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Natural disaster

Hee Jung Yang, Gawon Kim, KangUk Lee, Jakyoung Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Soon Young Lee
BACKGROUND: In April 2014, a ferry carrying 476 passengers sunk on the coast of Korea, resulting in 304 deaths. Of these, 250 were local high school students, and the disaster significantly affected their community. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety among Ansan city residents to understand their recovery process after the accident. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys (survey 1, after 4-6 months and survey 2, after 16-18 months of disaster) were used to compare prevalence among residents of Ansan city and adjacent cities...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Colin Walch
Extant research has explored the effect of natural hazards on the risk of armed conflict, but very few studies have examined how conflict dynamics affect disaster risk reduction (DRR), including climate change adaptation. This is surprising given the empirical evidence that indicates how often disasters and armed conflicts collide. To understand better the impact of armed conflict on DRR, this paper develops a conceptual typology that is based on rebel groups' territorial control and on the strength of informal institutions...
August 16, 2018: Disasters
Katie Peters
Since climate change was included on the United Nations Security Council's agenda in 2007, there has been much debate about whether or not it has been securitised. This paper starts from the premise that climate change has undergone a partial securitisation-that is, a gradual process wherein political choices are made to frame certain issues in particular ways. Climate change has been reframed from a purely developmental and environmental concern to one that impels foreign policy and security domains. This paper makes a novel contribution to disasters, climate change, and security studies by arguing that explicit and implicit links to natural hazard-related disasters have been employed as part of a gradual process of securitisation, or, more specifically, the partial securitisation of climate change...
August 16, 2018: Disasters
Ayesha Siddiqi
Despite some 50 years of research, relatively little is known about how disasters in conflict areas are created and discursively framed, and how information on them is publicly consumed. The emphasis in disaster studies has remained on establishing causal linkages, demonstrating the way in which natural hazard-related disasters result in deepening conflict, or ushering in peace. Furthermore, it has been accepted that disaster risk reduction is the state's responsibility. The strengths and limitations of these approaches are examined prior to a political reimagining of disasters in conflict areas...
August 16, 2018: Disasters
Wing Sum Li, Sze Ying Chan, Wai Wang Chau, Sheung-Wai Law, Kai Ming Chan
BACKGROUND: The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake resulted in many amputees, yet due to the rare incidence, few studies have explored the rehabilitation outcomes and quality of life of bilateral lower limb amputees after major natural disasters. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate rehabilitation outcomes of 17 young and adult bilateral lower limb amputees under the StandTall rehabilitation programme and to identify factors associated with successful functional recovery of bilateral amputees after large-scale disasters...
August 16, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Huong Thu Nguyen
The precarious situation faced by women and girls in the wake of climate-related disasters is illustrated through fieldwork conducted in Eastern Visayas in the Philippines, one of the regions most affected by Super Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. However, this article illustrates that these heightened levels of gendered violence faced by women and girls are not a result of the disaster alone; rather, they are rooted in the inequalities inherent in the social construction of gender prior to the catastrophe, which then become sharpened as efforts to survive become more urgent...
August 16, 2018: Violence Against Women
Sehr Vanya Lalljee, C Soundararajan, Yogendra Deep Singh, Neil D Sargison
Small ruminant production has the potential to address the global challenge of greatly increased food production in impoverished rural areas in a manner that is socioeconomically sustainable and carbon efficient. Twenty-six small ruminant landless farmers in three villages in the Kanchipuram District of the state of Tamil Nadu were surveyed with regard to their sheep farming practice and production indices, with the preliminary aim of evaluating the potential of small ruminant farming in alleviating poverty in parts of rural in southern India...
August 15, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Andrea L Wirtz, Nancy A Perrin, Amelie Desgroppes, Verena Phipps, Ali A Abdi, Brendan Ross, Francesco Kaburu, Isatu Kajue, Ezekiel Kutto, Eri Taniguchi, Nancy Glass
Background: Humanitarian emergencies increase the risk of gender-based violence (GBV). We estimated the prevalence of GBV victimisation and perpetration among women and men in urban settings across Somalia, which has faced decades of war and natural disasters that have resulted in massive population displacements. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted in 14 urban areas across Somalia between December 2014 and November 2015. Results: A total of 2376 women and 2257 men participated in the survey...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Philip Brown, Adam Daigneault, Emilia Tjernström, Wenbo Zou
Natural disasters give rise to loss and damage and may affect subjective expectations about the prevalence and severity of future disasters. These expectations might then in turn shape individuals' investment behaviors, potentially affecting their incomes in subsequent years. As part of an emerging literature on endogenous preferences, economists have begun studying the consequences that exposure to natural disasters have on risk attitudes, perceptions, and behavior. We add to this field by studying the impact of being struck by the December 2012 Cyclone Evan on Fijian households' risk attitudes and subjective expectations about the likelihood and severity of natural disasters over the next 20 years...
April 2018: World Development
Ben Wisner, Douglas Paton, Eva Alisic, Oliver Eastwood, Cheney Shreve, Maureen Fordham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify strategies for communicating with youth and children pre- and post-disaster in the context of a broader survey of child participation in disaster risk reduction as well as methods for communication with children. RECENT FINDINGS: Youth and children are capable of peer and community education and activism concerning disaster issues and such participation benefits the young actors. Family and sibling support are important in easing the impact of trauma on children...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Gaëtan Merlhiot, Martial Mermillod, Jean-Luc Le Pennec, Laurie Mondillon
Given the growing demand for studies dealing with natural disasters, the research fields of emotion and social cognition require validated picture stimuli of natural hazards. Such material is essential for studying perceptual processes and behaviors of exposed individuals, and it could find practical applications, such as the improvement of communication strategies during crises. We present the Natural Disasters Picture System (NDPS), a database of pictures of natural hazards, with an emphasis on volcanic threats, and their impact on the environment and humans...
2018: PloS One
Diana Hernández, David Chang, Carole Hutchinson, Evanah Hill, Amenda Almonte, Rachel Burns, Peggy Shepard, Ingrid Gonzalez, Nora Reissig, David Evans
Hurricane Sandy was the greatest natural disaster to ever impact public housing residents in New York City. It affected approximately 80,000 residents in 400 buildings in 33 developments throughout the city. The storm left residents without power, heat, or running water, yet many chose not to evacuate. This qualitative study was conducted to understand the impact of Sandy among this socially, physically, and geographically vulnerable population. It is the first known study to examine the impact of disasters in high-rise, high-density public housing as a unique risk environment...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Fulei Geng, Yingxin Liang, Xuliang Shi, Fang Fan
Natural disaster exposure is associated with increased risk of mental health problems. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, course, and risk factors of probable psychiatric disorders among 1,573 adolescents following the May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in China. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD), social phobia (SP), conduct disorder (CD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were assessed at 6 and 18 months postearthquake using a battery of standardized measures...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
John A Quinn, Marguerite M Nyhan, Celia Navarro, Davide Coluccia, Lars Bromley, Miguel Luengo-Oroz
The coordination of humanitarian relief, e.g. in a natural disaster or a conflict situation, is often complicated by a scarcity of data to inform planning. Remote sensing imagery, from satellites or drones, can give important insights into conditions on the ground, including in areas which are difficult to access. Applications include situation awareness after natural disasters, structural damage assessment in conflict, monitoring human rights violations or population estimation in settlements. We review machine learning approaches for automating these problems, and discuss their potential and limitations...
September 13, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Yuhe Shi, Zhenggang He
Public health emergencies, such as casualties and epidemic spread caused by natural disasters, have become important factors that seriously affect social development. Special medical supplies, such as blood and vaccines, are important public health medical resources, and the cold-chain distribution of medical supplies is in a highly unstable environment after a natural disaster that is easily affected by disturbance events. This paper innovatively studies the distribution optimization of medical supplies after natural disasters from the perspective of disturbance management...
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jessica Field
'Divided disasters' are conflicts and natural hazard-induced disasters that occur simultaneously, but in different locations within the same national boundaries. They will place pressure on the same national governance structures, will draw on the same international and national humanitarian resources, and therefore can mutually reinforce the challenges and risks faced by affected populations. Yet, as this paper argues, the impacts do not originate in the direct interaction of these two variables. Rather, they derive, in part, from the management of humanitarian responses to them-namely, through the reprioritisation of attention and the redeployment of resources as driven by the imperatives of 'the good project'...
August 6, 2018: Disasters
Adam Branch
This paper proposes a shift from the concept of disaster to one of devastation when dealing with the destructive consequences of climate change. It argues that today, a discourse of climate-change disaster has become dominant, in which present disasters are seen as harbingers of a future of widespread climate disaster, products of a global nature in upheaval. The paper contends that one needs to go beyond the series of dichotomies that the climate-change disaster discourse relies upon: future/past, global/local, natural/social...
August 6, 2018: Disasters
Peyman Amini, Hanifeh Mirtavoos-Mahyari, Elahe Motevaseli, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Mohsen Cheki, Bagher Farhood, Rasoul Yahyapour, Alireza Shirazi, Nouraddin Abdi Goushbolagh, Masoud Najafi
BACKGROUND: Melatonin is a natural body product that has shown potent antioxidant property against various toxic agents. For more than two decades, the abilities of melatonin as a potent radioprotector against toxic effects of ionizing radiation (IR) has been proved. However, in recent years, several studies have been conducted to illustrate how melatonin protects normal cells against IR. Studies proposed that melatonin is able to directly neutralize free radicals produced by IR, leading to the production of some low toxic products...
August 2, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Chuangye Yang, Ruijuan Hao, Xiaodong Du, Yuewen Deng, Ruijiao Sun, Qingheng Wang
Natural disasters and environmental pollution are the main problems in traditional offshore cultivation. While culturing pearl oysters through industrial farming can avoid these problems, food availability in this case is limited. This study compares the metabolomics responses of pearl oysters, Pinctada fucata martensii , fed a formulated diet indoors with those of oysters cultured with natural diet outdoors by using a gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF/MS)-based metabolomics approach...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Il-Kyu Ha
Finding a target quickly is one of the most important tasks in drone operations. In particular, rapid target detection is a critical issue for tasks such as finding rescue victims during the golden period, environmental monitoring, locating military facilities, and monitoring natural disasters. Therefore, in this study, an improved hierarchical probabilistic target search algorithm based on the collaboration of drones at different altitudes is proposed. This is a method for reducing the search time and search distance by improving the information transfer methods between high-altitude and low-altitude drones...
August 2, 2018: Sensors
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