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Yield gap

Jason Hugh Thompson, Jasper S Wijnands, Suzanne Mavoa, Katherine Scully, Mark R Stevenson
The safety in numbers (SiN) effect for cyclists is widely observed but remains poorly understood. Although most studies investigating the SiN phenomenon have focused on behavioural adaptation to 'numbers' of cyclists in the road network, previous work in simulated environments has suggested SiN may instead be driven by increases in local cyclist spatial density, which prevents drivers from attempting to move through groups of oncoming cyclists. This study therefore set out to validate the results of prior simulation studies in a real-world environment...
October 12, 2018: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
Samuel M Jenness, Kevin M Maloney, Dawn K Smith, Karen W Hoover, Steven M Goodreau, Eli S Rosenberg, Kevin M Weiss, Albert Y Liu, Darcy W Rao, Patrick S Sullivan
The potential for HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to reduce the racial disparities in HIV incidence in the United States may be limited by racial gaps in PrEP care. We used a network-based mathematical model of HIV transmission for younger black and white men who have sex with men (B/WMSM) in the Atlanta area to evaluate how race-stratified transitions through the PrEP care continuum from initiation to adherence and retention could impact HIV incidence overall and disparities in incidence between races, using current empirical estimates of BMSM continuum parameters...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Rachel Shor, Jenna M Calton, Lauren B Cattaneo
Poverty is a widespread social problem that affects a substantial number of Americans each year. Attitudes can affect a range of judgments, behavioral intentions, and actions related to addressing this problem. However, existing tools that measure attitudes toward those in poverty do not fully capture the deficit ideology that is a critical component of beliefs about social class. We developed the Systems and Individual Responsibility for Poverty (SIRP) Scale to address this gap. This article describes the development of an initial pool of 20 items, and then the refinement and validation of the final 17-item measure...
November 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
Min-Quan Yang, Lei Shen, Yuyao Lu, See Wee Chee, Xin Lu, Xiao Chi, Zhihui Chen, Qing-Hua Xu, Utkur Mirsaidov, Ghim Wei Ho
A persistent challenge in classical photocatalyst systems with extended light absorption is the unavoidable trade-off between maximizing light harvesting and sustaining high photoredox capability. Alternatively, collegial energy conversion through photothermic activation and photocatalytic redox, is a promising yet unmet scientific proposition that critically demands a spectrum-tailored catalyst system. Here, we construct a solar thermal-promoted photocatalyst, an ultrathin "biphasic" ordered-disordered D-HNb3O8 junction...
October 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Suzanne J Wood
Using any number of open system strategic frameworks, the planning process follows a fairly consistent trajectory: formulation, implementation, and evaluation. Most agree that the formulation and evaluation phases are the most straightforward, yet successful implementation remains elusive. If done thoughtfully, taking advantage of a complementary framework suitable for aligning facility-level initiatives with system priorities presents a feasible opportunity for health systems interested in cascading enterprise-wide strategy successfully...
October 11, 2018: Health Services Management Research
Chris de Weerd, Leyre Gomez, Antonio Capretti, Delphine M Lebrun, Eiichi Matsubara, Junhao Lin, Masaaki Ashida, Frank C M Spoor, Laurens D A Siebbeles, Arjan J Houtepen, Kazutomo Suenaga, Yasufumi Fujiwara, Tom Gregorkiewicz
The all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals are currently in the research spotlight owing to their physical stability and superior optical properties-these features make them interesting for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications. Here, we report on the observation of highly efficient carrier multiplication in colloidal CsPbI3 nanocrystals prepared by a hot-injection method. The carrier multiplication process counteracts thermalization of hot carriers and as such provides the potential to increase the conversion efficiency of solar cells...
October 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Davide Barreca, Filippo Gri, Alberto Gasparotto, Giorgio Carraro, Lorenzo Bigiani, Thomas Altantzis, Boštjan Žener, Urška Lavrenčič Štangar, Bruno Alessi, Dilli Babu Padmanaban, Davide Mariotti, Chiara Maccato
Supported MnO2-based nanomaterials were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates using plasma enhanced-chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) between 100 °C and 400 °C, starting from a fluorinated Mn(ii) diamine diketonate precursor. Growth experiments yielded β-MnO2 with a hierarchical morphology tuneable from dendritic structures to quasi-1D nanosystems as a function of growth temperature, whose variation also enabled a concomitant tailoring of the system fluorine content, and of the optical absorption and band gap...
October 10, 2018: Nanoscale
Xinxin Ban, Feng Chen, Yaqing Zhao, Aiyun Zhu, Zhiwei Tong, Wei Jiang, Yueming Sun
Fabrication of highly efficient all thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) through solution-process still remains a big challenge. Here, two encapsulated TADF molecules with small singlet-triplet energy gap (∆EST) and high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) were designed and synthesized as yellow emitters for solution-processed WOLEDs. The high current, power and external quantum efficiencies of 41.6 cd A-1, 30.4 lm W-1 and 17.3% were achieved for the solution-processed all-fluorescence WOLEDs with single emission layer...
October 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peter V Simpson, Marco Falasca, Massimiliano Massi
Re(i) complexes bound to π-conjugated bidentate N-heterocyclic carbene ligands with formulation Re(CO)3(N^NHC)L (where N^NHC represents an imidazole or benzimidazole carbene ligand conjugated to a N-based heterocycle such as pyridine, pyrimidine, quinoline or quinoxaline) are a relatively new class of complexes belonging to the archetypal family of well known luminescent Re(CO)3(diim)X species (where diim is a conjugated diimine ligand and X is a halogen anion). The complexes Re(CO)3(N^NHC)L are characterised by blue-shifted emission compared to Re(CO)3(diim)X, but with shorter excited state lifetime decays and lower quantum yields, in contrast to trends expected by the energy gap law...
October 10, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Adrienne Lapidos, Jennie Jester, Monica Ortquist, Pamela Werner, Mary C Ruffolo, Matthew Smith
As the certified peer support specialist (CPSS) workforce matures, their roles evolve, leading to gaps in knowledge about their activities. This study aimed to address these gaps through a survey on CPSS activities, self-rated skills, job satisfaction, and financial well-being. The project team recruited a community advisory board of CPSSs to lead survey development. A survey link was e-mailed to all known CPSSs in the state of Michigan (N=1,128), yielding 394 respondents (35% response rate), of whom 319 were included in the analysis...
October 10, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Anthony J Treichel, Jacob H Hines
During vertebrate neural development, oligodendrocytes insulate nerve axons with myelin sheaths. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a useful model organism for studying oligodendrocyte development. However, the absence of an in vitro culture system necessitates in vivo manipulations and analyses, which, in some instances, limits the questions that can be addressed. To fill this gap we developed a mixed coculture system for embryonic zebrafish neurons and oligodendrocyte-lineage cells. Cultures harvested from embryos ≥30 hours postfertilization (hpf) yielded oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) positive for olig2 and sox10 transgenic reporters...
October 9, 2018: Zebrafish
Tadanao Funakoshi, Robert Hartzler, Eduardo Stewien, Stephen Burkhart
PURPOSE: To evaluate the biomechanical fixation strength and gap formation of 2 different remplissage fixation methods (double pulley knotted construct and interconnected knotless repair construct) in cadaver specimens. METHODS: Seven matched pairs of human cadaveric shoulders were used for testing (mean age, 56 ± 10 years). A shoulder from each matched pair was randomly selected to receive a Hill-Sachs remplissage using either a knotted (No. 2 FiberWire double pulley with 3...
October 3, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Chad M Glen, Todd C McDevitt, Melissa L Kemp
The initiation of heterogeneity within a population of phenotypically identical progenitors is a critical event for the onset of morphogenesis and differentiation patterning. Gap junction communication within multicellular systems produces complex networks of intercellular connectivity that result in heterogeneous distributions of intracellular signaling molecules. In this study, we investigate emergent systems-level behavior of the intercellular network within embryonic stem cell (ESC) populations and corresponding spatial organization during early neural differentiation...
October 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Kenan P Fears, Manoj K Kolel-Veetil, Daniel E Barlow, Noam Bernstein, Christopher R So, Kathryn J Wahl, Xianfeng Li, John L Kulp, Robert A Latour, Thomas D Clark
Organisms have evolved biomaterials with an extraordinary convergence of high mechanical strength, toughness, and elasticity. In contrast, synthetic materials excel in stiffness or extensibility, and a combination of the two is necessary to exceed the performance of natural biomaterials. We bridge this materials property gap through the side-chain-to-side-chain polymerization of cyclic β-peptide rings. Due to their strong dipole moments, the rings self-assemble into rigid nanorods, stabilized by hydrogen bonds...
October 5, 2018: Nature Communications
Susumu Yoneda, Hirotaka Okubo, Stephen W Linderman, Nozomu Kusano, Matthew J Silva, Stavros Thomopoulos, Fuminori Kanaya, Richard H Gelberman
The failure rate of intrasynovial tendon repair is high due to substantial elongation at the repair site and to the development of adhesions between the tendon's surface and the surrounding digital sheath. To minimize these complications, we sought to reduce the incidence of gapping and to facilitate the initiation of early motion by improving the time zero structural properties of repair. The Winters-Gelberman 8-strand repair technique was modified by adding surface lock loops and by using Fiberwire suture material...
2018: PloS One
Tim Vogler, Peter Vöhringer
The electronic band gap, i.e. the energy difference between the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band, is widely recognized as the key property characterizing the electronic structure of bulk liquids and liquid solvents like water or ammonia. Here, the band gap of liquid ammonia at 270 K and 300 bar was studied with 2-photon ionization spectroscopy using the solvated electron primary yield as a near-infrared action-spectroscopic probe. The experimentally determined escape probability, which is the fraction of solvated electrons that is able to avoid geminate recombination within the first nanosecond after ionization, was used to extract a value of -(1...
October 5, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Karen M Goldstein, Leah L Zullig, Eric A Dedert, Amir Alishahi Tabriz, Timothy W Brearly, Giselle Raitz, Suchita Shah Sata, John D Whited, Hayden B Bosworth, Adelaide M Gordon, Avishek Nagi, John W Williams, Jennifer M Gierisch
BACKGROUND: Telehealth employs technology to connect patients to the right healthcare resources at the right time. Women are high utilizers of healthcare with gender-specific health issues that may benefit from the convenience and personalization of telehealth. Thus, we produced an evidence map describing the quantity, distribution, and characteristics of evidence assessing the effectiveness of telehealth services designed for women. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE® (via PubMed® ) and Embase® from inception through March 20, 2018...
October 3, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Huifang Zheng, Qianqian Bian, Yulong Yin, Hao Ying, Qinghua Yang, Zhenling Cui
To achieve food and water security, it is as important to close the water productivity (WP) gap (which was defined as the difference between the maximum attainable WP and the currently achieved WP at the field scale) as it is to close yield gaps. However, few studies have provided quantitative estimates of existing WP gaps and constraining factors for global maize production. Using a meta-analysis of 473 published studies covering 31 countries and 5,553 observations (932 site-years), we found the global average WP value for irrigated maize was 18...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Frank R Wagner, Raul Cardoso-Gil, Benoît Boucher, Maik Wagner-Reetz, Jörg Sichelschmidt, Peter Gille, Michael Baenitz, Yuri Grin
The intermetallic phase FeGa3 belongs to the rare examples of substances with transition metals where semiconducting behavior is found. The necessary electron count of 17 ve/fu can be formally derived from eight Fe-Ga and one Fe-Fe two-center-two-electron bond. The situation is reminiscent of the well-known Fe2 (CO)9 scenario, where a direct Fe-Fe two-center-two-electron bond was shown to not be present. Fe-Fe interaction in FeGa3 and its substitution variants represents the crucial point for explanation of electronic, thermal transport, and optical properties of this material...
October 3, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Zongyou Yin, Moshe Tordjman, Youngtack Lee, Alon Vardi, Rafi Kalish, Jesús A Del Alamo
High electron affinity transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have gained a central role in two-dimensional (2D) electronics by enabling unprecedented surface charge doping efficiency in numerous exotic 2D solid-state semiconductors. Among them, diamond-based 2D electronics are entering a new era by using TMOs as surface acceptors instead of previous molecular-like unstable acceptors. Similarly, surface-doped diamond with TMOs has recently yielded record sheet hole concentrations (2 × 1014 cm-2 ) and launched the quest for its implementation in microelectronic devices...
September 2018: Science Advances
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