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Endocrine physiology

Antonio Di Zazzo, Alessandra Micera, Maria De Piano, Magdalena Cortes, Stefano Bonini
INTRODUCTION: Corroborating data suggest that the analysis of tear fluid might represent an additional tool in the ophthalmological practice. AREAS COVERED: The purpose of this review was to sum up the tear protein profiles in healthy and diseased ocular surface and to highlight biomarker usefulness in the early diagnosis as well as at follow-up. This analysis encompasses a deep examination of the protein profile expression under physiological and pathological conditions...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Heresh Amini, Pouria Heydarpour, Fatemeh Amini Chermahini, Lode Godderis
Beyond vitamin D (VD) effect on bone homeostasis, numerous physiological functions in human health have been described for this versatile prohormone. In 2016, 95% of the world's population lived in areas where annual mean ambient particulate matter (<2.5 μm) levels exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (Shaddick et al., 2018). On the other hand, industries disperse thousands of chemicals continually into the environment. Further, considerable fraction of populations are exposed to tobacco smoke...
November 30, 2018: Environment International
Hui Yang, Libo Du, Guangjun Wu, Zhenyu Wu, Jeffrey A Keelan
BACKGROUND: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely studied for biomedical applications, although their safety and potential toxicity in pregnancy remains unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of AuNPs maternal exposure at different gestational ages on fetal survival and development, as well as the potential mechanism of AuNPs affecting embryos and fetuses. METHODS: Thirty nm polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated AuNPs (A30) were administered to pregnant mice via intravenous injection (5 μg Au/g body weight) over three days at either early or late pregnancy...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Medicine
Nathalie Fuentes, Patricia Silveyra
Sex-differences in the incidence and severity of inflammatory lung diseases have been recognized for years. Women of reproductive age are more likely to suffer from chronic lung disease, with higher mortality rates than men. Physiological changes in hormone levels such as those occurring during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and menopause have been associated with lung function changes and asthma symptoms. Despite this, the roles of sex hormones in the mechanisms associated with lung diseases have not been fully elucidated...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Mostafa Bakhti, Anika Böttcher, Heiko Lickert
Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease affecting increasing numbers of patients worldwide. Progression to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is characterized by the loss or dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells, but the pathomechanisms underlying β-cell failure in type 1 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetes mellitus are still poorly defined. Regeneration of β-cell mass from residual islet cells or replacement by β-like cells derived from stem cells holds great promise to stop or reverse disease progression...
November 30, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Chao Zhao, Chengfeng Yang, Sydney Tang Chi Wai, Yanbo Zhang, Maria P Portillo, Paolo Paoli, Yijing Wu, Wai San Cheang, Bin Liu, Christian Carpéné, Jianbo Xiao, Hui Cao
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most prevalent disease and becoming a serious public health threat worldwide. It is a severe endocrine metabolic disorder that has the ability to induce serious complications in all kinds of organs. Although mechanisms of anti-diabetics have been described before, we focus here on the cellular and physiological mechanisms involved in the modulation of insulin and glucose blood levels. As obesity and inflammation are intimately associated with the development of T2DM, their possible relationships are also described...
December 3, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
V A Badtieva, V I Pavlov, M N Khokhlova, A V Pachina
BACKGROUND: Physical overload results in the development of pathological changes in the organs and systems and thereby causes their dysfunction. This leads to disadaptation, vegetative imbalance, and disturbances in the cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and other systems. Taken together, these changes give rise to a syndrome of overtraining. In this context, the pathogenetically sound method of therapy appears to be the most suitable for the management of this condition based on the physiotherapeutic non-invasive interventions for the correction of physiological characteristics and the psycho-emotional status of the patients...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Rebecca L Hagedorn, Kathryn Baker, Sara E DeJarnett, Tyler Hendricks, Melissa McGowan, Lauren Joseph, Melissa D Olfert
This pilot study evaluated the impact of the Katalyst curriculum, a fifth-grade experiential learning program, on students' knowledge of a healthy lifestyle's impact on body functions. Katalyst's interactive curriculum spans two days and includes four, 60-min stations on body systems: cardiovascular/endocrine, gastrointestinal, neurological, and respiratory/musculoskeletal. Three schools were recruited, and two schools completed the intervention sessions. Prior to beginning the stations, fifth-grade students completed a 37-item questionnaire to assess knowledge and perceptions...
November 28, 2018: Children
B Rácz, M Dušková, L Stárka, V Hainer, M Kunešová
Obesity is linked to a wide range of serious illnesses. In addition to the important impact on the health of the individual, obesity also has a substantial impact on the economy. Disruption of physiological day-night cycles could contribute to the increased incidence of obesity. According to the American National Sleep Federation, the percentage of the people who reported a sleep duration of six hours or less increased from 12 to 37 % over ten years. Insufficient sleep leads not only to an increase of the total calorie intake but changes the meal preference in favor of palatable foods and meals with high carbohydrate content...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
M Dušková, L Kolátorová, L Stárka
The androgens dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, dehydro-epiandrosterone, androstenedione and testosterone are routinely assessed in women, and circulating levels of these androgens reflect their production. These androgens are measured in most laboratories using various immuno-analytical methods. Recently, however, androgen assays have begun to be performed using gas or liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. To better understand the difficulties and issues of androgen laboratory diagnostics, it is important to assess each of the methods used, how and why they were introduced into practice, and their advantages, limits, historic milestones and current status...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
Felice Strollo, Sandro Gentile, Giovanna Strollo, Andrea Mambro, Joan Vernikos
Astronauts coming back from long-term space missions present with different health problems potentially affecting mission performance, involving all functional systems and organs and closely resembling those found in the elderly. This review points out the most recent advances in the literature in areas of expertise in which specific research groups were particularly creative, and as they relate to aging and to possible benefits on Earth for disabled people. The update of new findings and approaches in space research refers especially to neuro-immuno-endocrine-metabolic interactions, optic nerve edema, motion sickness and muscle-tendon-bone interplay and aims at providing the curious - and even possibly naïve young researchers - with a source of inspiration and of creative ideas for translational research...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Juana Maria Lugo, Carolina Tafalla, Ayme Oliva, Tirso Pons, Brizaida Oliva, Carolina Aquilino, Reynold Morales, Mario Pablo Estrada
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a regulatory neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin/glucagon superfamily, of which some members have shown antimicrobial activities. Contrasting to mammals, published studies on the action of PACAP in non-mammalian vertebrate immune system remain scarce. Some of our recent studies added this peptide to the growing list of mediators that allow cross-talk between the nervous, endocrine and immune systems in teleost fish. Regulation of PACAP and expression of its receptor genes has been demonstrated during an immune response mounted against acute bacterial infection in fish, though the direct effect of PACAP against fish pathogenic bacteria has never been addressed...
November 24, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Aimilia Papathanasiou, Eric Nolen-Doerr, Olivia Farr, Christos S Mantzoros
The discovery of leptin, an adipocyte secreted hormone, set the stage for unraveling the mechanisms dictating energy homeostasis, revealing adipose tissue as an endocrine system that regulates appetite and body weight. Fluctuating leptin levels provide molecular signals to the brain regarding available energy reserves modulating energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine response in states of leptin deficiency and to a lesser extent in hyperleptinemic states. While leptin replacement therapy fails to provide substantial benefit in common obesity, it is effective treatment for congenital leptin deficiency and states of acquired leptin deficiency such as lipodystrophy...
November 1, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Kristopher Keith Abney, Michael Bubser, Yu Du, Krystian A Kozek, Thomas M Bridges, Craig W Lindsley, J Scott Daniels, Ryan D Morrison, Kevin Wickman, Corey R Hopkins, Carrie K Jones, C David Weaver
G protein-gated inwardly-rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are potassium-selective ion channels. As their name suggests, GIRK channels are effectors of Gi/o G protein-couple receptors whereby activation of these GPCRs leads to increased GIRK channel activity resulting in decreased cellular excitability. In this way, GIRK channels play diverse roles in physiology as effectors of Gi/o-coupled GPCRs: peacemaking in the heart rate, modulation of hormone secretion in endocrine tissues, as well as numerous CNS functions including learning, memory and addiction/reward...
November 26, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Johana M Lambert, Andrea K Anderson, L Ashley Cowart
Adipose tissue lies at the heart of obesity, mediating its many effects upon the rest of the body, with its unique capacity to expand and regenerate, throughout the lifespan of the organism. Adipose is appreciated as an endocrine organ, with its myriad adipokines that elicit both physiological and pathological outcomes. Sphingolipids, bioactive signaling molecules, affect many aspects of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. While sphingolipids are appreciated in the context of these diseases in other tissues, there are many discoveries yet to be uncovered in the adipose tissue...
December 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Ludivine Renaud, Nisha Agarwal, Dylan J Richards, Silvia Falcinelli, E Starr Hazard, Oliana Carnevali, John Hyde, Gary Hardiman
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances which disrupt normal functioning of the endocrine system by interfering with hormone regulated physiological pathways. Aquatic environments provide the ultimate reservoir for many EDCs as they enter rivers and the ocean via effluent discharges and accumulate in sediments. One EDC widely dispersed in municipal wastewater effluent discharges is 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), which is one of the most widely prescribed medicines. EE2 is a bio-active estrogen employed in the majority of oral contraceptive pill formulations...
January 2019: Environmental Pollution
Patrick Zimmer, Benjamin Buttlar, Georg Halbeisen, Eva Walther, Gregor Domes
In recent years, virtual reality (VR) technology has found its way into nearly all fields of psychology. Previous studies indicated that virtual reality adaptations of the TSST are less potent in stimulating HPA-axis responses, with lower salivary cortisol responses recorded as compared to the in-vivo TSST. (TSST-IV). In the present experiment we tested the stress-induction potential of a refined version of the TSST-VR using a fully orthogonal experimental design in which ninety-three healthy males were either assigned to the TSST condition or a corresponding control condition in a real or virtual environment...
November 10, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Toru Miura
Phenotypic plasticity and polyphenism, in which phenotypes can be changed depending on environmental conditions, are common in insects. Several studies focusing on physiological, developmental, and molecular processes underlying the plastic responses have revealed that similar endocrine mechanisms using juvenile hormone (JH) are used to coordinate the flexible developmental processes. This review discusses accumulated knowledge on the caste polyphenism in social insects (especially termites), the wing and the reproductive polyphenisms in aphids, and the nutritional polyphenism and sexual dimorphism in stag beetles...
November 23, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Brennan S Dirk, Christopher End, Emily N Pawlak, Logan R Van Nynatten, Rajesh Abraham Jacob, Bryan Heit, Jimmy D Dikeakos
The regulated secretory pathway is a specialized form of protein secretion found in endocrine and neuroendocrine cell types. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a pro-hormone that utilizes this pathway to be trafficked to dense core secretory granules (DCSGs). Within this organelle, POMC is processed to multiple bioactive hormones that play key roles in cellular physiology. However, the complete set of cellular membrane trafficking proteins that mediate the correct sorting of POMC to DCSGs remain unknown. Here, we report the roles of the phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein - 1 (PACS-1) and the clathrin adaptor protein 1 (AP-1) in the targeting of POMC to DCSGs...
December 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Carolina Camacho, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Patrícia Anacleto, Sara C Cunha, José O Fernandes, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, José Ricardo Paula, Rui Rosa, Mário Diniz, António Marques
Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic microbial compound widely used in the formulation of various personal care products. Its frequent detection in marine ecosystems, along with its physical and chemical properties, suggest that TCS can be highly persistent, being easily bioaccumulated by biota and, therefore, eliciting various toxicological responses. Yet, TCS's mechanisms of bioaccumulation and toxicity still deserve further research, particularly focusing on the interactive effects with climate change-related stressors (e...
November 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
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