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Endocrine physiology

Molly M Hyer, Linda L Phillips, Gretchen N Neigh
Notable sex-differences exist between neural structures that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors such as reproduction and parenting. While anatomical differences have been well-characterized, advancements in neuroimaging and pharmacology techniques have allowed researchers to identify differences between males and females down to the level of the synapse. Disparate mechanisms at the synaptic level contribute to sex-specific neuroplasticity that is reflected in sex-dependent behaviors. Many of these synaptic differences are driven by the endocrine system and its impact on molecular signaling and physiology...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Emily E Virgin, Kimberly A Rosvall
Immune function varies with an animal's endocrine physiology and energy reserves, as well as its abiotic and biotic environment. This context-dependency is thought to relate to adaptive trade-off resolution that varies from one context to the next; however, it is less clear how state- and environmentally-dependent differences in endocrine-immune signaling relate to survival in natural populations. We begin to address this question in a prospective study on a free-living passerine bird, the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), by capitalizing upon naturally-occurring variation in ectoparasitism in 12-day old chicks...
August 9, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Maryam Majidinia, Russel J Reiter, Seyed Kazem Shakouri, Bahman Yousefi
Biological ageing is generally accompanied by a gradual loss of cellular functions and physiological integrity of organ systems, the consequential enhancement of vulnerability, senescence and finally death. Mechanisms which underlie ageing are primarily attributed to an array of diverse but related factors including free radical-induced damage, dysfunction of mitochondria, disruption of circadian rhythms, inflammaging, genomic instability, telomere attrition, loss of proteostasis, deregulated sensing of nutrients, epigenetic alterations, altered intercellular communication, and decreased capacity for tissue repair...
August 6, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Sameera Abuaish, Richard L Spinieli, Patrick O McGowan
The maternal environment has a profound effect on the development of offspring, including responses to stress mediated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In rodents, perinatal high fat diet (HFD) has been shown to program the HPA axis in a manner that persists throughout adulthood, however the effects of perinatal HFD on stress-related behaviors and physiology in neonates are limited. The first two weeks of life in rodents are known as the stress hyporesponsive period, during which animals do not respond to stressors that are otherwise known to elicit behavioral and physiological responses in mature animals...
August 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Kamila Szymanska, Jaroslaw Calka, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic substance, which is commonly used in the production of plastic. It is known that BPA has the negative impact on the living organism, affecting among others the reproductive organs, nervous, endocrine and immune systems. Nevertheless the knowledge about the influence of BPA on the enteric nervous system (ENS) is extremely scanty. On the other hand, nitric oxide is considered to be one of the most important neuronal factors in the ENS. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of low and high doses of BPA on neuronal isoform nitric oxide synthase - like immunoreactive (nNOS-LI) nervous structures in the various parts of the porcine gastrointestinal (GI) tract using double immunofluorescence technique...
August 4, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Sabrina Chiloiro, Tommaso Tartaglione, Ettore Domenico Capoluongo, Flavia Angelini, Vincenzo Arena, Antonella Giampietro, Antonio Bianchi, Angelo Zoli, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Cesare Colosimo, Laura De Marinis
Context: Primary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAH) evolves in most of untreated cases in irreversible hypopituitarism. PAH outcome, instead, after immunosuppressive treatment hasn't been completely clarified. Objective: To evaluate hypophysitis and pituitary function outcomes. Design: A prospective, double-arm study with a 2-year follow-up. Setting: Referral center for pituitary disease. Patients: 20 PAH cases...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Maria Elvira Brocca, Luis Miguel Garcia-Segura
The modulation of brain function and behavior by steroid hormones was classically associated with their secretion by peripheral endocrine glands. The discovery that the brain expresses the enzyme aromatase, which produces estradiol from testosterone, expanded this traditional concept. One of the best-studied roles of brain estradiol synthesis is the control of reproductive behavior. In addition, there is increasing evidence that estradiol from neural origin is also involved in a variety of non-reproductive functions...
August 6, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Andreas Heyland, Nicholas Schuh, Jonathan Rast
Larvae are a diverse set of postembryonic life forms distinct from juveniles or adults that have evolved in many animal phyla. Echinoids (sea urchins and sand dollars) generate rapidly developing, morphologically simple, and optically transparent larvae and are a well-established model system supported by a broad array of genomic resources, experimental approaches, and imaging techniques. As such, they provide a unique opportunity to study postembryonic processes such as endocrine signaling, immunity, host-microbe interactions, and regeneration...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Marion Lemaire, Samir Dou, Armelle Cahu, Michèle Formal, Laurence Le Normand, Véronique Romé, Isabelle Nogret, Stéphanie Ferret-Bernard, Moez Rhimi, Isabelle Cuinet, Cécile Canlet, Marie Tremblay-Franco, Pascale Le Ruyet, Charlotte Baudry, Philippe Gérard, Isabelle Le Huërou-Luron, Sophie Blat
Clinical and animal studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of early consumption of dairy lipids and a probiotic, Lactobacillus fermentum (Lf), on infant gut physiology. The objective of this study was to investigate their long-term effects on gut microbiota and host entero-insular axis and metabolism. Piglets were suckled with a milk formula containing only plant lipids (PL), a half-half mixture of plant lipids and dairy lipids (DL), or this mixture supplemented with Lf (DL + Lf). They were weaned on a standard diet and challenged with a high-energy diet until postnatal day 140...
August 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jason P Breves, Tara A Duffy, Ingibjörg E Einarsdottir, Björn Thrandur Björnsson, Stephen D McCormick
Feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) affect the growth and development of teleost fishes. The major regulator of growth performance, the growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system, is sensitive to estrogenic compounds and mediates certain physiological and potentially behavioral consequences of EDC exposure. Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) are key modulators of Igf activity, but their alteration by EDCs has not been examined. We investigated two life-stages (fry and smolts) of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and characterized how the Gh/Igf/Igfbp system responded to waterborne 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2 ), 17β-estradiol (E2 ) and 4-nonylphenol (NP)...
July 25, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Romain Yvinec, Pascale Crépieux, Eric Reiter, Anne Poupon, Frédérique Clément
Pituitary gonadotropins play an essential and pivotal role in the control of human and animal reproduction within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. The computational modeling of pituitary gonadotropin signaling encompasses phenomena of different natures such as the dynamic encoding of gonadotropin secretion, and the intracellular cascades triggered by gonadotropin binding to their cognate receptors, resulting in a variety of biological outcomes. Areas covered: The authors provide an overview of the historical and ongoing issues in modeling and data analysis related to gonadotropin secretion in the field of both physiology and neuroendocrinology...
August 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Alexander Rebl, Marieke Verleih, Mareen Nipkow, Simone Altmann, Ralf Bochert, Tom Goldammer
The complex and still poorly understood nature of thermoregulation in various fish species complicates the determination of the physiological status on the basis of diagnostic marker genes and indicative molecular pathways. The present study aimed to compare the physiological impacts of both gradual and acute temperature rise from 18 to 24°C on maraena whitefish in aquaculture. Microarray-based transcriptome profiles in the liver, spleen and kidney of heat-stressed maraena whitefish revealed the modulation of a significantly higher number of genes in those groups exposed to gradually rising temperatures compared with the acutely stressed groups, which might reflect early adaptation mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
J Geoffrey Chase, Thomas Desaive, Julien Bohe, Miriam Cnop, Christophe De Block, Jan Gunst, Roman Hovorka, Pierre Kalfon, James Krinsley, Eric Renard, Jean-Charles Preiser
There is considerable physiological and clinical evidence of harm and increased risk of death associated with dysglycemia in critical care. However, glycemic control (GC) currently leads to increased hypoglycemia, independently associated with a greater risk of death. Indeed, recent evidence suggests GC is difficult to safely and effectively achieve for all patients. In this review, leading experts in the field discuss this evidence and relevant data in diabetology, including the artificial pancreas, and suggest how safe, effective GC can be achieved in critically ill patients in ways seeking to mimic normal islet cell function...
August 2, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Judit Plutzer, Péter Avar, Dóra Keresztes, Zsófia Sári, Ildikó Kiss-Szarvák, Márta Vargha, Gábor Maász, Zsolt Pirger
Exposure to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can lead to adverse effects on reproductive physiology and behavior in both animals and humans. An adequate strategy for the prevention of environmental contamination and eliminating the effects of them must be established. Chemicals with estrogenic activity were selected, and the effectiveness of their removal during the purification processes in two drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) using riverbank infiltrated water was determined. Thirty-five water samples in two sampling campaigns throughout different seasons were collected and screened with a yeast estrogen test; furthermore, bisphenol A (BPA), 17ß-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl-estradiol (EE2) content were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS)...
August 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Mark Hopkins, Kristine Beaulieu, Anna Myers, Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell
Homeostatic appetite control is part of a psychobiological system that has evolved to maintain an adequate supply of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The system links the physiological needs for energy with the behaviour that satisfies these needs (feeding), and is shaped by excitatory and inhibitory signals. Owing to rapid shifts in the food environment, homeostatic appetite control is not well adapted for modern-day human functioning. Areas covered: Homeostatic appetite control has two divisions. Tonic processes exert stable and enduring influences, with signals arising from bodily tissues and metabolism...
November 2017: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Michael L Fisher, David W Watson, Jason A Osborne, Hiroyuki Mochizuki, Matthew Breen, Coby Schal
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius harbors the endosymbiotic microorganism, Wolbachia (wCle), in a gonad-associated bacteriome as an obligate nutritional mutualist. The obligatory nature of this association suggests that all individuals in C. lectularius populations would be infected with wCle. However, studies spanning the past several decades have reported variation in both infection frequency and relative abundance of wCle in field-collected samples of bed bugs. Since the growth kinetics of wCle is poorly understood, the objective of this study was to quantify wCle over the life cycle of two strains of C...
July 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Katharina Ruthsatz, Kathrin H Dausmann, Claudia Drees, Laura I Becker, Lisa Hartmann, Janica Reese, Nikita M Sabatino, Myron A Peck, Julian Glos
Chemical, physical and biological environmental stressors may affect the endocrine system, such as the thyroid hormone (TH) axis in larval amphibians with consequences for energy partitioning among development, growth and metabolism. We studied the effects of two TH level affecting compounds, exogenous l-thyroxine (T4 ) and sodium perchlorate (SP), on various measures of development and body condition in larvae of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). We calculated the scaled mass index, hepatosomatic index and relative tail muscle mass as body condition indices to estimate fitness...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Heloísa H A Barcellos, Gessi Koakoski, Fabiele Chaulet, Karina S Kirsten, Luiz C Kreutz, Allan V Kalueff, Leonardo J G Barcellos
Environmental enrichment is widely used to improve welfare and behavioral performance of animal species. It ensures housing of laboratory animals in environments with space and complexity that enable the expression of their normal behavioral repertoire. Auditory enrichment by exposure to classical music decreases abnormal behaviors and endocrine stress responses in humans, non-humans primates, and rodents. However, little is known about the role of auditory enrichment in laboratory zebrafish. Given the growing importance of zebrafish for neuroscience research, such studies become critical...
2018: PeerJ
Jing Zhang, Tao Sun, Zhipeng Sun, Haiyi Li, Xiaoxian Qi, Guohua Zhong, Xin Yi
Azadirachtin, a tetranortriterpenoid botanical insecticide, has varied sub-lethal effects against many insect pests, including antifeedant, repellent, and growth regulatory. Despite extensive studies of the mechanisms that underline these physiological effects, little attention has been given to multiple toxic effects of azadirachtin under a coherent concentration, and there is no definitive overarching consensus on its toxicity. Here, we investigated multiple sub-lethal effects induced by 4 mg L-1 of azadirachtin, which did not elicit antifeedant behavior in Drosophila melanogaster, on metrics of longevity, development, compound eyes and reproduction...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Angie S Xiang, Peter J Meikle, Andrew L Carey, Bronwyn A Kingwell
Development of therapeutic agents directed towards increasing brown adipose tissue (BAT) energy expenditure to combat obesity and its comorbidities is currently an area of intense research. Both preclinical and clinical studies have suggested a potentially significant role for BAT in regulating whole body energy expenditure as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Lipids, particularly long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), are recognized as integral substrates in mediating the primary heat-producing functions of BAT, and to date thought to be principally sourced from stored intracellular lipid droplets...
July 24, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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