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plant innate immunity

Xian Chen, Cheng Sun, Pedro Laborda, Yancun Zhao, Ian Palmer, Zheng Qing Fu, Jingping Qiu, Fengquan Liu
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo ) causes rice bacterial blight (BB), one of the most widespread and destructive diseases in rice-growing regions worldwide. Melatonin enhances pathogen resistance by inducing plant innate immunity, but the direct effect of melatonin on plant pathogenic bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on Xoo . Exogenous melatonin at 200 μg/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of Xoo and reduced the mRNA expression of five genes involved in cell division...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katharina Fuchs, Yamel Cardona Gloria, Olaf-Oliver Wolz, Franziska Herster, Lokesh Sharma, Carly A Dillen, Christoph Täumer, Sabine Dickhöfer, Zsofia Bittner, Truong-Minh Dang, Anurag Singh, Daniel Haischer, Maria A Schlöffel, Kirsten J Koymans, Tharmila Sanmuganantham, Milena Krach, Thierry Roger, Didier Le Roy, Nadine A Schilling, Felix Frauhammer, Lloyd S Miller, Thorsten Nürnberger, Salomé LeibundGut-Landmann, Andrea A Gust, Boris Macek, Martin Frank, Cécile Gouttefangeas, Charles S Dela Cruz, Dominik Hartl, Alexander Nr Weber
Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature and linked to fungal infection and asthma. However, bona fide immune receptors directly binding chitin and signaling immune activation and inflammation have not been clearly identified because polymeric crude chitin with unknown purity and molecular composition has been used. By using defined chitin (N-acetyl-glucosamine) oligomers, we here identify six-subunit-long chitin chains as the smallest immunologically active motif and the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor (TLR2) as a primary fungal chitin sensor on human and murine immune cells...
October 18, 2018: EMBO Reports
Yanmin Zou, Shuangfeng Wang, Yuanyuan Zhou, Jiaojiao Bai, Guozhong Huang, Xiaotong Liu, Yingying Zhang, Dingzhong Tang, Dongping Lu
Innate immunity plays a vital role in protecting plants and animals from pathogen infections. Immunity varies with age in both animals and plants. However, little is known about the ontogeny of plant innate immunity during seedling development. We report here that the Arabidopsis thaliana microRNA miR172b regulates the transcription of the immune receptor gene FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2) through TARGET OF EAT1 (TOE1) and TOE2, which directly bind to the FLS2 promoter and inhibit its activity. The level of miR172b is very low in the early stage of seedling development, but increases over time, which results in decreased TOE½ protein accumulation and, consequently, increased FLS2 transcription and the ontogeny of FLS2-mediated immunity during seedling development...
October 18, 2018: Plant Cell
Julio Villena, Haruki Kitazawa, Saskia C M Van Wees, Corné M J Pieterse, Hideki Takahashi
Modern animal and crop production practices are associated with the regular use of antimicrobials, potentially increasing selection pressure on bacteria to become resistant. Alternative approaches are needed in order to satisfy the demands of the growing human population without the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials. Researchers have brought a different perspective to solve this problem and have emphasized the exploitation of animal- and plant-associated microorganisms that are beneficial to their hosts through the modulation of the innate immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kan Zhuo, Diana Naalden, Silke Nowak, Nguyen Xuan Huy, Lander Bauters, Godelieve Gheysen
C-type lectins (CTLs), a class of multifunctional proteins, are numerous in nematodes. One CTL gene Mg01965 shown to be expressed in the subventral glands especially in the second-stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola was further analyzed in this study. In vitro RNA interference targeting Mg01965 in the preparasitic juveniles significantly reduced their ability to infect host plant roots. Immunolocalizations showed that Mg01965 is secreted by M. graminicola into the roots during the early parasitic stages and accumulates in the apoplast...
October 13, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Liming Wu, Xi Li, Liumin Ma, Rainer Borriss, Zhen Wu, Xuewen Gao
Plants live in close association with large communities of microbes, some of which are foliar pathogens that invade tissues, primarily via stomata on the leaf surface. Stomata are considered part of an integral, innate immunity system capable of efficiently preventing pathogens from entering the host plant. Although Bacillus, a typical plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, is known to induce stomatal closure, the substances participating in this closure and the mechanism involved in its regulation remain poorly understood...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Giulia De Lorenzo, Simone Ferrari, Felice Cervone, Eitan Okun
Innate immune receptors, well known mediators of response to non-self-molecules and inflammation, also act as mediators of immunity triggered by 'damage-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs). Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) cause inflammation in mammals and a rapid immune response in plants, while DAMPs trigger more complex responses, including immunity, tissue maintenance and repair. DAMPs, their receptors and downstream transduction mechanisms are often conserved within a kingdom or, due to convergent evolution, are similar across the kingdoms of life...
October 4, 2018: Trends in Immunology
Natalie Wiese, Juliane Fischer, Jenifer Heidler, Oleg Lewkowski, Jörg Degenhardt, Silvio Erler
Honey bees are highly prone to infectious diseases, causing colony losses in the worst case. However, they combat diseases through a combination of their innate immune system and social defence behaviours like foraging for health-enhancing plant products (e.g. nectar, pollen and resin). Plant secondary metabolites are not only highly active against bacteria and fungi, they might even enhance selective foraging and feeding decisions in the colony. Here, we tested six major plant terpenes and their corresponding acetates, characterizing six natural Thymus vulgaris chemotypes, for their antimicrobial activity on bacteria associated with European foulbrood...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhiyuan Ji, Chunlian Wang, Kaijun Zhao
Bacterial blight (BB) and bacterial leaf streak (BLS), caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola , respectively, are two devastating diseases in rice planting areas worldwide. It has been proven that adoption of rice resistance is the most effective, economic, and environment-friendly strategy to avoid yield loss caused by BB and BLS. As a model system for plant-pathogen interaction, the rice- X. oryzae pathosystem has been intensively investigated in the past decade. Abundant studies have shown that the resistance and susceptibility of rice to X...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Emmanuel Sechet, Erica Telford, Clément Bonamy, Philippe J Sansonetti, Brice Sperandio
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are mucosal defense effectors of the human innate immune response. In the intestine, AMPs are produced and secreted by epithelial cells to protect the host against pathogens and to support homeostasis with commensals. The inducible nature of AMPs suggests that potent inducers could be used to increase their endogenous expression for the prevention or treatment of diseases. Here we aimed at identifying molecules from the natural pharmacopoeia that induce expression of human β-defensin-3 (HBD3), one of the most efficient AMPs, without modifying the production of proinflammatory cytokines...
October 1, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tae Kyoung Lee, Tuy An Trinh, Seoung Rak Lee, Sil Kim, Hae Min So, Eunjung Moon, Gwi Seo Hwang, Ki Sung Kang, Ji Hwan Kim, Noriko Yamabe, Ki Hyun Kim
Inflammation is not only a self-defense response of the innate immune system, but also the pathogenesis mechanism of multiple diseases such as arthritis, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe (Zingiberaceae), an indigenous plant of India, has been used traditionally in Ayurveda and folk medicine. As part of our ongoing efforts to screen traditional medicinal plants exhibiting pharmacological potential and to characterize the compounds involved, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of the MeOH extract of C...
September 20, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Yan Zhang, Lizhu Wu, Xingfen Wang, Bin Chen, Jing Zhao, Jing Cui, Zhikun Li, Jun Yang, Liqiang Wu, Jinhua Wu, Guiyin Zhang, Zhiying Ma
Verticillium dahliae is a phytopathogenic fungal pathogen that causes vascular wilt diseases responsible for considerable decreases in cotton yields. The lignification of cell wall appositions is a conserved basal defense mechanism in the plant innate immune response. However, the function of laccase in defense-induced lignification has not been described. Screening a SSH library of a resistant cotton cultivar, Jimian20, inoculated with V. dahliae revealed a laccase gene that was strongly induced by the pathogen...
September 29, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Marloes van Splunter, Thijs L J van Osch, Sylvia Brugman, Huub F J Savelkoul, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, R J Joost van Neerven
Innate immune memory, also termed "trained immunity" in vertebrates, has been recently described in a large variety of plants and animals. In most cases, trained innate immunity is induced by pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and is associated with long-term epigenetic, metabolic, and functional reprogramming. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that food components can mimic PAMPs effects and induce trained immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine milk or its components can induce trained immunity in human monocytes...
September 27, 2018: Nutrients
Carolina Grandellis, Betiana S Garavaglia, Natalia Gottig, Caroline Lonez, Jean-Marie Ruysschaert, Jorgelina Ottado
DOTAP triggers Arabidopsis thaliana immunity and by priming the defense response is able to reduce bacterial pathogen attack. DOTAP is a cationic lipid widely used as a liposomal transfection reagent and it has recently been identified as a strong activator of the innate immune system in animal cells. Plants are sessile organisms and unlike mammals, that have innate and acquired immunity, plants possess only innate immunity. A key feature of plant immunity is the ability to sense potentially dangerous signals, as it is the case for microbe-associated, pathogen-associated or damage-associated molecular patterns and by doing so, trigger an active defense response to cope with the perturbing stimulus...
September 25, 2018: Planta
Wei-Lin Wan, Lisha Zhang, Rory Pruitt, Maricris Zaidem, Rik Brugman, Xiyu Ma, Elzbieta Krol, Artemis Perraki, Joachim Kilian, Guido Grossmann, Mark Stahl, Libo Shan, Cyril Zipfel, Jan A L van Kan, Rainer Hedrich, Detlef Weigel, Andrea A Gust, Thorsten Nürnberger
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense microbial patterns and activate innate immunity against attempted microbial invasions. The leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RK) FLS2 and EFR, and the LRR receptor protein (LRR-RP) receptors RLP23 and RLP42, respectively, represent prototypical members of these two prominent and closely related PRR families. We conducted a survey of Arabidopsis thaliana immune signaling mediated by these receptors to address the question of commonalities and differences between LRR-RK and LRR-RP signaling...
September 25, 2018: New Phytologist
Luis A Rubio
The strong selection in search for a higher growth rate in broilers has resulted in adverse effects such as metabolic disorders, low responsiveness of the immune system, and decreased resistance to pathogens. On the other hand, newly hatched chicks rely mostly on innate immune responses until their gut gets colonized with microbiota. In consequence, early access to active substances or bacteria (pre- and post-hatch) is particularly relevant here because in broilers much of the immune system development occurs early in life...
September 22, 2018: Poultry Science
Yaning Cui, Xiaojuan Li, Meng Yu, Ruili Li, Lusheng Fan, Yingfang Zhu, Jinxing Lin
The plant transmembrane receptor kinase FLAGELLIN SENSING 2 (FLS2) is crucial for innate immunity. Although previous studies have reported FLS2-mediated signal transduction and endocytosis via the clathrin-mediated pathway, whether additional endocytic pathways affect FLS2-mediated defense responses remains unclear. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana sterol-deficient mutant steroid methyltransferase 1 displays defects in immune responses induced by the flagellin-derived peptide flg22. Variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (VA-TIRFM) coupled with single-particle tracking showed that the spatiotemporal dynamics of FLS2-GFP changed on a millisecond time scale and that the FLS2-GFP dwell time at the plasma membrane increased in cells treated with a sterol-extracting reagent when compared with untreated counterparts...
October 1, 2018: Development
Shoji Sugano, Satoru Maeda, Nagao Hayashi, Hideyuki Kajiwara, Haruhiko Inoue, Chang-Jie Jiang, Hiroshi Takatsuji, Masaki Mori
Plants have evolved many receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) to modulate their growth, development, and innate immunity. Broad-Spectrum Resistance 1 (BSR1) encodes a rice RLCK whose overexpression confers resistance to multiple diseases, including fungal rice blast and bacterial leaf blight; however, the mechanisms underlying the resistance remain largely unknown. In the present study, we report that BSR1 is a functional protein kinase that autophosphorylates and transphosphorylates an artificial substrate, in vitro...
September 17, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Lipu Wang, Rui Wen, Jinghe Wang, Daoquan Xiang, Qian Wang, Yuepeng Zang, Zheng Wang, Shuai Huang, Xin Li, Raju Datla, Pierre R Fobert, Hong Wang, Yangdou Wei, Wei Xiao
UBC13 is required for Lys63-linked polyubiquitination and innate immune responses in mammals, but its functions in plant immunity remain to be defined. Here we used genetic and pathological methods to evaluate roles of Arabidopsis UBC13 in response to pathogens and environmental stresses. Loss of UBC13 failed to activate the expression of numerous cold-responsive genes and resulted in hypersensitivity to low-temperature stress, indicating that UBC13 is involved in plant response to low-temperature stress. Furthermore, the ubc13 mutant displayed low-temperature-induced and salicylic acid-dependent lesion mimic phenotypes...
September 15, 2018: New Phytologist
Daniela Melillo, Rita Marino, Paola Italiani, Diana Boraschi
The ability of developing immunological memory, a characteristic feature of adaptive immunity, is clearly present also in innate immune responses. In fact, it is well known that plants and invertebrate metazoans, which only have an innate immune system, can mount a faster and more effective response upon re-exposure to a stimulus. Evidence of immune memory in invertebrates comes from studies in infection immunity, natural transplantation immunity, individual, and transgenerational immune priming. These studies strongly suggest that environment and lifestyle take part in the development of immunological memory...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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