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Yield gap

Jared M Saletin, Stephanie Jackvony, Katherina A Rodriguez, Daniel P Dickstein
Study Objectives: Sleep disruption is common in attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD). Likewise, deficits in attention are a hallmark of sleep deprivation in healthy individuals. Whether ADHD and sleep deprivation modulate common, or disparate, neural systems is unknown. No study has yet utilized fMRI to investigate sleep loss in ADHD. We address this gap by performing a novel meta-analysis to compare patterns of fMRI activation during sleep deprivation and ADHD. Methods: We performed a coordinate-based activation-likelihood-estimate (ALE) meta-analysis using the GingerALE software...
December 12, 2018: Sleep
Elizabeth A Kostas-Polston, Kristen Rawlett, Joy Miedema, Kirsten Dickins
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Critical research topics were identified after nurse practitioner (NP) organization stakeholders participated in the Fellows of the American Association of Nurse Practitioner, 2015 Nurse Practitioner Research Agenda Roundtable. Strategies and recommendations were identified to support further work examining NP outcomes-based research priorities in four areas: 1) policy and regulation; 2) workforce; 3) education; and 4) practice. For the purpose of this article, we focus on NP education...
December 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Yanli Lin, Megan E Fisher, Jason S Moser
Mindfulness is frequently associated with improved attention. However, the nature of the relationship between mindfulness and executive attention, a core function of the attentional system, is surprisingly unclear. Studies employing behavioral measures of executive attention have been equivocal. Although neuroscientific studies have yielded more consistent findings, reporting functional and structural changes in executive attention brain regions, the observed changes in brain activity have not been linked to behavioral performance...
December 11, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Gili Ben-Nissan, Shay Vimer, Shira Warszawski, Aliza Katz, Meital Yona, Tamar Unger, Yoav Peleg, David Morgenstern, Hadas Cohen-Dvashi, Ron Diskin, Sarel J Fleishman, Michal Sharon
Characterization of overexpressed proteins is essential for assessing their quality, and providing input for iterative redesign and optimization. This process is typically carried out following purification procedures that require pronounced cost of time and labor. Therefore, quality assessment of recombinant proteins with no prior purification offers a major advantage. Here, we report a native mass spectrometry method that enables characterization of overproduced proteins directly from culture media. Properties such as solubility, molecular weight, folding, assembly state, overall structure, post-translational modifications and binding to relevant biomolecules are immediately revealed...
2018: Communications biology
George diCenzo, Alessio Mengoni, Marco Fondi
The design of synthetic cells requires a detailed understanding of the relevance of genes and gene networks underlying complex cellular phenotypes. Tn-seq (transposon-sequencing) and constraint-based metabolic modelling can be used to probe the core genetic and metabolic networks underlying a biological process. Integrating these highly complementary experimental and in silico approaches has the potential to yield a highly comprehensive understanding of the core networks of a cell. Specifically, it can facilitate the interpretation of Tn-seq datasets and identify gaps in the data that could hinder the engineering of the cellular system, while also providing refined models for the accurate predictions of cellular metabolism...
December 7, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Marco Vettori, Valerio Piazza, Andrea Cattoni, Andrea Scaccabarozzi, Gilles Patriarche, Philippe Regreny, Nicolas Chauvin, Claude Botella, Genevieve Grenet, Jose Penuelas, Alain Fave, Maria Tchernycheva, Michel Gendry
With a band gap value of 1.7 eV, Al0.2Ga0.8As is one of the ideal III-V alloys for the development of nanowire-based Tandem Solar Cells on silicon. Nevertheless, growing self-catalysed AlGaAs nanowires on silicon by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy is a very difficult task due to the oxidation of Al adatoms by the SiO2 layer present on the surface. Here we propose a nanowire structure including a p.i.n radial junction inside an Al0.2Ga0.8As shell grown on a p-GaAs core. The crystalline structure of such self-catalysed nanowires grown on an epi-ready Si(111) substrate (with a thin native SiO2 layer) was investigated by transmission electronic microscopy and photoluminescence...
November 26, 2018: Nanotechnology
Ashish K Prakash, B Datta, J P Tripathy, N Kumar, P Chatterjee, A Jaiswal
BACKGROUND: There are knowledge gaps in the in-depth analysis of the most promising and robust diagnostic tool, GeneXpert MTB/RIF (CBNAAT). The cycle of threshold (CT) value of the CBNAAT test and its clinical implications has not been explored much. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at (a) estimating the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of Xpert MTB/RIF in various specimens (b) establishing the association between CT value category (high, medium, low, very low) and culture time-to-positivity (TTP)...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
Enrique L P Mergelsberg, Colin MacLeod, Barbara Mullan, Daniel Rudaizky, Vanessa Allom, Katrijn Houben, Ottmar V Lipp
A virtual shopping task was employed to illuminate why women who intend to shop healthily are differentially successful in doing so. Female undergraduates (N = 68) performed a modified approach and avoidance task that employed food items differing in healthiness and tastiness, and yielded relative speed to select and reject food items in a stylised supermarket. Participants categorised a food item either in terms of healthiness or tastiness, then pulled (selected) or pushed (rejected) the item using a joystick...
December 2, 2018: Appetite
Wesley J Transue, Matthew Nava, Maxwell W Terban, Jing Yang, Matthew W Greenberg, Gang Wu, Elizabeth S Foreman, Chantal L Mustoe, Pierre Kennepohl, Jonathan S Owen, Simon J L Billinge, Heather J Kulik, Christopher C Cummins
Thermolysis of a pair of dibenzo-7-phosphanorbornadiene compounds is shown to lead to differing behaviors: phosphinidene sulfide release and formation of amorphous P2 S. These compounds, t BuP(S)A (1, A = C14 H10 or anthracene; 59% isol. yield) and HP(S)A (2; 63%), are available through thionation of t BuPA and the new secondary phosphine HPA (5), which is prepared from Me2NPA in 50% yield by reaction with DIBAL-H. Phosphinidene sulfide [ t BuP=S] transfer is shown to proceed efficiently from 1 to 1,3-dimethyl-2,3-butadiene to form Diels-Alder product 3 with a zero order dependence on diene...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Tatsuya Kameyama, Marino Kishi, Chie Miyamae, Dharmendar Kumar Sharma, Shuzo Hirata, Takahisa Yamamoto, Taro Uematsu, Martin Vacha, Susumu Kuwabata, Tsukasa Torimoto
The nonstoichiometry of I-III-VI semiconductor nanoparticles, especially the ratio of group I to group III elements, has been utilized to control their physicochemical properties. We report the solution-phase synthesis of nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S and Ag-In-Ga-S nanoparticles and results of the investigation of their photoluminescence (PL) properties in relation to their chemical compositions. While stoichiometric AgInS2 nanoparticles simply exhibited only a broad PL band originating from defect sites in the particles, a narrow band edge PL peak newly appeared with a decrease in the Ag fraction in the nonstoichiometric Ag-In-S nanoparticles...
December 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Emily F Rothman, Rebecca Stone, Sarah M Bagley
The purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the existing research by exploring policies and practices of domestic violence shelters in one US state pertaining to clients with opioid use disorders (OUDs), as well as documenting some of their experiences providing services to those clients. We used semi-structured key informant interviews to gather information about Rhode Island shelter practices and policies pertaining to OUD-relevant topics and make meaning of shelter workers' experiences with clients with OUDs...
2018: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
Kyuju Kwak, Dongil Lee
Thiolate-protected metal nanoparticles containing a few to few hundred metal atoms are interesting materials exhibiting unique physicochemical properties. They encompass the bulk-to-molecule transition region, where discrete electronic states emerge and electronic band energetics yield to quantum confinement effects. Recent progresses in the synthesis and characterization of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles have opened up new avenues for the isolation of extremely monodispersed nanoparticles with atomically precision...
November 30, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Augustine T Choko, Mastula Nanfuka, Josephine Birungi, Geoffrey Taasi, Prossy Kisembo, Stephane Helleringer
BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) addresses barriers to HIV diagnosis among men, but current approaches to distributing HIVST kits only reach a subset of the men requiring testing. METHODS: We conducted a pilot trial of the secondary distribution of HIVST kits through peer networks in fishing communities of Buliisa district (Uganda). We recruited distributors ("seeds") among male patients of a health facility, and among community members. Seeds were trained in HIVST and asked to distribute up to five kits to their peers ("recruits")...
2018: PloS One
Mehmet Akgul, Alper Ozgurluk, Clark T-C Nguyen
This part II of a two-paper sequence presents fabri-cation and measurement results for a micromechanical disk-based RF channel-select filter designed using the theory and procedure of Part I. Successful demonstration of an actual filter required sev-eral practical additions to an ideal design, including the introduc-tion of a 39nm-gap capacitive transducer, voltage-controlled fre-quency tuning electrodes, and a stress relieving coupled array de-sign, all of which combine to enable a 0.1%-bandwidth 223.4-MHz channel-select filter with only 2...
November 26, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Katia De Pinho Campos, Joanna E Cohen, Denise Gastaldo, Alejandro R Jadad
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in public health have gained great attention in the global health literature over the last two decades. Evidence suggests that PPPs could contribute to mitigating complex health problems. There is, however, limited knowledge about the process and specific conditions in which PPPs for healthy eating, in particular, can be developed successfully. To address this gap, this article first summarizes the literature, and second, using qualitative content analysis, identifies factors deemed to influence the process of building PPPs for healthy eating...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Ward van der Stam, Indy du Fossé, Gianluca Grimaldi, Julius O V Monchen, Nicholas Kirkwood, Arjan J Houtepen
The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield of semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is hampered by in-gap trap states due to dangling orbitals on the surface of the nanocrystals. While crucial for the rational design of nanocrystals, the understanding of the exact origin of trap states remains limited. Here, we treat CdTe nanocrystal films with different metal chloride salts and we study the effect on their optical properties with in situ spectroelectrochemistry, recording both changes in absorption and photoluminescence...
November 13, 2018: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Fei Yan, Guangye He, Yunsong Chen
Although numerous studies have shown the importance of an individual's socioeconomic status on his or her self-rated health status, less well-known is whether self-perceived class mobility, a measure highly correlated with an individual's de facto social class and past mobility experiences, affects self-rated health. In this paper, we attempt to fill the gap by examining how perception of class mobility is associated with self-rated health. Using eight waves of Chinese General Social Survey data spanning the years 2005 to 2015, we conducted an analysis at the micro (individual) level and the macro (provincial) level...
November 26, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Barbara Heude, Morgane Le Guern, Anne Forhan, Pauline Scherdel, Manik Kadawathagedara, Marie-Noëlle Dufourg, Corinne Bois, Marie Cheminat, François Goffinet, Jérémie Botton, Marie-Aline Charles, Jennifer Zeitlin
BACKGROUND: The Intergrowth-21st (IG) project proposed prescriptive fetal growth standards for global use based on ultrasound measurements from a multicounty study of low-risk pregnancies selected using strict criteria. We examined whether the IG standards are appropriate for fetal growth monitoring in France and whether potential differences could be due to IG criteria for "healthy" pregnancies. METHOD: We analysed data on femur length and abdominal circumference at the second and/or the third recommended ultrasound examination from 14 607 singleton pregnancies from the Elfe national birth cohort...
November 28, 2018: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Trinity Joshi, Chen Chen, Huifang Li, Christian S Diercks, Gaoqiang Wang, Peter J Waller, Hong Li, Jean-Luc Bredas, Omar M Yaghi, Michael F Crommie
The synthesis of a single-layer covalent organic framework (COF) with spatially modulated internal potentials provides new opportunities for manipulating the electronic structure of molecularly defined materials. Here, the fabrication and electronic characterization of COF-420: a single-layer porphyrin-based square-lattice COF containing a periodic array of oriented, type II electronic heterojunctions is reported. In contrast to previous donor-acceptor COFs, COF-420 is constructed from building blocks that yield identical cores upon reticulation, but that are bridged by electrically asymmetric linkers supporting oriented electronic dipoles...
November 28, 2018: Advanced Materials
Abhishek Banerjee, Ananthesh Sundaresh, Rajamanickam Ganesan, P S Anil Kumar
The combination of superconductivity and spin-momentum locking at the interface between an s-wave superconductor and a three-dimensional topological insulator (3D-TI) is predicted to generate exotic p-wave topological superconducting phases that can host Majorana fermions. However, large bulk conductivities of previously investigated 3D-TI samples and Fermi level mismatches between 3D bulk superconductors and 2D topological surface states have thwarted significant progress. Here we employ bulk insulating topological insulators in proximity with two-dimensional superconductor NbSe2 assembled via Van der Waals epitaxy...
November 26, 2018: ACS Nano
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