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Natural disaster

Hyun-Jin Han, Jong-Hun Kim, Soo-Eun Chung, Jae-Hyun Park, Hae-Kwan Cheong
Background: Despite its growing significance, studies on the burden of disease associated with natural disasters from the perspective of public health were few. This study aimed at estimating the national burden of disease associated with typhoons and torrential rains in Korea. Methods: During the period of 2002-2012, 11 typhoons and five torrential rains were selected. Mortality and morbidities were defined as accentual death, injury and injury-related infection, and mental health...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Miguel Antonio Salazar, Ronald Law, Volker Winkler
The Zamboanga armed conflict was a 19-day long encounter in the Philippines in 2013 that displaced 119,000 people from their homes. This study describes the health consequences of this complex emergency in different age groups, time periods, and health facilities using data from Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). This is a descriptive study of the SPEED database spanning 196 days of observation post-disaster and 1065 SPEED reports from 49 health facilities. Evacuation centers and village health centers, both primary care facilities, had the highest number of consults...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andreas Älgå, Thi Anh Thu Dang, Dell D Saulnier, Gia Thanh Nguyen, Johan von Schreeb
Background : Floods affect over 85 million people every year and are one of the deadliest types of natural disasters. The health effects of floods are partly due to a loss of access to health care. This loss can be limited with proper flood preparedness. Flood preparedness is especially needed at the primary health care (PHC) level. Flood preparedness assessments can be used to identify vulnerable facilities and help target efforts. The existing research on PHC flood preparedness is limited. We aimed to assess the flood preparedness of PHC facilities in a flood-prone province in central Vietnam...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marjan Meekma-van der Horst
In 1953, the South-Western parts of The Netherlands (particularly the province of Zeeland) were flooded. At the time, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) did not yet exist as a formal diagnosis. Research following more recent natural disasters has identified risk factors for the development of PTSD. These risk factors are applied as guidance for research into the circumstances around the 1953 floods. Risk factors such as lower socioeconomic status, pre-existence of psychiatric symptoms and limited support from the government were certainly present...
November 27, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Saifullahi Sani Ibrahim, Huseyin Ozdeser, Behiye Cavusoglu
New multidimensional indicators of vulnerability to disaster from external shocks were constructed using survey data covering 1750 respondents from rural Nigeria. Simple ordinary least squares and decomposition analysis were then used to examine the effect of recurrent shocks on livelihood diversification. The results elicited several findings. Although findings from the constructed vulnerability indices revealed overall high risks of disasters, females were disproportionally more vulnerable to cattle rustling...
November 29, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David Manheim
The central argument in this article is that the probability of very large natural pandemics is more uncertain than either previous analyses or the historical record suggest. In public health and health security analyses, global catastrophic biological risks (GCBRs) have the potential to cause "sudden, extraordinary, widespread disaster," with "tens to hundreds of millions of fatalities." Recent analyses focusing on extreme events presume that the most extreme natural events are less likely than artificial sources of GCBRs and should receive proportionately less attention...
November 29, 2018: Health Security
Nick Middleton, Peter Tozer, Brenton Tozer
Sand and dust storms (SDS) are wind erosion events typically associated with dryland regions, although they can occur in most environments and their impacts are frequently experienced outside drylands because desert dust haze often is transported great distances. SDS represent hazards to society in numerous ways, yet they do not feature prominently in the disasters literature. This paper considers SDS in a hazard context by examining their ramifications in economic, physical, and social terms, with a focus on agriculture, health, transport, utilities, households, and the commercial and manufacturing sector...
November 29, 2018: Disasters
Thomas Davies, Kumar Yogeeswaran, Maykel Verkuyten, Steve Loughnan
Dehumanization and infrahumanization involve decreasing the humanity attributed to others. Despite the existence of a large body of work on these topics, little is known about how to increase outgroup humanization. Across two experiments, we examined the effects of intergroup and intragroup helping on dehumanization and infrahumanization. In Study 1, we showed that news of an outgroup helping the ingroup after a natural disaster reduced infrahumanization, but not dehumanization. Reduced infrahumanization emerged regardless of the amount of aid given by the outgroup...
2018: PloS One
Imelu G Mordeno, Debi S Galela, Ma Jenina N Nalipay, Miriam P Cue
The experience of trauma could be considered a central event in one's life, such that it could be a core component of one's identity and life story. Indeed, trauma memories are well-remembered, vivid, intense, and easily accessible (Berntsen & Rubin, 2006). The present study investigated the mediating role of sensory-based trauma memory quality in the relationship between centrality of event and mental health outcomes among child and adolescent survivors of a natural disaster (N = 225) in its immediate aftermath...
November 27, 2018: Spanish Journal of Psychology
Manasvini Thiagarajan, Galen Newman, Shannon Van Zandt
Climate change and its related factors are increasing the frequency of hurricanes, coastal storms, and urban flooding. Recovery from disasters can be slow, with jurisdictions failing to build back better, wasting time and money without improving resilience to the next disaster. To help attenuate floods and mitigate their impacts, Low Impact Development (LID) and the incorporation of green infrastructure (GI) is gaining in popularity. LID installs more natural methods of absorbing, redirecting, retaining, and filtering water, through GI installations such as rain gardens, detention ponds, and the reduction of impervious surfaces...
October 2018: Sustainability
Kyle Melin, Carlos E Rodríguez-Díaz
One year ago, Hurricane Maria passed over the archipelago of Puerto Rico, leaving widespread disruption of nearly all human services, including the health care sector. In the aftermath of the hurricane, limited access to medical care and prescription medications presented a serious challenge to maintaining control of preexisting chronic diseases. Many patients did not have access to refrigeration for heat-sensitive medications. Significant dietary changes due to the limited availability of shelf-stable foods further exacerbated chronic conditions such as heart failure and diabetes...
January 2018: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
Jishnu Subedi, J Brian Houston, Kathleen Sherman-Morris
Disasters occur at the intersections of social, natural, and built environments, and robust understanding of these interactions can only occur through insight generated from different disciplines. Yet, there are cultural, epistemological, and methodological differences across the many disciplines concerned with hazards and disasters that can make conducting interdisciplinary research difficult. Approaches are needed to overcome these challenges. This article argues that interdisciplinary disaster research can be successful when it entails an iterative process in which researchers from different disciplines work collaboratively and exert reciprocal influence to generate disaster systems knowledge...
November 22, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Ahmed S Khan, Georgina Cundill
Integrated and transdisciplinary approaches are necessary in hotspots research where the intention is to influence policy and practice. Knowing that climate change will impact major ecosystem services and the sustainability of life support systems, a critical examination of the hotspot concept and approach is undertaken to pursue synergistic responses. Hotspots 2.0 embodies current thinking about planning towards multiple drivers of change and seeing human and natural systems as mutually inter-dependent and benefiting from integrated policy approaches...
November 20, 2018: Ambio
Mei He, Jing-Xiang Wei, Min Mao, Guo-Yan Zhao, Jun-Jie Tang, Shuang Feng, Xiu-Min Lu, Yong-Tang Wang
The studying of synaptic plasticity, the ability of synaptic connections between neurons to be weakened or strengthened and specifically long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), is one of the most active areas of research in neuroscience. The process of synaptic connections playing a crucial role in improving cognitive processes is important to the processing of information in brain. In general, the dysfunction of synaptic plasticity was involved in a wide spectrum of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including some neurodegenerative disorders...
November 19, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Adam C Alexander, Kenneth D Ward, David R Forde, Michelle Stockton
BACKGROUND: Smoking relapse is rarely examined in disaster research. Thus, this study investigated smoking relapse nine and eighteen months after Hurricane Katrina and identified pathways and conditions for this outcome. METHODS: The data came from a prospective study of adult ever smokers who were living in New Orleans at the time Hurricane Katrina struck (n = 1003), and a comparison sample of Memphis residents (n = 1001) who were not directly impacted by the hurricane...
November 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Manuel Tironi, Tania Manríquez
Deemed as technocratic and exclusionary, disaster management has failed in its promise of knowing, let alone controlling, catastrophic events. Consequently, disaster managers are searching outside of science for sense-making analytics. This paper analyses the emergent narratives articulated by disaster managers in Chile to cope with the uncertain nature of their object of intervention. It explores how knowledge of disasters is modified and enriched by disaster managers in what is termed here as 'lateral knowledge': the epistemic adjustment by which practitioners revalidate their expert status by expanding key assumptions about disaster risk reduction...
November 19, 2018: Disasters
Jorge Ramírez, Leonel Valdivia, Elena Rivera, Marilia da Silva Santos, Dino Sepúlveda, Ronald Labonté, Arne Ruckert
BACKGROUND: Global health diplomacy (GHD) has become an important field of investigation due to health concerns increasingly entering the foreign policy domain. Much of the existing academic writing focuses on North-South cooperation in global health, and emphasizes the role of security and economic interests by Northern countries as drivers of GHD. Chile presents a favourable environment for an expanded involvement in future GHD activities. However, there is little knowledge about what has been driving Chile's integration of health into foreign policy, and little effort to appropriate knowledge from international relations theories to better theoretically grasp the emergence of GHD...
November 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
Joseph Kimuli Balikuddembe, Paul Sinclair
INTRODUCTION: Uganda remains seismically vulnerable to earthquakes, which constitute one of the most deadly naturally triggered disasters in the world. This is not surprising given the country's location in the East African Rift Valley System. METHOD: This paper draws mainly on the authors' live event experience and some media reports to narratively outline the nature of a sizable earthquake, which measured a magnitude of 5.7 on the Richter scale that struck Uganda and other countries within the Lake Victoria Basin region on 10th September 2016 in the afternoon...
October 30, 2018: PLoS Currents
I Cinelli, L Brown
The International Space Medicine Summit II sought to identify mature data with significant clinical implications for Terrestrial populations. This work aims at identifying space medical technology which has been translated for use by private costumers, those in remote locations on Earth and areas affected by natural disasters. METHODS: Following PRISMA Guidelines, we sought to review the published literature and NASA technical resources (from 2012 to 2017). Search terms used included "Medical AND Technology AND Diagnosis AND Monitor"...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
S P Prizomwala, Drasti Gandhi, Nilesh Bhatt, Wilfried Winkler, M Ravi Kumar, Nisarg Makwana, Nishith Bhatt
The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami emphasized the catastrophic nature of such disasters and exposed our knowledge gap of the historical and palaeo events. In the aftermath of this deadly event, the thrust in palaeotsunami studies was restricted to areas in the Indian Ocean, affected by this tsunami. The northern Arabian Sea, which hosts a similar tsunamigenic source i.e. the Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ), has so far remained 'Terra-Incognita'. Here, for the first time, we report geological evidence of the 1008 AD tsunami, also mentioned as 'an enigma' in the historical reports, by identifying a >250 km long sand sheet with a landward extent of more than 250 m from the Indian coastline...
November 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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