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Original Article

Christopher Goldring, Daniel J Antoine, Frank Bonner, Jonathan Crozier, Chris Denning, Robert J Fontana, Neil A Hanley, David C Hay, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg, Satu Juhila, Neil Kitteringham, Beatriz Silva-Lima, Alan Norris, Chris Pridgeon, James A Ross, Rowena Sison Young, Danilo Tagle, Belen Tornesi, Bob van de Water, Richard J Weaver, Fang Zhang, B Kevin Park
Current preclinical drug testing does not predict some forms of adverse drug reactions in humans. Efforts at improving predictability of drug-induced tissue injury in humans include using stem cell technology to generate human cells for screening for adverse effects of drugs in humans. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells means that it may ultimately be possible to develop personalised toxicology to determine inter-individual susceptibility to adverse drug reactions. However, the complexity of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) means that no current single cell model, whether of primary liver tissue origin, from liver cell lines, or derived from stem cells, adequately emulates what is believed to occur during human DILI...
October 24, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Byung-Chul Kim, Sung-Min Jun, So Yeon Kim, Yong-Dae Kwon, Sung Chul Choe, Eun-Chul Kim, Jae-Hyung Lee, Jinseok Kim, Jun-Kyo Farancis Suh, Yu-Shik Hwang
The in vitro generation of cell-based three dimensional (3D) nerve tissue is an attractive subject to improve graft survival and integration into host tissue for neural tissue regeneration or to model biological events in stem cell differentiation. Although 3D organotypic culture strategies are well established for 3D nerve tissue formation of pluripotent stem cells to study underlying biology in nerve development, cell-based nerve tissues have not been developed using human postnatal stem cells with therapeutic potential...
October 24, 2016: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Desmond H Y Tse, Christopher J Wiggins, Benedikt A Poser
PURPOSE: In order to fully benefit from the improved signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios at 9.4T, the challenges of B1+ inhomogeneity and the long acquisition time of high-resolution 2D gradient-recalled echo (GRE) imaging were addressed. THEORY AND METHODS: Flip angle homogenized excitations were achieved by parallel transmission (pTx) of 3-spoke pulses, designed by magnitude least-squares optimization in a slice-by-slice fashion; the acquisition time reduction was achieved by simultaneous multislice (SMS) pulses...
October 23, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Anne H Calhoun
Unnecessary confusion still surrounds the use of combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in the setting of migraine with aura (MwA). Clearing this confusion is a key issue for headache specialists, since most women with migraine have menstrual-related migraine (MRM), and some CHCs can prevent this particularly severe migraine. Their use, however, is still restricted by current guidelines due to concerns of increased stroke risk - concerns that originated over half a century ago in the era of high dose contraceptives...
October 24, 2016: Headache
Daniel A Ladin, Eman Soliman, LaToya Griffin, Rukiyah Van Dross
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States with 1.7 million new cases estimated to be diagnosed in 2016. This disease remains a formidable clinical challenge and represents a substantial financial burden to the US health care system. Therefore, research and development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of cancer is of high priority. Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been utilized for their medicinal and therapeutic properties throughout history. Cannabinoid activity is regulated by the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which is comprised of cannabinoid receptors, transporters, and enzymes involved in cannabinoid synthesis and breakdown...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shady A Rehim, Stephanie DeMoor, Richard Olmsted, Daniel L Dent, Jessica Parker-Raley
BACKGROUND: Hospital action teams comprise interdisciplinary health care providers working simultaneously to treat critically ill patients. Assessments designed to evaluate communication effectiveness or "nontechnical" performance of these teams are essential to minimize medical errors and improve team productivity. Although multiple communication tools are available, the characteristics and psychometric validity of these instruments have yet to be systematically compared. OBJECTIVE: To identify assessments used to evaluate the communication or "nontechnical" performance of hospital action teams and summarize evidence to develop and validate these instruments...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Maxim N Artyomov, Alexey Sergushichev, Joel D Schilling
Macrophages are heterogeneous cells that play a key role in inflammatory and tissue reparative responses. Over the past decade it has become clear that shifts in cellular metabolism are important determinants of macrophage function and phenotype. At the same time, our appreciation of macrophage diversity in vivo has also been increasing. Factors such as cell origin and tissue localization are now recognized as important variables that influence macrophage biology. Whether different macrophage populations also have unique metabolic phenotypes has not been extensively explored...
October 19, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Emily F M Fitzpatrick, Alexandra L C Martiniuk, Heather D'Antoine, June Oscar, Maureen Carter, Elizabeth J Elliott
BACKGROUND: When conducting research with Indigenous populations consent should be sought from both individual participants and the local community. We aimed to search and summarise the literature about methods for seeking consent for research with Indigenous populations. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for articles that describe or evaluate the process of seeking informed consent for research with Indigenous participants. Guidelines for ethical research and for seeking consent with Indigenous people are also included in our review...
October 22, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
Tatsuya Isomura, Masahiko Sumitani, Ko Matsudaira, Mika Kawaguchi, Reo Inoue, Jun Hozumi, Takeyuki Tanaka, Hirofumi Oshima, Kanto Mori, Shuji Taketomi, Hiroshi Inui, Keitaro Tahara, Ryota Yamagami, Kazuhiro Hayakawa
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of the linguistically validated Japanese version of the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs Pain Scale (LANSS-J) as a screening tool for neuropathic pain in the clinical setting. METHODS: Patients with neuropathic pain or nociceptive pain who were 20 to 85 years of age were included. Sensitivity and specificity using the original cutoff value of 12 were assessed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of the LANSS-J...
October 22, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Birol Ay, Erdal Karaoz, Cumhur C Kesemenli, Halime Kenar
The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue is currently performed by transplanting a muscle tissue graft from local or distant sites of the patient`s body, but this practice leads to donor site morbidity in case of large defects. With the aim of providing an alternative treatment approach, skeletal muscle tissue formation potential of human myoblasts and human menstrual blood derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMB-MSCs) on synthetic (poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone), 70:30) scaffolds with oriented microfibers, human muscle extracellular matrix (ECM), and their hybrids was investigated in this study...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Marjolein Poels, Maria P H Koster, Hennie R Boeije, Arie Franx, Henk F van Stel
Importance: Preconception care (PCC) has the potential to optimize pregnancy outcomes. However, awareness of PCC among the target population is generally limited, and the use of PCC remains low. Importance: The objective of this study was to review the literature on women's perceptions regarding barriers and facilitators for the use of PCC. Evidence Acquisition: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO for published studies until February 2015...
October 2016: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
Stefan Schmidt, Andreas Taeger, Jérôme Morinière, Andrew Liston, Stephan M Blank, Katja Kramp, Manfred Kraus, Olga Schmidt, Erik Heibo, Marko Prous, Tommi Nyman, Tobias Malm, Julie Stahlhut
The 'Symphyta' is a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of the order Hymenoptera, comprising 14 families and about 8,750 species. All have phytophagous larvae, except for the Orussidae, which are parasitoids. This study presents and evaluates the results of DNA barcoding of approximately 5,360 specimens of 'Symphyta', mainly adults, and 4,362 sequences covering 1,037 species were deemed of suitable quality for inclusion in the analysis. All extant families are represented, except for the Anaxyelidae. The majority of species and specimens are from Europe, but approximately 38% of the species and 13% of the specimens are of non-European origin...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
Derek Garden, Arianna Rinaldi, Matthew F Nolan
The inferior olive plays a critical role in motor coordination and learning by integrating diverse afferent signals to generate climbing fibre inputs to the cerebellar cortex. While it is well established that climbing fibre signals are important for motor coordination, the mechanisms by which neurones in the inferior olive integrate synaptic inputs and the roles of particular ion channels are unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that neurones in the inferior olive actively integrate glutamatergic synaptic inputs...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Sylvia Spivakovsky, Yael Spivakovsky
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases. Reference lists of identified articles were checked and experts in the field and relevant pharmaceutical companies were contacted.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials, including parallel and crossover, carried out in any setting on any patient population with radiation-induced salivary dysfunction using parasympathomimetics drugs.Data extraction and synthesisThe two authors independently assessed for inclusion, established the risk of bias and abstracted data...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Nikisha Mehta, Zoe Marshman
BackgroundThis systematic appraisal was conducted to determine if the Evidence-Based Dentistry Journal (EBDJ) acts as a reliable and contemporary source of knowledge for practitioners across all disciplines within dentistry.ObjectivesThe main objectives were to determine i) the year the articles were published and included in the EBDJ; ii) if the articles published covered all fields equally within dentistry; iii) the type of study design of the articles reported in the journal and; iv) the level of expertise of the writers of the commentaries...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Vera Dinkelacker, Sophie Dupont, Séverine Samson
The new classification of epilepsy stratifies the disease into an acute level, based on seizures, and an overarching chronic level of epileptic syndromes (Berg et al., 2010). In this new approach, seizures are considered either to originate and evolve in unilateral networks or to rapidly encompass both hemispheres. This concept extends the former vision of focal and generalized epilepsies to a genuine pathology of underlying networks. These key aspects of the new classification can be linked to the concept of cognitive curtailing in focal epilepsy...
October 17, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Daniel Esler, Brenda E Ballachey, Lizabeth Bowen, A Keith Miles, Rian D Dickson, John D Henderson
The authors quantified hepatic hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in Prince William Sound, Alaska, during 2011, 2013, and 2014 (22 to 25 years following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill). EROD activity was compared between birds from areas oiled by the spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. This work replicated studies conducted from 1998 to 2009 that demonstrated harlequin ducks using areas that were oiled in 1989 had elevated EROD activity, indicative of oil exposure, up to 2 decades post-spill...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Gerhard Batz, Michael Dinkel
Echocardiography as an imaging method in anaesthesia and intensive care medicine has enabled a new dimension of hemodynamic monitoring: the direct visualization of the cardiac function and its disruptions. Preconditions for a broad application in this area was the development of mobile, high-definition ultrasonic devices and the origination of focused examination techniques. A successful application of this method requires the respective know-how of the examiner, in order to take relevant decisions and avoid misdiagnoses...
October 2016: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Isabell B Purdy, Mary Alice Melwak, Joan R Smith, Carole Kenner, Rebecca Chuffo-Siewert, Donna J Ryan, Sue Hall
BACKGROUND: The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a stressful environment for infants, their families, and the healthcare team. There is an immediate need for neonatal nurses to embrace and translate the new National Perinatal Association recommendations for psychosocial support of NICU parents into clinical practice to demonstrate best practices for infants, their families, and the whole team. PURPOSE: To summarize the current evidence-based practice recommendations and to provide suggestions for team members to develop strategies to adopt and implement them through quality improvement (QI) projects...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Oholi Tovia-Brodie, Bernard Belhassen, Aharon Glick, Haim Shmilovich, Galit Aviram, Raphael Rosso, Yoav Michowitz
INTRODUCTION: A new imaging software (CARTO® Segmentation Module, Biosense Webster) allows pre-procedural 3-D reconstruction of all heart chambers based on cardiac CT. We describe our initial experience with the new module during ablation of ventricular arrhythmias. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias or ischemic ventricular tachycardia (VT) were studied. In the latter group, a combined endocardial and epicardial ablation was performed...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
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