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plant innate immunity

Andrew Edward Sathoff, Deborah Samac
Plant defensins are antimicrobial host defense peptides expressed in all higher plants. Performing a significant role in plant innate immunity, plant defensins display potent activity against a wide range of pathogens. Vertebrate and invertebrate defensins have well characterized antibacterial activity, but plant defensins are commonly considered to display antimicrobial activity against only fungi. In this review, we highlight the often-overlooked antibacterial activity of plant defensins. Also, we illustrate methods to evaluate defensins for antibacterial activity and describe the current advances in uncovering their antibacterial modes of action...
December 3, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Haixia Wang, Huan He, Yetong Qi, Hazel McLellan, Zhejuan Tian, Paul R J Birch, Zhendong Tian
Oomycetes MAMP Pep-13 can trigger SERK3/BAK1-independent PTI. Silencing of SERK3/BAK1 in solanaceous plants resulted in reduced expression of brassinosteroid marker genes and enhanced PTI transcriptional responses to Pep-13 treatment. To prevent disease, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are responsible for detecting microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) to switch on plant innate immunity. SOMATIC EMBROYOGENESIS KINASE 3 (SERK3)/BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1) is a well-characterized receptor-like kinase (RLK) that serves as a pivotal co-receptor with PRRs to activate immunity following recognition of MAMPs including flg22, EF-Tu, INF1 and XEG1...
November 28, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Zheng Chen, Ting Chen, Atul Prakash Sathe, Yuqing He, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Jian-Li Wu
Many spotted-leaf mutants show enhanced disease resistance to multiple pathogen attacks; however, the mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we reported a novel semi-dominant spotted-leaf mutant 24 ( spl24 ) obtained from an ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced IR64 mutant bank. spl24 developed tiny brown lesions on the leaf tip and spread down gradually to the leaf base as well as the sheath at the early heading stage. The performances of major agronomic traits such as the plant height, panicle length, number of panicles/plant, and 1000-grain weight were significantly altered in spl24 when compared to the wild-type IR64...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
A A Shelenkov, A A Slavokhotova, T I Odintsova
In this paper, we present the new Cysmotif searcher pipeline for identification of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), the most important components of innate immunity, in plant transcriptomes. Cysmotif searcher reveals and classifies short cysteine-rich amino acid sequences containing an open reading frame and a signal peptide cleavage site. Due to the combination of various search methods, Cysmotif searcher allows to obtain the most complete repertoire of AMPs for one or more transcriptomes in a short amount of time...
November 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Benjamin Joseph Spears, T C Howton, Fei Gao, Christopher M Garner, Shahid Muhktar, Walter Gassmann
One layer of the innate immune system allows plants to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS), activating a defense response known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Maintaining an active immune response, however, comes at the cost of plant growth and development; accordingly, optimization of the balance between defense and development is critical to plant fitness. The TCP transcription factor family consists of well-characterized transcriptional regulators of plant development and morphogenesis...
November 27, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Konstantin Kanofsky, Claudia Janina Strauch, Alexander Sandmann, Anika Möller, Reinhard Hehl
WRKY and NF-κB transcription factors, involved in innate immunity in plants and mammals, interact with the same cis-sequence. Novel microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-responsive cis-sequences, designated type II WT-boxes, are required for flg22-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. While type I WT-boxes like TGACTTTT and CGACTTTT interact with WRKY transcription factors (TFs), the question remained which TFs bind to the type II WT-boxes GGACTTTC, GGACTTTT, and GGACTTTG. Surprisingly, a bioinformatic analysis predicts mouse (Mus musculus) NF-κB p65 as a TF interacting with type II WT-boxes...
December 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
Pin-Yao Huang, Jingsong Zhang, Beier Jiang, Ching Chan, Jhong-He Yu, Yu-Pin Lu, KwiMi Chung, Laurent Zimmerli
Recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) derived from invading pathogens by plant pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) initiates a subset of defense responses known as pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Transcription factors (TFs) orchestrate the onset of PTI through complex signaling networks. Here, we characterized the function of ERF19, a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene response factor (ERF) family. ERF19 was found to act as a negative regulator of PTI against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
James J Furniss, Heather Grey, Zhishuo Wang, Mika Nomoto, Lorna Jackson, Yasuomi Tada, Steven H Spoel
Regulated degradation of proteins by the 26S proteasome plays important roles in maintenance and signalling in eukaryotic cells. Proteins are marked for degradation by the action of E3 ligases that site-specifically modify their substrates by adding chains of ubiquitin. Innate immune signalling in plants is deeply reliant on the ubiquitin-26S proteasome system. While progress has been made in understanding substrate ubiquitination during plant immunity, how these substrates are processed upon arrival at the proteasome remains unclear...
November 20, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
So-Yoon Won, Kristin Hunt, Hannah Guak, Benedeta Hasaj, Nathalie Charland, Nathalie Landry, Brian J Ward, Connie M Krawczyk
Cell-mediated immunity is an important component of immediate and long-term anti-viral protection. Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the induction of cell-mediated immunity by instructing the activation and differentiation of antigen-specific T cell responses. Activated DCs that express co-stimulatory molecules and pro-inflammatory cytokines are necessary to promote the development of type 1 immune responses required for viral control. Here we report that plant-derived virus-like particles (VLPs) bearing influenza hemagglutinins (HA) directly stimulate mouse and human DCs...
November 14, 2018: Vaccine
Tetsuya Yoshida, Takuya Shiraishi, Yuka Hagiwara-Komoda, Ken Komatsu, Kensaku Maejima, Yukari Okano, Yuji Fujimoto, Akira Yusa, Yasuyuki Yamaji, Shigetou Namba
Understanding the innate immune mechanisms of plants is necessary for breeding of disease-resistant lines. Previously, we identified the antiviral resistance gene JAX1 from Arabidopsis thaliana , which inhibits infection by potexviruses. JAX1 encodes a unique jacalin-type lectin protein. In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms of JAX1-mediated resistance. JAX1 restricted the multiplication of a potexviral replicon lacking movement-associated proteins, suggesting inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, we developed an in vitro potato virus X (PVX) translation/replication system using vacuole- and nucleus-free lysates from tobacco protoplasts, and revealed that JAX1 inhibits viral RNA synthesis but not translation of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
Rolf Teschke
Alcoholic liver disease is the result of cascade events, which clinically first lead to alcoholic fatty liver, and then mostly via alcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis potentially to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathogenetic events are linked to the metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde as its first oxidation product generated via hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), which depends on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1), and is inducible by chronic alcohol use...
November 12, 2018: Biomedicines
Megumi Tatematsu, Kenji Funami, Tsukasa Seya, Misako Matsumoto
RNA works as a genome and messenger in RNA viruses, and it sends messages in most of the creatures of the Earth, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The human innate immune system has evolved to detect single- and double-stranded RNA molecules from microbes by pattern recognition receptors and induce defense reactions against infections such as the production of type I interferons and inflammatory cytokines. To avoid cytokine toxicity causing chronic inflammation or autoimmunity by sensing self-RNA, the activation of RNA sensors is strictly regulated...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Arnab Pradhan, Gabriela M Avelar, Judith M Bain, Delma S Childers, Daniel E Larcombe, Mihai G Netea, Elena Shekhova, Carol A Munro, Gordon D Brown, Lars P Erwig, Neil A R Gow, Alistair J P Brown
Organisms must adapt to changes in oxygen tension if they are to exploit the energetic benefits of reducing oxygen while minimizing the potentially damaging effects of oxidation. Consequently, organisms in all eukaryotic kingdoms display robust adaptation to hypoxia (low oxygen levels). This is particularly important for fungal pathogens that colonize hypoxic niches in the host. We show that adaptation to hypoxia in the major fungal pathogen of humans Candida albicans includes changes in cell wall structure and reduced exposure, at the cell surface, of β-glucan, a key pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)...
November 6, 2018: MBio
Ksenia Krasileva
Ksenia Krasileva is an Assistant Professor at UC Berkley, studying innate immunity in plants. Ksenia's work combines plant genomics and plant-microbe interactions with new technologies, spanning basic studies and translational research in agriculture. In this interview Ksenia shares her experience with research and leading a lab, as well as thoughts on innovations in publishing.
November 1, 2018: BMC Biology
Nina Wærling Hansen, Anette Sams
This review provides evidence that not only the content of nutrients but indeed the structural organization of nutrients is a major determinant of human health. The gut microbiota provides nutrients for the host by digesting food structures otherwise indigestible by human enzymes, thereby simultaneously harvesting energy and delivering nutrients and metabolites for the nutritional and biological benefit of the host. Microbiota-derived nutrients, metabolites, and antigens promote the development and function of the host immune system both directly by activating cells of the adaptive and innate immune system and indirectly by sustaining release of monosaccharides, stimulating intestinal receptors and secreting gut hormones...
October 30, 2018: Nutrients
Olivier Thibaut, Bragard Claude
Although viroids are the smallest and simplest plant pathogens known, the molecular mechanisms underlying their pathogenesis remain unclear. To unravel these mechanisms, a dual approach was implemented consisting of in silico identification of potential tomato silencing targets of pospiviroids, and the experimental validation of these targets through the sequencing of small RNAs and RNA ends extracted from tomatoes infected with a severe isolate of Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd). The generated RNA ends were also used to monitor the differentially-expressed genes...
October 26, 2018: Viruses
Jiajun Wang, Xiujing Dou, Jing Song, Yinfeng Lyu, Xin Zhu, Lin Xu, Weizhong Li, Anshan Shan
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), critical components of the innate immune system, are widely distributed throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. They can protect against a broad array of infection-causing agents, such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and tumor cells, and also exhibit immunomodulatory activity. AMPs exert antimicrobial activities primarily through mechanisms involving membrane disruption, so they have a lower likelihood of inducing drug resistance. Extensive studies on the structure-activity relationship have revealed that net charge, hydrophobicity, and amphipathicity are the most important physicochemical and structural determinants endowing AMPs with antimicrobial potency and cell selectivity...
October 24, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
Xian Chen, Cheng Sun, Pedro Laborda, Yancun Zhao, Ian Palmer, Zheng Qing Fu, Jingping Qiu, Fengquan Liu
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo ) causes rice bacterial blight (BB), one of the most widespread and destructive diseases in rice-growing regions worldwide. Melatonin enhances pathogen resistance by inducing plant innate immunity, but the direct effect of melatonin on plant pathogenic bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on Xoo . Exogenous melatonin at 200 μg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of Xoo and reduced the mRNA expression of five genes involved in cell division...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katharina Fuchs, Yamel Cardona Gloria, Olaf-Oliver Wolz, Franziska Herster, Lokesh Sharma, Carly A Dillen, Christoph Täumer, Sabine Dickhöfer, Zsofia Bittner, Truong-Minh Dang, Anurag Singh, Daniel Haischer, Maria A Schlöffel, Kirsten J Koymans, Tharmila Sanmuganantham, Milena Krach, Thierry Roger, Didier Le Roy, Nadine A Schilling, Felix Frauhammer, Lloyd S Miller, Thorsten Nürnberger, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann, Andrea A Gust, Boris Macek, Martin Frank, Cécile Gouttefangeas, Charles S Dela Cruz, Dominik Hartl, Alexander Nr Weber
Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature and linked to fungal infection and asthma. However, bona fide immune receptors directly binding chitin and signaling immune activation and inflammation have not been clearly identified because polymeric crude chitin with unknown purity and molecular composition has been used. By using defined chitin (N-acetyl-glucosamine) oligomers, we here identify six-subunit-long chitin chains as the smallest immunologically active motif and the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor (TLR2) as a primary fungal chitin sensor on human and murine immune cells...
October 18, 2018: EMBO Reports
Yanmin Zou, Shuangfeng Wang, Yuanyuan Zhou, Jiaojiao Bai, Guozhong Huang, Xiaotong Liu, Yingying Zhang, Dingzhong Tang, Dongping Lu
Innate immunity plays a vital role in protecting plants and animals from pathogen infections. Immunity varies with age in both animals and plants. However, little is known about the ontogeny of plant innate immunity during seedling development. We report here that the Arabidopsis thaliana microRNA miR172b regulates the transcription of the immune receptor gene FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) through TARGET OF EAT1 (TOE1) and TOE2, which directly bind to the FLS2 promoter and inhibit its activity. The level of miR172b is very low in the early stage of seedling development, but increases over time, which results in decreased TOE½ protein accumulation and, consequently, increased FLS2 transcription and the ontogeny of FLS2-mediated immunity during seedling development...
October 18, 2018: Plant Cell
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