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plant innate immunity

K M McRae, S J Rowe, H J Baird, M J Bixley, S M Clarke
Pneumonia is an important issue for sheep production, leading to reduced growth rate and a predisposition to pleurisy. The objective of this study was to identify loci associated with pneumonic lesions and pleurisy in New Zealand progeny test lambs. The lungs from 3,572 progeny-test lambs were scored for presence and severity of pneumonic lesions and pleurisy at slaughter. Animals were genotyped using the Illumina Ovine Infinium® HD SNP BeadChip (606,006 markers). The heritability of lung lesion score and pleurisy were calculated using the genomic relationship matrix, and genome-wide association analyses were conducted using EMMAX and haplotype trend regression...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Igri Kolaj, S Imindu Liyanage, Donald F Weaver
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive dementia, neuroinflammation and the accumulation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular plaques. The etiology of AD is unclear, but is generally attributed to four leading hypotheses: (i) abnormal folding and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ)/tau proteins (ii) activation of the innate immune system, (iii) mitochondrial dysfunction, and (iv) oxidative stress. To date, therapeutic strategies have largely focused on Aβ-centric targets; however, the repeated failure of clinical trials and the continued lack of a disease-modifying therapy demand novel, multifaceted approaches...
August 8, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Ruijuan Li, John E Erpelding, Salliana R Stetina
BACKGROUND: Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has emerged as one of the most destructive root pathogens of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) in the United States. Management of R. reniformis has been hindered by the lack of resistant G. hirsutum cultivars; however, resistance has been frequently identified in germplasm accessions from the G. arboreum collection. To determine the genetic basis of reniform nematode resistance, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using 246 G...
August 3, 2018: BMC Genetics
Eunsook Park, Jeffrey L Caplan, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar
Considering their sessile life, plants must efficiently coordinate their resources and energy for maintaining their presence in normal living conditions and for defending themselves against environmental threats. Collaboration between multiple subcellular compartments is a common strategy in several biological processes to modify cells' architecture for their growth and development and to respond to acute changes in the environment. When plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens, chloroplasts generate tubular structures - so-called stromules- to facilitate chloroplast movement towards nuclei during innate immunity...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sharon C Mithoe, Frank Lh Menke
Our understanding of how plant innate immunity is triggered and regulated has seen tremendous progress over the last decade, with many important players identified in the model systems Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice). Identification of these components has come from both genetic screens as well as from proteomics approaches. While genetic approaches are powerful tools of discovery to identify key components in a signalling pathway, the application of genetics is limited when dealing with redundancy or when mutations cause lethal phenotypes...
July 28, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Fareeha Azam, Nadeem Sheikh, Gibran Ali, Asima Tayyeb
Fagonia indica is a traditionally used phytomedicine to cure hepatic ailments. However, efficient validation of its hepatoprotective effect and molecular mechanisms involved are not yet well established. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Fagonia indica and to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the reversal of hepatic injury. The liver injury mouse model was established by thioacetamide followed by oral administration of plant extract. Serum biochemical and histological analyses were performed to assess the level of hepatic injury...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Dehua Liao, Xun Sun, Ning Wang, Fengming Song, Yan Liang
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi (Glomeromycota), which improves the supply of water and nutrients to host plants. AM symbiosis is set in motion by fungal chitooligosaccharides and lipochitooligosaccharides, which are perceived by plant-specific LysM-type receptor kinases (LYK). In rice this involves OsCERK1, a LYK also essential for chitin triggered innate immunity. In contrast in legumes, the CERK1 homologous gene experienced duplication events resulting in subfunctionalization...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Joydeep Chakraborty, Prithwi Ghosh, Sampa Das
Attenuation in the activity of the negative regulators or the hyperactivity of plant innate immune receptors often causes ectopic defense activation manifested in severe growth retardation and spontaneous lesion formations, referred to as autoimmunity. In this review, we have described the cellular and molecular basis of the development of autoimmune responses for their useful applications in plant defense. Plants are exposed to diverse disease-causing pathogens, which bring infections by taking over the control on host immune machineries...
July 25, 2018: Planta
Hatem Tallima, Rashika El Ridi
It is time to shift the arachidonic acid (ARA) paradigm from a harm-generating molecule to its status of polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for normal health. ARA is an integral constituent of biological cell membrane, conferring it with fluidity and flexibility, so necessary for the function of all cells, especially in nervous system, skeletal muscle, and immune system. Arachidonic acid is obtained from food or by desaturation and chain elongation of the plant-rich essential fatty acid, linoleic acid. Free ARA modulates the function of ion channels, several receptors and enzymes, via activation as well as inhibition...
May 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Suayib Üstün, Daniel Hofius
Macroautophagy/autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are major proteolytic pathways that are increasingly recognized as battlegrounds during host-microbe interactions in eukaryotes. In plants, the UPS has emerged as central component of innate immunity and is manipulated by bacterial pathogens to enhance virulence. Autophagy has been ascribed a similar importance for anti-bacterial immunity in animals, but the contribution of autophagy to host-bacteria interactions remained elusive in plants. Here, we present and discuss our recent findings that revealed anti- and pro-bacterial roles of autophagy pathways during bacterial infection in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 21, 2018: Autophagy
Jing Wei, Dongsheng Jia, Qianzhuo Mao, Xiaofeng Zhang, Qian Chen, Wei Wu, Hongyan Chen, Taiyun Wei
Insect-borne rice viral diseases are widespread and economically important in many rice-growing countries. Long-term associations between rice viruses and their insect vectors result in evolutionary trade-offs that maintain a balance between the fitness cost of the viral infection of insects and the persistent transmission of the virus by the insect. To promote optimal replication, rice viruses activate innate immune responses, such as autophagy, apoptosis, and stress-regulated signaling pathways in the vector; meanwhile, a conserved insect small interfering RNA antiviral pathway is activated to control excessive viral replication, guaranteeing persistent virus transmission...
July 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Nagarjun Vijay, Ajit Chande
The breadth of the host range of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses is roughly comparable to the host range of double-stranded DNA viruses (dsDNA). Yet, general ssDNA sensing receptors that activate the immune system have not been unequivocally identified while numerous dsDNA sensing receptors are known. Here, we hypothesize that some of the Single-Stranded DNA Binding (SSB) proteins may act as receptors that detect single-stranded DNA from pathogens and activate the innate immune system. As the first test of our hypothesis, we checked whether human genes that are known to bind to ssDNA are potentially interferon-regulated...
July 6, 2018: Immunobiology
Ben Berkhout
RNA interference (RNAi) was discovered in plants where it functions as the main antiviral pathway and this antiviral role was subsequently extended to invertebrates. But it remained hotly debated whether RNAi fulfils a similar role in mammals that already have a potent innate immune system based on interferon and an elaborate adaptive immune system. On the one hand, mammalian cells do encode most of the RNAi machinery, but this could be used exclusively to control cellular gene expression via micro RNAs (miRNAs)...
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Narcy Arizmendi, Chenjie Hou, Fujiang Guo, Yiming Li, Marianna Kulka
Dendritic cell (DC) activation induces expression of co-stimulatory surface molecules, as well as migration into secondary lymphoid organs, where they activate naïve T-cells. A family of plant derivatives, eremophilane-type petasite sesquiterpenes, can regulate the immune system through DC targeting due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is involved in inhibition of inflammatory responses and induction of DCs to acquire a mucosal phenotype. Since mucosal DCs are central in innate immune responses, we hypothesized that eremophilane-type petasite sesquiterpenes exerted their anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting DC maturation and activation through PPARγ...
January 2018: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Chunli Xu, Yaxin Wang, Shiyao Liu, Qingbiao Xie, Chenyi Shi, Chaozu He, Chunxia Li, Jun Tao
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease, which is an important reason for the reduction in rice production. The interaction between Xoo and rice is a model for the study of the gene-for-gene hypothesis, in which a resistance (R) gene that encodes a product that interacts with an effector molecule is encoded by a corresponding bacterial avirulence (avr) gene. Rice XA21 functions as a plant innate immune receptor (R protein) and recognizes the avirulence protein (RaxX) of Xoo to induce the immune response and cope with pathogen attack...
July 16, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Ralf Oelmüller
Roots respond to a cocktail of chemicals from microbes in the rhizosphere. Infochemicals in nmol concentrations activate receptor-mediated signal pathways, which reprogram the plant responses to environmental changes. The microbial signals have to pass the cell wall to activate pattern recognition receptors at the surface of the plant plasma membrane. The structure of the cell wall is not only a barrier for the signaling molecules, but also changes permanently during growth and development, as well as in response to microbial attacks or abiotic stress...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Yurika Yada, Melbourne Rio Talactac, Kodai Kusakisako, Emmanuel Pacia Hernandez, Remil Linggatong Galay, Masako Andoh, Kozo Fujisaki, Tetsuya Tanaka
Ticks are key vectors of some important diseases of humans and animals. Although they are carriers of disease agents, the viability and development of ticks are not harmed by the infectious agents due to their innate immunity. Antimicrobial peptides directly protect hosts against pathogenic agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Among the identified and characterized antimicrobial peptides, defensins have been considerably well studied. Defensins are commonly found among fungi, plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates...
July 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Stephan Scheurer, Stefan Schülke
Non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) represent a family of ubiquitous plant proteins belonging to the prolamin superfamily. nsLTPs are characterized by a globular α-helical structure stabilized by four disulfide bonds and a hydrophobic cavity which acts as ligand-binding site for a broad spectrum of lipids and hydrophobic molecules. nsLTPs are involved in membrane biogenesis and in the adaption of plants to abiotic and biotic stress. They display antimicrobial activity by the ability to permeabilize the cell membrane of phytopathogens...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Seonghee Lee, Clemencia M Rojas, Sunhee Oh, Miyoung Kang, Swarup Roy Choudhury, Hee-Kyung Lee, Randy D Allen, Sona Pandey, Kirankumar S Mysore
Plant defense responses at stomata and apoplast are the most important early events during plant⁻bacteria interactions. The key components of stomatal defense responses have not been fully characterized. A GTPase encoding gene, NOG1-2 , which is required for stomatal innate immunity against bacterial pathogens, was recently identified. Functional studies in Arabidopsis revealed that NOG1-2 regulates guard cell signaling in response to biotic and abiotic stimulus through jasmonic acid (JA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-mediated pathways...
June 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yingming Wang, Jinyan Zhou, Juan Zhong, Di Luo, Zhemin Li, Jie Yang, Dan Shu, Hong Tan
Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the five classical phytohormones involved in increasing the tolerance of plants to various kinds of stresses caused by abiotic or biotic factors, and it also plays important roles in regulating the activation of innate immune cells and glucose homeostasis in mammals. For these reasons, as a "stress hormone", ABA has recently received attention as a candidate drug for agriculture and biomedical applications, prompting significant development of ABA synthesis. Some plant pathogenic fungi can synthesize natural ABA...
June 29, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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