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adrenal disease

Susan M Wcislak, William S King, Benjamin R Waller, Natasha Goins, Paxton V Dickson
BACKGROUND: Multifocal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma presenting at an early age is commonly associated with a hereditary syndrome. CASE REPORT: A 29-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of multifocal pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Interestingly, her family history did not include pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma, and comprehensive genetic testing for the well-documented pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma susceptibility genes was negative. Of note, this patient had a history of a complex cardiac defect resulting in cyanotic congenital heart disease and had never undergone operative repair...
October 16, 2018: Surgery
Anastasios Lymperopoulos
Three major functional roles for the two ubiquitous G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) adapter proteins, βarrestin1 and -2 (also known as Arrestin2 and -3, respectively), have been described: (a) functional desensitization, i.e., G-protein uncoupling from the receptor, (b) GPCR internalization via clathrin-coated pits, and (c) formation of signalosomes. Either while bound to the GPCR or after dissociating from it, and either while trafficking inside the cell or from the plasma membrane, both βarrestins are known to mediate a large part of the G protein-independent signaling elicited by GPCRs...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
R Linz, T Singer, V Engert
Daily life stress is an omnipresent phenomenon in modern society. Research has linked prolonged activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to psychiatric and somatic diseases. Everyday stressors substantially contribute to these health risks. Despite the notion that the physiological stress response is highly dependent on concurrent psychological processes, investigations associating diurnal cortisol levels with subjective experience have primarily focused on affective states. The impact of everyday cognitive processes including thought content has been largely neglected...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kassem Sharif, Abdulla Watad, Louis Coplan, Howard Amital, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Arnon Afek
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas. The current paradigm in this disease's etiopathogenesis points toward the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Among the environmental variables, dietary factors, intestinal microbiota, toxins, and psychological stress have been implicated in disease onset. Areas covered: This review aims to investigate the relationship between psychological stress and T1DM by presenting evidence from epidemiological studies, animal models, and to provide the mechanism involved in this association...
October 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Leslie Alejandra Ramírez, Elsy Arlene Pérez-Padilla, Francisco García-Oscos, Humberto Salgado, Marco Atzori, Juan Carlos Pineda
The serotonergic and immunological hypothesis of depression proposes that certain types of excessive stress distort the relationship between the activities of the innate immune and central nervous systems, so that the stress caused by an infection, or excessive psychological stress, activate toll-like receptors such as the TLR-4, the transcription factor NF-kB, the inflammasome NLRP3, as well as the secretion of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other factors of the innate immune response, causing first, the general symptoms of the disease which appear with any infection, but also those characteristic of depressive illness such as dysphoria and anhedonia...
September 1, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Daniel Beltrame Ferreira, Walter Henriques da Costa, Diego Abreu Clavijo, Ricardo Decia, Isabela Werneck Cunha, Luciana Schultz, Rafael Malagoli Rocha, Gustavo Cardoso Guimarães, Stênio de Cássio Zequi
Objective: To evaluate immunohistochemical erythropoietin (EPO) expression in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), its association with major clinicopathological variables and its prognostic impact. Methods: A total of 220 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) surgically treated between 1989 and 2009 were evaluated in this multi-institutional study. All the cases were reviewed by a single pathologist and the immunohistochemical reactivity to EPO was analysed using tissue microarray...
November 27, 2017: Kidney cancer
Shigenori Nakamura, Masatoshi Ishimori, Noriyoshi Yamakita
Objective The association of primary aldosteronism (PA) with thyroid disease has already been suggested. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of PA in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PC) and to characterize such PC patients with PA Patients and Methods We examined the presence of PA in 81 consecutive patients with PC, whose random sitting blood pressure (BP) was ≥140/90 mmHg in the office (n= 68), who had an incidental adrenal tumor or adrenal enlargement (n=9), or who showed hypokalemia (n=4)...
October 17, 2018: Internal Medicine
Karin Sterl, Bithika Thompson, Charles W Goss, Ralph G Dacey, Keith M Rich, Gregory J Zipfel, Michael R Chicoine, Albert H Kim, Julie M Silverstein
BACKGROUND: Perioperative steroid protocols for patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for pituitary pathology vary by institution. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety of withholding glucocorticoids in patients undergoing TSS. METHODS: Patients with an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis undergoing TSS for a pituitary tumor at the same academic institution between 2012 and 2015 were randomized to either receive 100 mg of intravenous hydrocortisone followed by 0...
October 15, 2018: Neurosurgery
Antonino Crinò, Danilo Fintini, Sarah Bocchini, Graziano Grugni
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex multisystem disorder due to the absent expression of the paternally active genes in the PWS critical region on chromosome 15 (15q11.2-q13). The syndrome is considered the most common genetic cause of obesity, occurring in 1:10,000-1:30,000 live births. Its main characteristics include neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and lack of appetite in infancy, followed by weight gain, lack of satiety, and uncontrolled appetite, frequently after the age of 2-3 years. The clinical picture includes short stature, multiple endocrine abnormalities (hypogonadism, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis dysfunction, hypothyroidism, central adrenal insufficiency), dysmorphic features, scoliosis, osteoporosis, mental retardation, and behavioral and psychiatric problems...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
R Gondim, F Teles, U Barroso
BACKGROUND: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of a group of diseases characterized by an enzyme deficiency, particularly 21-hydroxylase deficiency. The condition may present in the simple virilizing form or in the salt-wasting form, with varying degrees of genital ambiguity. The non-heterosexual orientation is used in gender studies fields and includes bisexual, homosexual, Lesbians, gays, bissexuals, transgender, intersex, and others. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of non-heterosexual orientation in patients with CAH, in an attempt to identify biological factors possibly associated with this occurrence...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Sara Martínez-Breijo, Venancio Chantada-Abal, Marcos Aller-Rodríguez, Manuel Bohórquez-Cruz, Felipe Sacristán-Lista, Jose Ponce-Díaz, Darío Vázquez-Martul, Leticia Lamas-Díaz
The androgen-signaling axis plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. Since the landmark discovery by Huggins and Hodges, gonadal depletion of androgens has remained a mainstay of therapy for advanced disease. However, invariably progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) occurs within 2-3 years of initiation of ADT. Multiple mechanisms of resistance help contribute to the progression to castration resistant disease, and the androgen receptor (AR) remains an important driver in this progression...
September 2018: Archivos Españoles de Urología
X W Liu, P Y Liu, C Jiang, Y H Gao
Glucocorticoids is a type of steroid hormone secreted from zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex.As an immune and inflammatory inhibitor, glucocorticoids has been used to treat many kinds of diseases.T cell response plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of liver diseases. However, the role of glucocorticoids in the mechanism and treatment of liver disease in current clinical practice is controversial. This paper summarizes the progress of glucocorticoid use for the treatment of liver diseases in recent years...
July 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Kotb Abbass Metwalley, Hekma Saad Farghaly, Abdelrahman Abdelhamid
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Homocysteine is an important and independent risk factor for atherosclerotic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of homocysteine in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and their relation to carotid artery intima-media thickness (CA-IMT) and left ventricular (LV) function. METHODS: This study included 36 children with classic CAH and 36 healthy children. All underwent anthropometric evaluation. Measurement of serum levels of total homocysteine was carried out...
October 12, 2018: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Nicholas C Cleveland, Don N Nguyen, Kanika Goel, Cassie D Tran, Jeffrey S Mueller
Paragangliomas are extra-adrenal tumors that are derived from neuroendocrine chromaffin cells. The rare disease has a variable presentation depending upon its anatomic location and functionality. We describe the case of a 56-year-old female patient who had an incidental mass found on imaging. The patient underwent biochemical testing and a mediastinal biopsy due to the nonspecific imaging findings. The mediastinal mass was resected through hemisternotomy and found to be a functional paraganglioma. This case highlights the importance of radiologists to consider the prospect of paragangliomas in the differential diagnosis of an intra-thoracic mass...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
Amanda Bienenfeld, Sarah Azarchi, Kristen Lo Sicco, Shari Marchbein, Jerry Shapiro, Arielle R Nagler
Androgens are produced throughout the body in steroid-producing organs, such as the adrenal glands and ovaries, as well as in other tissues, like the skin. Several androgens are found normally in women, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and androstenedione. These androgens are essential in the development of several common cutaneous conditions in women, including acne, hirsutism, and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) - androgen mediated cutaneous disorders (AMCDs)...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Shelvin K Vadi, Bhagwant R Mittal, Ashwani Sood, Gurpreet Singh, Amanjit Bal, Ashwin S Parihar, Anish Bhattacharya, Rajender K Basher, Rakesh Kapoor
PURPOSE: Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare malignancy, with recurrence being one of the main adverse predictors for prognosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic and predictive value of fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG) PET/CT in the setting of suspected recurrence of MBC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of PET/CT findings was performed in 23 previously treated, histologically proven patients with MBC (mean age: 59.3±10.9 years; range: 36-79 years) with suspected recurrence...
October 11, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Inderpal Singh Kochar, Smita Ramachandran, Aashish Sethi
Cushing's syndrome (CS) or hypercortisolism results from disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with the resultant increase in the circulating serum and urinary cortisol levels and lack of cortisol circadian rhythm. The resultant effects cause the physical manifestation of hypercortisolism. The appearance of Cushing's disease in children is insidious, the most common features being growth failure, obesity, early puberty and facial appearance. We report a case of a 7-year-old male with a very unusual course of the disease, which could have led to diagnostic delays...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
L K Dzeranova, E A Pigarova, L S Selivanova, E A Tarabrin, K Yu Slashchuk, E E Bibik
Ectopic ACTH-syndrome is a relatively rare neuroendocrine disease. It is characterized by hypercortisolemia-associated severe complications that justifies need for timely diagnosis and radical therapy. Case report of young patient with ACTH-producing lung tumor is presented. There was 1-year diagnostic search on background of endogenous hypercorticism. Treatment resulted severe postoperative adrenal insufficiency that demonstrates current difficulties in management of these patients.
2018: Khirurgiia
Markus Muehlhan, Anja Höcker, Robert Miller, Sebastian Trautmann, Klaus Wiedemann, Annett Lotzin, Sven Barnow, Ingo Schäfer
Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a strong risk factor for alcohol dependence (AD) and is associated with a more severe course of the disease. Alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play an important role in this relationship. The aim of the present study was to systematically investigate potential alterations in HPA functioning associated with AD diagnosis and CM. Four study groups were recruited: AD patients with (n = 29; 10♀) and without (n = 33; 8♀) CM and healthy controls with (n = 30; 20♀) and without (n = 38; 15♀) CM...
October 11, 2018: Addiction Biology
E von Dobschütz, H P H Neumann
Chromaffin tumors, e.g. pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas are caused by germline mutations of several susceptibility genes in 30-40% of the patients. The corresponding syndromes are multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2, RET gene), von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL), neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), paraganglioma syndrome types 1-5 (PGL1-5, SDHx gene) and familial pheochromocytoma due to mutations in the MAX and TMEM127 genes. Clinically, screening for such diseases should be carried out by clinical symptoms and mutation analyses...
October 10, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
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