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Yield gap

Ana Conde-Rubio, Arantxa Fraile Rodríguez, Xavier Borrisé, Francesc Perez-Murano, Xavier Batlle, Amílcar Labarta
We introduce the concept of geometric frustration in plasmonic arrays of nanoelements. In particular, we present the case of a hexagonal lattice of Au nanoasterisks arranged so that the gaps between neighboring elements are small and lead to a strong near-field dipolar coupling. Besides, far-field interactions yield higher-order collective modes around the visible region that follow the translational symmetry of the lattice. However, dipolar excitations of the gaps in the hexagonal array are geometrically frustrated for interactions beyond nearest neighbors, yielding the destabilization of the low energy modes in the near infrared...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Vakhtang Jandieri, Ramaz Khomeriki, Daniel Erni
In this manuscript we propose an easily scalable true all-optical AND logic gate for pulsed signal operation based on band-gap transmission within nonlinear realistic air-hole type coupled photonic crystal waveguides (C-PCW). We call it "true" all-optical AND logic gate, because all AND gate topologies operate with temporal solitons that maintain a stable pulse envelope during the optical signal processing along the different C-PCW modules yielding ultrafast full-optical digital signal processing...
August 6, 2018: Optics Express
Amanda D Boyd, Chris M Furgal
Indigenous populations are recognized as a group who are potentially vulnerable to environmental health hazards due to their intimate relationship with and reliance on local environments for aspects of culture, health, and well-being. In many circumstances barriers to effective communication and health risk management are linked to cultural, economic, and geographic factors. A systematic literature review was conducted to consolidate peer-reviewed research on the communication of environmental health risks with Indigenous populations...
August 17, 2018: Health Communication
Guowei Lu, Jianning Xu, Te Wen, Weidong Zhang, Jingyi Zhao, Aiqin Hu, Grégory Barbillon, Qihuang Gong
A hybrid metal-dielectric nano-aperture antenna is proposed for surface-enhanced fluorescence applications. The nano-apertures that formed in the composite thin film consist of silicon and gold layers. These were numerically investigated in detail. The hybrid nano-aperture shows a more uniform field distribution within the apertures and a higher antenna quantum yield than pure gold nano-apertures. The spectral features of the hybrid nano-apertures are independent of the aperture size. This shows a high enhancement effect in the near-infrared region...
August 14, 2018: Materials
Katelyn M Cooper, Taija Hendrix, Michelle D Stephens, Jacqueline M Cala, Kali Mahrer, Anna Krieg, Ashley C M Agloro, Giovani V Badini, M Elizabeth Barnes, Bradley Eledge, Roxann Jones, Edmond C Lemon, Nicholas C Massimo, Annette Martin, Thomas Ruberto, Kailey Simonson, Emily A Webb, Joseph Weaver, Yi Zheng, Sara E Brownell
For over 50 years instructor humor has been recognized as a way to positively impact student cognitive and affective learning. However, no study has explored humor exclusively in the context of college science courses, which have the reputation of being difficult and boring. The majority of studies that explore humor have assumed that students perceive instructor humor to be funny, yet students likely perceive some instructor humor as unfunny or offensive. Further, evidence suggests that women perceive certain subjects to be more offensive than men, yet we do not know what impact this may have on the experience of women in the classroom...
2018: PloS One
Jana Braesel, Camila M Crnkovic, Kevin J Kunstman, Stefan J Green, Mark Maienschein-Cline, Jimmy Orjala, Brian T Murphy, Alessandra S Eustáquio
Actinomycete bacteria isolated from freshwater environments are an unexplored source of natural products. Here we report the complete genome of the Great Lakes-derived Micromonospora sp. strain B006, revealing its potential for natural product biosynthesis. The 7-megabase pair chromosome of strain B006 was sequenced using Illumina and Oxford Nanopore technologies followed by Sanger sequencing to close remaining gaps. All identified biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were manually curated. Five known BGCs were identified encoding desferrioxamine, alkyl- O-dihydrogeranylmethoxyhydroquinone, a spore pigment, sioxanthin, and diazepinomicin, which is currently in phase II clinical trials to treat Phelan-McDermid syndrome and co-morbid epilepsy...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
S Alexandra Burt, Kathryn S Plaisance, David Z Hambrick
Behavioral genetic (BG) research has yielded many important discoveries about the origins of human behavior, but offers little insight into how we might improve outcomes. We posit that this gap in our knowledge base stems in part from the epidemiologic nature of BG research questions. Namely, BG studies focus on understanding etiology as it currently exists, rather than etiology in environments that could exist but do not as of yet (e.g., etiology following an intervention). Put another way, they focus exclusively on the etiology of "what is" rather than "what could be"...
August 13, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Anna Skoracka, Brian G Rector, Gary L Hein
Wheat production and sustainability are steadily threatened by pests and pathogens in both wealthy and developing countries. This review is focused on the wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella , and its relationship with wheat. WCM is a major pest of wheat and other cereals and a vector of at least four damaging plant viruses ( Wheat streak mosaic virus , High plains wheat mosaic virus , Brome streak mosaic virus , and Triticum mosaic virus ). The WCM-virus pathosystem causes considerable yield losses worldwide and its severity increases significantly when mixed-virus infections occur...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sabine E Grimm, John W Stevens, Simon Dixon
OBJECTIVES: Estimates of future health technology diffusion, or future uptake over time, are a requirement for different analyses performed within health technology assessments. Methods for obtaining such estimates include constant uptake estimates based on expert opinion or analogous technologies and on extrapolation from initial data points using parametric curves-but remain divorced from established diffusion theory and modeling. We propose an approach to obtaining diffusion estimates using experts' beliefs calibrated to an established diffusion model to address this methodologic gap...
August 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Raghad Dhyea Abdul Jalill
Different chemo-physical methods are used to synthesise titanium oxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), which are often expensive, unfriendly to the environment, toxic, not biocompatible, with a small yield. To resolve these problems, the researchers use green procedures to synthesise TiO2 -NPs by plant extracts of Capsicum annum L. and Allium cepa (onion) and characterise using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet (UV)-visible (Vis) spectra and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Lensa Idossa, Lih-Wen Mau, Stacy Stickney Ferguson, Ellen Denzen, Elizabeth Murphy, Heather Moore
Blood or marrow transplant (BMT) is a potentially curative treatment for numerous cancers and non-malignant disorders. BMT is a resource-intense treatment process, requiring patients to comprehend difficult health information and navigate a complex healthcare system. Linguistic and cultural barriers create additional challenges for patients with limited English proficiency (LEP) who may need translated information and interpretive services to make an informed decision about treatment. To identify information needs and gaps in language services for BMT patients with LEP, the National Marrow Donor Program® (NMDP)/Be The Match® administered a cross-sectional, web-based survey to 139 transplant centers (TCs) across the United States (U...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Mäkinen Hanna, Kaseva Janne, Virkajärvi Perttu, Kahiluoto Helena
The within-species diversity in response to weather and the gaps in the response diversity in the modern set of forage crop cultivars were determined using an approach that assessed the adaptive capacity under global climate change. The annual dry matter (DM) yields were recorded in multi-location MTT (Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus) Agrifood Research Official Variety Trials in Finland for modern forage crop cultivars from 2000 to 2012, as a response to agroclimatic variables critical to yield based on the year-round weather data...
2018: Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change
Arega D Alene, Tahirou Abdoulaye, Joseph Rusike, Ricardo Labarta, Bernardo Creamer, Martha Del Río, Hernan Ceballos, Luis Augusto Becerra
It is widely recognized that increasing agricultural production to the levels needed to feed an expanding world population requires sharply increased public investment in research and development and widespread adoption of new technologies, but funding for national and international agricultural research has rather declined in recent years. In this situation, priority setting has become increasingly important for allocating scarce research resources among competing needs to achieve greater impacts. Using partial equilibrium economic surplus models and poverty impact simulations, this paper assesses cassava research priorities in Africa, Latin America and Caribbean, and Asia based on the potential economic and poverty reduction impacts of alternative research and technology options...
2018: PloS One
Balázs Szalkai, Bálint Varga, Vince Grolmusz
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) opened new horizons in genomics and medicine by discovering novel genetic factors in numerous health conditions. The analogous analysis of the correlations of large quantities of psychological and brain imaging measures may yield similarly striking results in the brain science. Smith et al. (Nat Neurosci. 18(11): 1565-1567, 2015) presented a study of the associations between MRI-detected resting-state functional connectomes and behavioral data, based on the Human Connectome Project's (HCP) data release...
August 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Stuart L Silverman, E Siris, D Belazi, C Recknor, A Papaioannou, J P Brown, D T Gold, E M Lewiecki, G Quinn, A Balasubramanian, S Yue, B Stolshek, D L Kendler
Persistence with prescribed medications for chronic diseases is important; however, persistence with osteoporosis treatments is historically poor. In this prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women treated for osteoporosis in real-world clinical practice settings in the USA and Canada, 24-month persistence with denosumab was 58%. PURPOSE: Patients who persist with their prescribed osteoporosis treatment have increased bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fracture. Twelve-month persistence with denosumab in routine clinical practice is as high as 95%, but there are limited data on longer-term persistence with denosumab in this setting...
August 7, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Tessa Baker, Susan Kutz, Lorraine Toews, Nicola Edwards, Melanie Rock
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) both recognize the importance of veterinary services in controlling zoonotic diseases, in preventing human injury, and in protecting the welfare of non-human animals. Furthermore, both organizations recommend regular evaluations of veterinary programs. Accordingly, we conducted a scoping review to collate the available peer-reviewed evaluations of subsidized small animal veterinary services in terms of the effects on animal and public health...
September 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Ervand Kandelaki, Mark S Rudner
We study transient dynamics in a two-dimensional system of interacting Dirac fermions subject to a quenched drive with circularly polarized light. In the absence of interactions, the drive opens a gap at the Dirac point in the quasienergy spectrum, inducing nontrivial band topology. We investigate the dynamics of this gap opening process, taking into account the essential role of electron-electron interactions. Crucially, scattering due to interactions (1) induces dephasing, which erases memory of the system's prequench state and yields the intrinsic timescale for gap emergence, and (2) provides a mechanism for the system to absorb energy of the drive, leading to heating which must be mitigated to ensure the success of Floquet band engineering...
July 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Chenghui Xia, Weiwei Wu, Ting Yu, Xiaobin Xie, Christina van Oversteeg, Hans C Gerritsen, Celso de Mello Donega
The knowledge of the quantum dot (QD) concentration in a colloidal suspension and the quantitative understanding of the size-dependence of the band gap of QDs are of crucial importance from both applied and fundamental viewpoints. In this work, we investigate the size-dependence of the optical properties of nearly spherical wurtzite (wz) CuInS2 (CIS) QDs in the 2.7 to 6.1 nm diameter range (polydispersity ≤10%). The QDs are synthesized by partial Cu+ for In3+ cation exchange in template Cu2-xS NCs, which yields CIS QDs with very small composition variations (In/Cu= 0...
August 7, 2018: ACS Nano
Minsu Park, Hyewon Yoon, Jaeho Lee, Jungmo Kim, Jinho Lee, Seong-Eui Lee, Seunghyup Yoo, Seokwoo Jeon
Emerging graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have received much attention for use as next-generation light-emitting diodes. However, in the solid-state, π-interaction-induced aggregation-caused photoluminescence (PL) quenching (ACQ) in GQDs makes it challenging to realize high-performance devices. Herein, GQDs incorporated with boron oxynitride (GQD@BNO) are prepared from a mixture of GQDs, boric acid, and urea in water via one-step microwave heating. Due to the effective dispersion in the BNO matrix, ACQ is significantly suppressed, resulting in high PL quantum yields (PL-QYs) of up to 36...
August 7, 2018: Advanced Materials
Caterina M Miraglia
Ebolaviruses have gained much attention recently due to the outbreak from 2014 through 2016. The related marburgviruses also have been responsible for large outbreaks with high case fatality rates. The purpose of this article is to provide the clinical laboratory scientist with a review of the most current developments in marburgvirus research. The PubMed database was reviewed using the keywords "Marburg virus," "Ravn virus," and "marburgviruses," with publication dates from January 1, 2015 through June 20, 2017...
August 6, 2018: Laboratory Medicine
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