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Community research

Revital Kariv, Dan Turner, Joseph Rosenblum, Vered Morad, Nir Zigman, Mira Friedman, Gili Focht, Oren Leder, Malka Avitzour, Iris Goren
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are becoming a significant cause for chronic long term complex morbidity, particularly among adolescents and young adults. IBD patients require multidisciplinary management and considerable health resources. Recent advances and developments in the diagnostics and therapeutic options require identification and tight monitoring of these patients at both hospital and community level for better management and care. AIMS: To establish at Maccabi Healthcare Services (MHS) a dedicated registry for inflammatory bowel disease patients for long term monitoring in order to optimize care, better use of health resources and to promote high quality research...
October 2018: Harefuah
Masashi Hatamoto, Tsutomu Okubo, Kengo Kubota, Takashi Yamaguchi
The activated sludge (AS) process has been the most widely used process for wastewater treatment despite it has several limitations for its further application and adoption worldwide, owing to unsustainable properties such as high-energy consumption and the production of large amount of excess sludge. To overcome the drawbacks of the AS process, the downflow hanging sponge (DHS) has been developed as an energy-saving and easy-to-maintain alternative. To date, six types of different sponge configurations have been developed and their performances have been evaluated in practical- to full-scale DHS reactors...
October 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Garrett W Hopper, Keith B Gido, Caryn C Vaughn, Thomas B Parr, Traci G Popejoy, Carla L Atkinson, Kiza K Gates
Animals can play important roles in cycling nutrients [hereafter consumer-driven nutrient dynamics (CND)], but researchers typically simplify animal communities inhabiting dynamic environments into single groups that are tested under relatively static conditions. We propose a conceptual framework and present empirical evidence for CND that considers the potential effects of spatially overlapping animal groups within dynamic ecosystems. Because streams can maintain high biomass of mussels and fish, we were able to evaluate this framework by testing if biogeochemical hotspots generated by stable aggregations of mussels attract fishes...
October 20, 2018: Oecologia
Alison Swartz, Susan Levine, Hanna-Andrea Rother, Fritha Langerman
This article focuses on the devastating hidden perils of agricultural pesticides repurposed by informal sellers in urban South African townships to kill rats and other unwanted pests. Drawing on collaborative research techniques, we investigate the causal relationship between child poisoning episodes and the household use of illegal street pesticides. Such pesticides are used to safeguard homes from pests in an attempt to protect children from the harmful consequences of rodent bites and vectorborne diseases...
October 20, 2018: Medical Humanities
I C Chetter, A V Oswald, E McGinnis, N Stubbs, C Arundel, H Buckley, K Bell, J C Dumville, N A Cullum, M O Soares, P Saramago
BACKGROUND: Surgical wounds healing by secondary intention can be difficult and costly to manage and are profoundly under researched. This prospective inception, cohort study aimed to derive a better understanding of surgical wounds healing by secondary intention and to facilitate the design of future research investigating effective treatments. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with surgical wounds healing by secondary intention and the surgeries that preceded their wounds; to clearly delineate the clinical outcomes of these patients, specifically focusing on time to wound healing and its determinants; to explore the types of treatments for surgical wounds healing by secondary intention; and to assess the impact surgical wounds healing by secondary intention have on patients' quality of life...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Giovanni Viscogliosi, Luca De Nicola, Diego Vanuzzo, Simona Giampaoli, Luigi Palmieri, Chiara Donfrancesco
OBJECTIVES: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) negatively impacts aging success. This study evaluates the association between CKD and functional disability, defined as limitations in performing mobility tasks, basic (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), in a population-based sample of older adults. In particular, we examined whether such a relationship extended to mild-moderate CKD stages (G1-G3ab). METHODS: Data from the Cardiovascular risk profile in Renal patients of the Italian Health Examination Survey (CARHES) study were used...
October 12, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Andrew E Grulich, Rebecca Guy, Janaki Amin, Fengyi Jin, Christine Selvey, Jo Holden, Heather-Marie A Schmidt, Iryna Zablotska, Karen Price, Bill Whittaker, Kerry Chant, Craig Cooper, Scott McGill, Barbara Telfer, Barbara Yeung, Gesalit Levitt, Erin E Ogilvie, Nila J Dharan, Mohamed A Hammoud, Stefanie Vaccher, Lucy Watchirs-Smith, Anna McNulty, David J Smith, Debra M Allen, David Baker, Mark Bloch, Rohan I Bopage, Katherine Brown, Andrew Carr, Christopher J Carmody, Kym L Collins, Robert Finlayson, Rosalind Foster, Eva Y Jackson, David A Lewis, Josephine Lusk, Catherine C O'Connor, Nathan Ryder, Emanuel Vlahakis, Phillip Read, David A Cooper
BACKGROUND: HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in men who have sex with men (MSM) at the individual level, but data on population-level impact are lacking. We examined whether rapid, targeted, and high-coverage roll-out of PrEP in an MSM epidemic would reduce HIV incidence in the cohort prescribed PrEP and state-wide in Australia's most populous state, New South Wales. METHODS: The Expanded PrEP Implementation in Communities-New South Wales (EPIC-NSW) study is an implementation cohort study of daily co-formulated tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine as HIV PrEP...
October 17, 2018: Lancet HIV
Vassiliki Sinopoulou, Morris Gordon, Paul Rutter
BACKGROUND: Increases in patients seeking advice at pharmacies has led to pharmacy staff engaging in diagnostic behaviours. Approaches to diagnosis include using mnemonics and clinical reasoning. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to assess the degree to which the criteria researchers use to evaluate diagnostic performance in pharmacy consultations, in studies that have simulated patients or vignettes, conform with a clinical reasoning and a mnemonic framework...
October 11, 2018: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
Gláucia da P Lima, Jessica R Meyer, Kamini Khosla, Kari E Dunfield, Beth L Parker
Dissolved phase contaminants, transported by diffusion into the low permeability matrix of fractured sedimentary rock, pose a challenge to groundwater cleanup efforts because this stored mass may persist even when the upgradient source zone is removed. In this context, if contaminant biodegradation takes place within the low permeability matrix, plume persistence may be substantially reduced. Therefore, it is important to characterize microbial communities within the low permeability, rock matrix pores, instead of only from groundwater samples, which represent biomass from fast flowing fractures...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Ndivhuho A Makhado, Edith Matabane, Mauro Faccin, Claire Pinçon, Agathe Jouet, Fairouz Boutachkourt, Léonie Goeminne, Cyril Gaudin, Gugu Maphalala, Patrick Beckert, Stefan Niemann, Jean-Charles Delvenne, Michel Delmée, Lufuno Razwiedani, Maphoshane Nchabeleng, Philip Supply, Bouke C de Jong, Emmanuel André
BACKGROUND: Global roll-out of rapid molecular assays is revolutionising the diagnosis of rifampicin resistance, predictive of multidrug-resistance, in tuberculosis. However, 30% of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains in an eSwatini study harboured the Ile491Phe mutation in the rpoB gene, which is associated with poor rifampicin-based treatment outcomes but is missed by commercial molecular assays or scored as susceptible by phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing deployed in South Africa...
October 17, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anjana E Sharma, Brittni N Frederiksen, Nikita M Malcolm, Julia M Rollison, Marion W Carter
CONTEXT: Community education and engagement are important for informing family planning projects. The objective of this study was to update two prior systematic reviews assessing the impact of community education and engagement interventions on family planning outcomes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Sixteen electronic databases were searched for studies relevant to a priori determined inclusion/exclusion criteria in high development settings, published from March 2011 through April 2016, updating two reviews that included studies from 1985 through February 2011...
November 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Celia A Taylor, Richard J Lilford, Emily Wroe, Frances Griffiths, Ruth Ngechu
BACKGROUND: Ensuring that selection processes for Community Health Workers (CHWs) are effective is important due to the scale and scope of modern CHW programmes. However they are relatively understudied. While community involvement in selection should never be eliminated entirely, there are other complementary methods that could be used to help identify those most likely to be high-performing CHWs. This study evaluated the predictive validity of three written tests and two individual sections of a one-to-one interview used for selection into CHW posts in eight areas of Kenya...
October 20, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Karine Dubé, Sara Gianella, Susan Concha-Garcia, Susan J Little, Andy Kaytes, Jeff Taylor, Kushagra Mathur, Sogol Javadi, Anshula Nathan, Hursch Patel, Stuart Luter, Sean Philpott-Jones, Brandon Brown, Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) have a new research priority: inclusion of terminally ill persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in HIV cure-related research. For example, the Last Gift is a clinical research study at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) for PLWHIV who have a terminal illness, with a prognosis of less than 6 months. DISCUSSION: As end-of-life (EOL) HIV cure research is relatively new, the scientific community has a timely opportunity to examine the related ethical challenges...
October 20, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Christian Dalton-Locke, Rosie Attard, Helen Killaspy, Sarah White
BACKGROUND: Specialist mental health supported accommodation services are a key component to a graduated level of care from hospital to independently living in the community for people with complex, longer term mental health problems. However, they come at a high cost and there has been a lack of research on the quality of these services. The QuEST (Quality and Effectiveness of Supported tenancies) study, a five-year programme of research funded by the National Institute for Health Research, aimed to address this...
October 20, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Shalini Nayee, Charlotte Klass, Gail Findlay, Jennifer E Gallagher
BACKGROUND: Preventable oral diseases such as dental caries remain common in the United Kingdom. Clustering of poor health is observed within deprived communities, such as inner-city areas, where elevated levels of dental need are associated with lower uptake of dental care. Successful oral health promotion (OHP) initiatives are contingent upon effective community engagement. The aim of this pilot study was to engage with families with young children to explore community views on oral health and dental care and thus tailor OHP initiatives more effectively to their needs...
October 20, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Bin Chen, Jingwen Wang, Ying Wang, Jiaming Zhang, Changying Zhao, Nan Shen, Junjie Yang, Zhongtao Gai, Lei Zhang
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of microbes in allergic diseases has been demonstrated and our previous research indicates that microbiota causing gut disorders in children is associated with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura. However, the role of oral microbiota in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura remains unknown. METHOD: A total of 164 children were enrolled, of which 98 were patients with HSP and 66 were healthy children. Oral swab samples were collected for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, then analyzed for oral microbiota composition...
October 17, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Jinlong Shao, Bing Wang, Carla J M Bartels, Ewald M Bronkhorst, John A Jansen, X Frank Walboomers, Fang Yang
Various strategies have been explored to prevent pin tract infections (PTI), including the use of antibacterial sleeves. However, an ideal animal model to evaluate the efficacy of antibacterial strategies is still lacking. This study aimed to construct an animal model with a consistent induction of infection after bacterial challenge. Further, the efficacy of silver and chlorhexidine loaded chitosan sleeves was evaluated to prevent PTI around a percutaneous implant. Titanium pins wrapped with sleeves were implanted in anterior lateral rabbit tibia...
October 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Mahmoud F Fathalla
Efforts by the health and scientific community have focused on providing women with the means to control and regulate their fertility. We paid less attention to the reality of women achieving their reproductive revolution while burdened with a reproductive system that evolved to fit the life of our ancestor hunter-gatherers, where women were destined to spend most of their reproductive years pregnant or breastfeeding. This state of evolutionary mismatch impacts on women's health as the reproductive system continues incessantly to work, producing a monthly ovum and exposing the reproductive organs to cyclic hormonal stimulation without the benefit of pregnancy and breastfeeding...
October 20, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Lavinia Iancu, Emily N Junkins, Georgiana Necula-Petrareanu, Cristina Purcarea
During violent criminal actions in which the perpetrator disposes of the victim's remains by burial, the analysis of insects and bacterial colonization patterns could be necessary for postmortem interval (PMI) estimation. Our research aimed to assess the decomposition process of buried rat carcasses from shallow graves (40 cm), the diversity and dynamics of insects and bacteria throughout the decomposition stages, and the environmental parameters' influence on these variations. The results provide further insight on decomposition in soil and contribute to a broader understanding of the factors involved in decomposition by qualitatively and quantitatively analysing the decomposer community (bacteria and insects)...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heloisa Maria Jácome Sousa Britto, Bruna Silva Oliveira, Cristiano Santos Gomes, Juliana Martins Pinto, Ricardo Oliveira Guerra
INTRODUCTION: Mobility decline compromises functionality and quality of life in old age. Life-Space Assessment (LSA) evaluates mobility considering interaction between person and environment. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is a reference to identify and categorise the personal and environmental contextual factors associated to the LSA. Our objective is identifying contextual factors that may influence life-space mobility of older community-dwelling adults based on ICF...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
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