from 2004 until 2013 and then followed up until December 2015...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Wissam Sabbagh, Noor S Darwich
BACKGROUND Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) - formerly known as Pneumocyctis carinii pneumonia - with newly diagnosed AIDS is an uncommon presentation in people over 50 years of age. A high level of suspicion is required for this diagnosis when an elderly patient with pneumonia is not responding to broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. CASE REPORT We describe the case of a 63-year-old woman who presented with dyspnea, cough, and significant hypoxemia requiring high-flow oxygen supplement with bilateral lung infiltrates, treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics for a presumed diagnosis of pneumonia...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Li Zou, Tingting Li, Ruidi Shen, Shaozhi Ren, Liansheng Ling
A label-free light-up fluorescent sensing strategy using hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification and DNA triplex assembly has been developed. Remarkably, the proposed fluorescence assay is successfully applied to the determination of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus DNA and thrombin. Herein, in the presence of targets, the target DNA/initiator triggers a cascade of hybridization events between H1 and H2 that yields nicked double helices analogous to alternating copolymers. With the additions of triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) and berberine, the triplex structures form between HCR products and TFO...
November 1, 2018: Talanta
Juan C Lona-Reyes, Ana L Valdez-Núñez, Araceli Cordero-Zamora, Alejandro Rea-Rosas, Elba P Ascencio-Esparza, Luis G Orozco-Alatorre
Introducción: Las causas de meningoencefalitis, meningitis o encefalitis pueden ser infecciosas o no infecciosas. Para el diagnóstico microbiológico se requieren cultivos y pruebas moleculares. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las causas infecciosas de meningoencefalitis y su presentación clínica. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en el Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Dr. Juan I. Menchaca. Se incluyeron pacientes mayores de 28 días de vida con síndrome de meningitis, encefalitis o meningoencefalitis...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
M Anjaneya Swamy, Bharti Malhotra, P V Janardhan Reddy, Jitendra Tiwari
Introduction: Various pathogens cause respiratory tract infections in children of <5 years of age causing severe morbidity and mortality. The profile of causative agents varies from place to place. Aims: The objectives of our study were to detect the profile and trends of respiratory pathogens causing acute respiratory tract infection in children using a custom multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and to develop a diagnostic algorithm. Materials and Methods: A total of 997 children with clinical manifestations of respiratory infections were included in the study...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
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