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Community research

Marie Gallé-Tessonneau, Kamel Gana
Objective: School refusal (SR) is considered as a clinical form of emotionally based school absenteeism related to the experience of strong negative emotions when attending school. However, there are no psychometrically sound measures specifically designed to assess SR. The aim of the present research was to develop and validate a multidimensional self-report measure of SR: the SChool REfusal EvaluatioN Scale (SCREEN) for adolescents. Methods: Two studies were performed to develop this scale...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Steven J Onken
This research engaged consumers with severe and persistent mental illness receiving services in the public mental health sector in creating a comprehensive list of 110 needed community services and supports, then individually sorting and rating these items. Within the resulting concept map generated by Concept System software and as interpreted by the study participants, successfully living in the community is actualized when there is an outer layer of support regarding basic needs; financial means; individualized, comprehensive and available services; competent and caring staff; community education; legal rights enforcement; and social change directed at dismantling the discrimination and stigma associated with mental illness...
August 8, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
Megan L Rogers, Matthew E Schneider, Anna R Gai, Julia Y Gorday, Thomas E Joiner
Suicide is more highly stigmatized than most mental health conditions; however, no interventions have aimed to modify the stigma of suicide in the general population. This study tested the efficacy of two brief web-based interventions-psychoeducation and interpersonal exposure-in reducing suicide-related stigma in a student/community sample. A sample of 266 adults completed baseline measures of suicide-related stigma, were randomized into one of three conditions (psychoeducation, interpersonal exposure, control), in which they browsed an assigned website for twenty minutes, and completed post-intervention and one-month follow-up stigma measures...
August 7, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Elizabeth Hall-Lipsy, Leila Barraza, Christopher Robertson
The 21st Century Cures Act encourages the Food and Drug Administration to consider "real-world evidence" in its regulation of the safety and efficacy of drugs and devices. Many have interpreted this mandate to focus on non-randomized observational research. However, we suggest that regulatory science must also move from rarefied academic hospitals to community-based settings, where the vast majority of patients in fact receive care in the fragmented U.S. healthcare system. This move is especially important if innovations are to reach, and be validated in, more diverse populations...
May 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Eric Macnaughton, Geoffrey Nelson, S Kathleen Worton, Sam Tsemberis, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Tim Aubry, Julian Hasford, Jino Distasio, Paula Goering
The scaling out of Housing First (HF) programs was examined in six Canadian communities, in which a multi-component HF training and technical assistance (TTA) was provided. Three research questions were addressed: (a) What were the outcomes of the TTA in terms of the development of new, sustained, or enhanced programs, and fidelity to the HF model? (b) How did the TTA contribute to implementation and fidelity? and (c) What contextual factors facilitated or challenged implementation and fidelity? A total of 14 new HF programs were created, and nine HF programs were sustained or enhanced...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
Olaf Rose, Hartmut Derendorf, Susanne Erzkamp, Kenji Fujita, Alexander Hartl, Kreshnik Hoti, Ines Krass, Emina Obarcanin, Jan Saevels, Pornchanok Srimongkon, Martina Teichert, Ross T Tsuyuki
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare determinants of professional development between different countries to identify barriers and facilitators of development towards clinical pharmacy services and stimulate discussion of under-used potential and opportunities. MATERIALS: The study was conceived as a survey. The questionnaire was administered to a group of experts. METHODS: The survey was conducted as a cross-sectional study with descriptive and correlation analysis...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Man-Kit Lei, Steven R H Beach, Ronald L Simons
The present study extends prior research on the link between neighborhood disadvantage and chronic illness by testing an integrated model in which neighborhood characteristics exert effects on health conditions through accelerated cardiometabolic aging. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 408 African Americans from the Family and Community Health Study. Using four waves of data spanning young adulthood (ages 18-29), we first found durable effects of neighborhood disadvantage on accelerated cardiometabolic aging and chronic illness...
August 14, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Anne E Otwell, Adrián López García de Lomana, Sean M Gibbons, Mónica V Orellana, Nitin S Baliga
Through complex interspecies interactions, microbial processes drive nutrient cycling and biogeochemistry. However, we still struggle to predict specifically which organisms, communities, and biotic and abiotic processes are determining ecosystem function and how environmental changes will alter their roles and stability. While the tools to create such a predictive microbial ecology capability exist, cross-disciplinary integration of high-resolution field measurements, detailed laboratory studies, and computation is essential...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Henrietta E Lewis, Katie Greenland, Val Curtis, Wolf-Peter Schmidt
Changing hand hygiene behavior at scale in the community remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of Unilever's school-based "School of 5" handwashing campaign on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in schoolchildren and their mothers in the Indian state of Bihar. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in two districts. We randomized a total of 32 villages with at least one eligible school to intervention and control groups (1:1) and recruited 338 households in each group for outcome measurement...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sunmin Park, Da S Kim, Xuangao Wu, Qiu J Yi
Chronic alcohol intake causes hepatic steatosis and changes the body composition and glucose metabolism. We examined whether water extracts of mulberry (WMB) and white flower dandelion ( Taraxacum coreanum Nakai, WTC) can prevent and/or delay the symptoms of chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis in male Sprague Dawley rats, and explored the mechanisms. Ethanol degradation was examined by orally administering 3 g ethanol/kg bw after giving them 0.3 g/kg bw WMB or WTC. All rats were continuously provided about 7 g ethanol/kg bw/day for four weeks and were given either of 0...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Elizabeth J King, Kristefer Stojanovski, Jennifer Acosta
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this research was to determine modern contraceptive use (MCU) and explore factors associated with MCU in the Western Balkans. METHODS: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) data from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia, including the datasets from Roma settlements, were merged. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess which factors were associated with MCU among married women aged 15-49 in the region...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Katy C Norman, Bethany B Moore, Kelly B Arnold, David N O'Dwyer
The proteome is the study of the protein content of a definable component of an organism in biology. However, the tissue-specific expression of proteins and the varied post-translational modifications, splice variants and protein-protein complexes that may form, make the study of protein a challenging yet vital tool in answering many of the unanswered questions in medicine and biology to date. Indeed, the spatial, temporal and functional composition of proteins in the human body has proven difficult to elucidate for many years...
August 13, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Jason Wallach, Simon D Brandt
The serendipitous discovery of phencyclidine (PCP) in 1956 sets the stage for significant research efforts that resulted in a plethora of analogs and derivatives designed to explore the biological effects of this class. PCP soon became the prototypical dissociative agent that eventually sneaked through the doors of clinical laboratories and became an established street drug. Estimations suggest that around 14 PCP analogs were identified as "street drugs" in the period between the 1960s and 1990s. Fast forward to the 2000s, and largely facilitated by advancements in electronic forms of communication made possible through the Internet, a variety of new PCP analogs began to attract the attention of communities interested in the collaborative exploration of these substances...
August 14, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Imogen N Clark, Jeanette D Tamplin, Felicity A Baker
The progression of dementia can severely compromise interpersonal connection and relationship quality between people living with dementia (PwD) and their family caregivers (FCG), leading to social isolation and poor quality of life for both. Therapeutic group singing (TGS) is a socially engaging, stimulating, and supportive pursuit that community-dwelling PwD and their FCG can participate in together. This study aimed to build on the findings from previous research by undertaking a thematic analysis of interviews with nine PwD (five women, four men; mean age = 79...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Victor Galaz, Beatrice Crona, Alice Dauriach, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Henrik Österblom, Jan Fichtner
The release of classified documents in the past years have offered a rare glimpse into the opaque world of tax havens and their role in the global economy. Although the political, economic and social implications related to these financial secrecy jurisdictions are known, their role in supporting economic activities with potentially detrimental environmental consequences have until now been largely ignored. Here, we combine quantitative analysis with case descriptions to elaborate and quantify the connections between tax havens and the environment, both in global fisheries and the Brazilian Amazon...
August 13, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Michele Dipalo, Giovanni Melle, Laura Lovato, Andrea Jacassi, Francesca Santoro, Valeria Caprettini, Andrea Schirato, Alessandro Alabastri, Denis Garoli, Giulia Bruno, Francesco Tantussi, Francesco De Angelis
The ability to monitor electrogenic cells accurately plays a pivotal role in neuroscience, cardiology and cell biology. Despite pioneering research and long-lasting efforts, the existing methods for intracellular recording of action potentials on the large network scale suffer limitations that prevent their widespread use. Here, we introduce the concept of a meta-electrode, a planar porous electrode that mimics the optical and biological behaviour of three-dimensional plasmonic antennas but also preserves the ability to work as an electrode...
August 13, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Ana María García Herrero, Julio Sánchez-Meca, Francisco Javier Álvarez Muñoz, María Rubio-Aparicio, Fernando Navarro-Mateu
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting results on the relationship between neuroticism and suicidal ideation in community population. The objectives of this study were to estimate the magnitude and direction of the association between neuroticism and suicide ideation, and to analyze the influence of moderator variables on the effect size. METHODS: A systematic review and a meta-analysis were carried out. The search for studies was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, IME, Lilacs, CINAHL, and EMBASE, until January 2015...
August 16, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
Gabrielle L Davidson, Amy C Cooke, Crystal N Johnson, John L Quinn
Research into proximate and ultimate mechanisms of individual cognitive variation in animal populations is a rapidly growing field that incorporates physiological, behavioural and evolutionary investigations. Recent studies in humans and laboratory animals have shown that the enteric microbial community plays a central role in brain function and development. The 'gut-brain axis' represents a multi-directional signalling system that encompasses neurological, immunological and hormonal pathways. In particular it is tightly linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), a system that regulates stress hormone release and influences brain development and function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Martin de Bock, Sybil A McAuley, Mary Binsu Abraham, Grant Smith, Jennifer Nicholas, Geoff R Ambler, Fergus J Cameron, Jan M Fairchild, Bruce R King, Elizabeth A Geelhoed, Elizabeth A Davis, David Norman O'Neal, Timothy W Jones
INTRODUCTION: Automated insulin delivery (also known as closed loop, or artificial pancreas) has shown potential to improve glycaemic control and quality of life in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Automated insulin delivery devices incorporate an insulin pump with continuous glucose monitoring(CGM) and an algorithm, and adjust insulin in real time. This study aims to establish the safety and efficacy of a hybrid closed-loop (HCL) system in a long-term outpatient trial in people with T1D aged 12 -<25 years of age, and compare outcomes with standard therapy for T1D as used in the contemporary community...
August 13, 2018: BMJ Open
Asheesh Kumar Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Arti Singh
Deep learning (DL), a subset of machine learning approaches, has emerged as a versatile tool to assimilate large amounts of heterogeneous data and provide reliable predictions of complex and uncertain phenomena. These tools are increasingly being used by the plant science community to make sense of the large datasets now regularly collected via high-throughput phenotyping and genotyping. We review recent work where DL principles have been utilized for digital image-based plant stress phenotyping. We provide a comparative assessment of DL tools against other existing techniques, with respect to decision accuracy, data size requirement, and applicability in various scenarios...
August 10, 2018: Trends in Plant Science
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