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Endocrine physiology

Q Liu, W Xie, Y Xiao, F Gao, Q Gao, H Zhang, Y Han, Z Yuan, Q Weng
Oxytocin (OT) is presented in the male reproductive tract and has various physiological functions, such as stimulating contraction of the reproductive tract and aiding sperm transport. In this study we investigated seasonal expressions of OT and oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the epididymis of the muskrat during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Morphologically, the weight and length of epididymis in the breeding season were significantly higher than those in the non-breeding season. In the breeding season, the lumen diameter and epithelial thickness of epididymis increased significantly, and there were a large number of sperms in the lumen...
October 9, 2018: Theriogenology
Brenna M G Gormally, Rory Fuller, Mitch McVey, L Michael Romero
Corticosterone does not change in consistent ways across species and contexts, making it challenging to use as an indicator of chronic stress. We assessed DNA damage as a potential metric that could be a more integrative stress measurement with direct links to health. We captured free-living house sparrows, took an immediate blood sample, and transferred them to the laboratory, exposing them to the chronic stress of captivity. Biweekly blood and weight samples were then taken for 4 weeks. We immediately assessed DNA damage in red blood cells using the comet assay and later quantified corticosterone...
October 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Andrew A Guccione, Brian T Neville, Steven Z George
For over 30 years, the physical therapy profession has openly pursued the concept of diagnosis.1,2 More recently, the attention on diagnosis has shifted to postulation of a "movement system" as the unique and overarching construct of the profession's body of knowledge and the foundation of physical therapist practice as such practice seeks to optimize movement as movement is related to health.3,4 The term "movement system" has been defined as "represent(ing) the collection of systems (cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, integumentary, nervous, and musculoskeletal) that interact to move the body or its component parts...
October 17, 2018: Physical Therapy
Lucía Angélica Méndez-García, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Tania de Lourdes Ochoa-Mercado, Margarita Isabel Palacios-Arreola, Rocío Alejandra Ruiz-Manzano, Mariana Segovia-Mendoza, Helena Solleiro-Villavicencio, Cinthia Cázarez-Martínez, Jorge Morales-Montor
In breast cancer, an uncontrolled cell proliferation leads to tumor formation and development of a multifactorial disease. Metastasis is a complex process that involves tumor spread to distant parts of the body from its original site. Metastatic dissemination represents the main physiopathology of cancer. Inter- and intracellular communication in all systems in vertebrates is mediated by cytokines, which are highly inducible, secretory proteins, produced not only by immune system cells, but also by endocrine and nervous system cells...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Luciele Guerra Minuzzi, Luis Rama, Matheus Uba Chupel, Fátima Rosado, Gabriel Keine Kuga, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, José Rodrigo Pauli, Artur Paiva, Ana Maria Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a training season (approximately 7 months) on physiological and salivary immune-endocrine markers in master athletes. Nine male master athletes were evaluated at the beginning of the season (M1) and a week after the main official competition at the end of the sports season (M2). The controlled variables included Maximal oxygen consumption, anthropometric, physiological, and salivary immune-endocrine markers. Master athletes presented a reduced percentage of fat mass and increased lean body mass at the end of the season...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Chengliang Luo, Qiang Yang, Yuancai Liu, Shuanhu Zhou, Jiying Jiang, Russel J Reiter, Pallab Bhattacharya, Yongchun Cui, Hongwei Yang, He Ma, Jiemin Yao, Sean E Lawler, Xinmu Zhang, Jianfang Fu, Renato Rozental, Hany Aly, Mark D Johnson, E Antonio Chiocca, Xin Wang
Melatonin is a neurohormone associated with sleep and wakefulness and is mainly produced by the pineal gland in animals. Numerous physiological functions of melatonin have been demonstrated including anti-inflammation, suppressing neoplastic growth, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity as well as its role in regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others. In this review, we summarize the recent advances related to the multiple protective roles of melatonin receptor agonists, melatonin and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in brain injury, liver damage, and bone health...
October 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
David J Albers, Matthew E Levine, Andrew Stuart, Lena Mamykina, Bruce Gluckman, George Hripcsak
We introduce data assimilation as a computational method that uses machine learning to combine data with human knowledge in the form of mechanistic models in order to forecast future states, to impute missing data from the past by smoothing, and to infer measurable and unmeasurable quantities that represent clinically and scientifically important phenotypes. We demonstrate the advantages it affords in the context of type 2 diabetes by showing how data assimilation can be used to forecast future glucose values, to impute previously missing glucose values, and to infer type 2 diabetes phenotypes...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Agnieszka Bukowska-Damska, Elzbieta Skowronska-Jozwiak, Beata Peplonska
Osteoporosis is an important public health problem worldwide. Among the countries with a very high population risk of fractures, there are those with the highest level of economic development. Osteoporotic fractures are the main cause of disability among elderly people, and the resultant disabilities require particularly large financial support associated not only with the direct treatment of the fracture but also with the necessity for long-term rehabilitation and care for the disabled person. Many well-established factors can have impact on bone mass and fracture risk...
October 12, 2018: Chronobiology International
Elahe Hadavi, Jeroen C H Leijten, Jenny Brinkmann, Pascal Jonkheijm, Marcel Karperien, Aart Alexander van Apeldoorn
Extracellular matrix molecules play significant roles in regulating β-cell function and viability within pancreatic islets by providing mechanical and biological support, stimulating cell survival, proliferation and their endocrine function. During clinical islet transplantation the beta cell's extracellular matrix environment is degraded by enzymatic digestion. Literature suggests that interactions between islet cells and ECM molecules, such as fibronectin, collagen IV and laminin, are essential for maintaining, or stimulation of islet function and survival, and can effect differentiation and proliferation of the endocrine cells...
October 11, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Katarzyna Kornicka, Agnieszka Śmieszek, Jolanta Szłapka-Kosarzewska, Jennifer M Irwin Houston, Michael Roecken, Krzysztof Marycz
Endocrine disorders are becoming an increasing problem in both human and veterinary medicine. In recent years, more and more horses worldwide have been suffering from equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). This metabolic disorder is characterized by pathological obesity, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance. Although metabolic disorders, including diabetes, have been extensively studied, there are still no data on the molecular effects of EMS in horses. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate apoptosis, oxidative stress, autophagy and microRNA (miR) expression in multipotent intestinal epithelial stem cells (IECs) and pancreatic islets (PIs) isolated post mortem form healthy and EMS diagnosed horses...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Verena Christen, Petra Y Kunz, Karl Fent
Exposure to plant protection products (PPPs) is one of the causes for the population decline of pollinators. In addition to direct exposure, pollinators are exposed to PPPs by pollen, nectar and honey that often contain residues of multiple PPPs. While in legislation PPPs are regarded mainly for their acute toxicity in bees, other effects such as neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, behavioural changes, stress responses and chronic effects that may harm different physiologically and ecologically relevant traits are much less or not regarded...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Maren N Vitousek, Michele A Johnson, Jerry F Husak
Hormones are central mediators of genotype-phenotype and organism-environment interactions. Despite these important functions, the role of selection in shaping hormonal mediators of phenotype remains poorly understood. Thanks to decades of work by endocrinologists, circulating hormone levels have been measured in a diversity of organisms. Variation in other endocrine traits and mediators (e.g., receptor expression and binding globulins), and the hormonal response to standardized challenges (e.g., restraint, pharmacological challenges) are also increasingly measured in both captive and free-living populations...
October 1, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Vijay Kumar Saxena, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
Nutritional scarcity during summer and winter is a major constraint for sheep rearing in the semi-arid tropical region. In this region, a new crossbred sheep has been developed by the crossing of a native sheep breed Malpura with a breed of hot-humid coastal region breed Garole. A study was conducted for 9 weeks to assess the physiological response of crossbred (Garole x Malpura x Malpura, GMM) rams under nutritional scarcity in the semi-arid tropical region. Eighteen adult crossbred rams were randomly allocated into three groups of six animals each...
October 6, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Perrine Geraudie, Marie Gerbron, Anne E Lockyer, Susan Jobling, Christophe Minier
The reproduction of vertebrates is regulated by endocrine and neuro-endocrine signaling molecules acting along the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. The understanding of the neuroendocrine role played in reproductive function has been recently revolutionized since the KiSS1/GPR54 (KiSS1r) system was discovered in 2003 in human and mice. Kisspeptins, neuropeptides that are encoded by the KiSS genes, have been recognized as essential in the regulation of the gonadotropic axis. They have been shown to play key roles in puberty onset and reproduction by regulating the gonadotropin secretion in mammals while physiological roles in vertebrates are still poorly known...
October 6, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Liting Sun, Lu Chen, Yanwen Jiang, Yun Zhao, Fengge Wang, Xue Zheng, Chunjin Li, Xu Zhou
The growth and development of follicles are a very complex physiological process that is regulated by endocrine, autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. The effect of small molecules in follicular microenvironment on follicular growth and development has not been clearly analyzed. In this study, the metabolic changes in ovaries of FSH-stimulated mice were investigated. Metabolomic profiling of ovary stimulated by FSH were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and characterized by principal components analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis...
October 4, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Pyotr A Tyurin-Kuzmin, Daniyar T Dyikanov, Julia I Fadeeva, Veronika Yu Sysoeva, Natalia I Kalinina
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) were identified in most tissues of an adult organism. MSCs mediate physiological renewal, as well as regulation of tissue homeostasis, reparation and regeneration. Functions of MSCs are regulated by endocrine and neuronal signals, and noradrenaline is one of the most important MSC regulators. We provided flow cytometry analysis of expression of adrenergic receptors on the surface of human MSCs isolated from ten different donors. We have found that the expression profile of adrenergic receptors in MSCs vary significantly between donors...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Data
Youn-Jeong Choi, Julie D Saba
Sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (SPL) is an intracellular enzyme that controls the final step in the sphingolipid degradative pathway, the only biochemical pathway for removal of sphingolipids. Specifically, SPL catalyzes the cleavage of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) at the C2-3 carbon bond, resulting in its irreversible degradation to phosphoethanolamine (PE) and hexadecenal. The substrate of the reaction, S1P, is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that signals through a family of five G protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PRs) to mediate biological activities including cell migration, cell survival/death/proliferation and cell extrusion, thereby contributing to development, physiological functions and - when improperly regulated - the pathophysiology of disease...
September 25, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Stephanie Deighton, Alexandra Neville, Dennis Pusch, Keith Dobson
Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are stressful and/or traumatic experiences that occur during childhood. Research has demonstrated a link between ACEs and risk of physical and mental health disorders, where early life adversity may become "biologically embedded" and have wide-ranging effects on various physiological systems. The aim of this study was to identify the extent and breadth of recent research activity relating to biological measures of ACEs in adulthood. We undertook a scoping review including published research articles...
August 25, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Subhankari Prasad Chakraborty
Now-a-days, the life-line of urban population has been formed by commercial foods due to industrialization, urbanization and rapid increase in working class. Commercial foods are time and energy saving foods but it compromising the nutritional value of foods. The term adulteration refers to the deliberate addition of compound which is usually not present in food. These compounds are known as food additives or food adulterant. Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is one of the most common food additives. Several studies revealed that MSG has toxic effect on foetal development/foetus, children's, adolescent and adults...
October 1, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Daisuke Inoue
FGF23 is an "endocrine FGF" mainly secreted by osteocytes. FGF23 exerts its action through binding to an FGF receptor isoform, FGFR1c, using α-Klotho as a co-receptor. The main physiological function of FGF23 is to suppress phosphate reabsorption and active vitamin D production in the proximal tubule of the kidney, thereby lowering serum concentration of inorganic phosphate. In recent years, however, FGF23 has been shown to contribute to various pathological processes including cardiac hypertrophy via a distinct mode of action in a Klotho-independent manner...
2018: Clinical Calcium
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