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Natural disaster

Kirby Magid, Renée El-Gabalawy, Anbukarasi Maran, Eva R Serber
This study examined the association between post-traumatic growth (PTG), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and trauma-related factors in cardiac outpatients. Participants recruited from four cardiology clinics between November 2014 and July 2015 (N = 52, 69.2% men, Mage = 65 years) completed self-assessments of PTG and PTSD along with demographic, cardiac health index, and trauma-related factors. In total, 75% of the sample endorsed their cardiac event as traumatic, while 17.2% reported their cardiac event as their 'worst trauma'; those endorsing the latter did not significantly differ from those endorsing 'other traumas' as their worst...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings
Deepjyoti Deka, Sriram Vishwanath, Ross Baldick
Natural disasters like hurricanes, floods or earthquakes can damage power grid devices and create cascading blackouts and islands. The nature of failure propagation and extent of damage, among other factors, is dependent on the structural features of the grid, that are distinct from that of random networks. This paper analyzes the structural vulnerability of real power grids to impending disasters and presents intuitive graphical metrics to quantify the extent of topological damage. We develop two improved graph eigen-value based bounds on the grid vulnerability...
2018: PloS One
Thomas J Papadimos, Evadne G Marcolini, Mehrnaz Hadian, George E Hardart, Nicholas Ward, Mitchell M Levy, Stanislaw P Stawicki, Judy E Davidson
OBJECTIVES: Continue the dialogue presented in Ethics of Outbreaks Position Statement. Part 1, with a focus on strategies for provision of family-centered care in critical illness during Pubic Health Emergency of International Concern. DESIGN: Development of a Society of Critical Care Medicine position statement using literature review, expert consensus from the Society of Critical Care Medicine Ethics Committee. A family member of a patient who was critically ill during a natural disaster served on the writing panel and provided validation from a family perspective to the recommendations...
November 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Marc J Kahn, Benjamin P Sachs
By their very nature both man-made and natural disasters are unpredictable, and so we recommend that all health-care institutions be prepared. In this paper, the authors describe and make a number of recommendations, regarding the importance of crisis and turnaround management using as a model the New Orleans public health system and Tulane University Medical School post-Hurricane Katrina. Leadership skills, articulation of vision, nimble decision making, and teamwork are all crucial elements of a successful recovery from disaster...
October 4, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Ben Beaglehole, Roger T Mulder, Chris M Frampton, Joseph M Boden, Giles Newton-Howes, Caroline J Bell
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. They cause widespread hardship and are associated with detrimental effects on mental health.AimsOur aim is to provide the best estimate of the effects of natural disasters on mental health through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder after natural disasters. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis is limited to studies that met predetermined quality criteria...
October 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Maureen Wilson-Genderson, Allison R Heid, Rachel Pruchno
RATIONALE: Natural disasters have the potential to change the lives of older people, yet most studies rely on small convenience samples, few include assessments of people prior to the disaster, and only a handful examine the effects of different types of exposure. OBJECTIVE: Our analyses add new knowledge to the literature by examining the ways in which four types of exposure (i.e., geographic, peri-traumatic stress, personal and property loss, and post-storm hardship) affect depressive symptoms experienced by older people over a five-year period...
October 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Alexander Maki, Patrick C Dwyer, Susanne Blazek, Mark Snyder, Roberto González, Siugmin Lay
How does a major natural disaster relate to individuals' orientation towards society? We collected repeated cross-sectional surveys before (n = 644) and after the 2010 Chile earthquake (n = 1,389) to examine levels of national identity, prosocial values, helping motivations, and prosocial behaviours in the context of such a calamitous societal event. Our research questions, derived from the literature on helping in times of crisis, considered how natural disasters may implicate identity and prosociality, as well as how identity, prosocial values, and motivations are linked to prosocial action after a disaster...
October 8, 2018: British Journal of Social Psychology
Hiroyuki Hikichi, Jun Aida, Yusuke Matsuyama, Toru Tsuboya, Katsunori Kondo, Ichiro Kawachi
We examined prospectively whether community-level social capital can mitigate the adverse effects of natural disaster on cognitive decline in the aftermath of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The baseline for our natural experimental study was established seven months before the disaster in a survey of older community-dwelling adults who lived in Iwanuma City, Japan, located 80 km west of the epicenter. Two and a half years after the disaster, we conducted a follow-up survey of survivors to gather information about their personal experiences during the disaster (n = 3560; 82...
September 28, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Sanaz Moghim, Roja Kaveh Garna
Rapid population growth, urbanization, and industrialization affect countries' vulnerability to future disasters. This study investigates the vulnerability of 141 countries to natural and anthropogenic hazards using six environmental indicators including air pollution, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, access to drinking water, access to improved sanitation, environmental risks (total death and affected people), and energy use. Results confirm that the resilience varies by the location. Furthermore, this work delineates the World countries using the environmental resilience score...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Mengtian Zhao, Heather Rosoff, Richard S John
Previous research has evaluated public risk perception and response to a natural hazards in various settings; however, most of these studies were conducted either with a single scenario or after a natural disaster struck. To better understand the dynamic relationships among affect, risk perception, and behavioral intentions related to natural disasters, the current study implements a simulation scenario with escalating weather intensity, and includes a natural experiment allowing comparison of public response before and after a severe tornado event with extensive coverage by the national media...
October 5, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Banzragch Nandintsetseg, Masato Shinoda, Chunling Du, Erdenebadrakh Munkhjargal
Socio-ecological damage from climate-related disasters has increased worldwide, including a type of cold-season disaster (dzud) that is unique to the Eurasian steppes, notably Mongolia. During 2000-2014, dzuds killed approximately 30 million livestock and impacted the Mongolian socio-economy. The contributions of both natural and social processes to livestock mortality were not previously considered across Mongolia. Here, we consider the contribution of both multiple climate hazards (drought, cold temperatures and snow), and socioeconomic vulnerability (herders' livestock and coping-capacity) to mortality risk...
October 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
David Alexander Back, Vanessa Lembke, Felix Fellmer, Daniel Kaiser, Nils Kasselmann, Jens Bickelmayer, Christian Willy
Introduction: Modern health systems have to respond to a wide variety of catastrophic scenarios, from natural disasters to terror attacks. It is reasonable to already start educational approaches for physicians in this field at medical school level. An approach combining civilian disaster medicine and military deployment medicine can be beneficial both for clinical strategies and in undergraduate teaching. Materials and Methods: A curricular 4-week teaching module on "deployment and disaster medicine," interdisciplinarily combining over 12 medical specialties, was launched in the summer semester of 2016 at a civilian medical school...
October 3, 2018: Military Medicine
Rijen Shrestha, Jenash Acharya, Arbin Shakya, Jemish Acharya
The nature of air disasters includes factors that exacerbate challenges in the identification process. Of the 49 deceased in the US Bangla air crash in Kathmandu, Nepal, four were intact, 11 presented with burn injuries, another 11 presented with partial charring, and 23 were completely charred. Personal belongings were useful in the identification phases for all types of victims. Fingerprints were obtainable and useful in intact victims and victims with less severe burn injuries; medical and surgical information was useful in bodies with burn injuries; finally, dental findings were useful in cases of extensive charring...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Lilia R Lukowsky, Claudia Der-Martirosian, Alicia R Gable, Aram Dobalian
BACKGROUND: The largest gas leak in United States history occurred October 2015 through February 2016 near Porter Ranch (PR), California, and prompted the temporary relocation of nearby residents because of health concerns related to natural gas exposure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative and clinical data. On the basis of zip codes, we created two groups: PR (1920 patients) and San Fernando Valley (SFV) (15 260 patients) and examined the proportion of outpatient visits to VA providers with respiratory-related diagnoses between October 2014 and September 2017...
October 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Amber Hoffman, Heather Fagan, Adela Casas-Melley, Julie Wei, André Hebra
Hurricane Irma resulted in the evacuation of 6.3 million people in Florida in September, 2017. Our tertiary Children's Hospital activated our incident command center (ICC) 24 hours before storm landfall, and preparations were made to accommodate vulnerable pediatric patients (VPP) or children with medical complexity. Our ICC was active for 92 hours and the hospital was staffed with 467 associates and 40 physicians. Urgent operative and interventional radiology procedures were performed during the storm. Thirteen patients were transferred to our facility and 13 VPP were sheltered...
September 1, 2018: American Surgeon
Cordula Eichfeld, Derek Farrell, Marcel Mattheß, Peter Bumke, Ute Sodemann, Nil Ean, Bunna Phoeun, Yulia Direzkia, Filino Firmansyah, Nathanael E J Sumampouw, Helga Mattheß
Southeast Asia contains high numbers of traumatised populations arising from either natural disasters or interpersonal violence. Consequently, the need for empirically based trauma treatments, compromised by insufficiency in appropriately trained clinicians and mental health workers, makes the situation more challenging in addressing traumatic sequelae in local populations. In response, the humanitarian/ trauma capacity building organisation, Trauma Aid Germany, trained 37 therapists in psycho-traumatology, based on EMDR Therapy, which included trauma stabilisation techniques...
September 28, 2018: Psychiatric Quarterly
Philip R Berke, Steven M Quiring, Francisco Olivera, Jennifer A Horney
Resilient communities are less affected by, and recover faster from, natural disasters. To be resilient in rapidly changing contemporary environments subject to the effects of complex factors such as climate change and urbanization, communities must effectively and efficiently adapt to new conditions to minimize future risks. To develop resilience, the hazards to which the community is exposed and vulnerable (i.e., future hurricanes, subsidence, salt water intrusion) must be accurately assessed, the systems (i...
September 27, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Amir AghaKouchak, Laurie S Huning, Felicia Chiang, Mojtaba Sadegh, Farshid Vahedifard, Omid Mazdiyasni, Hamed Moftakhari, Iman Mallakpour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Nature
Jessica Holmgren, Henrik Eriksson, Charlotta Tegnestedt
BACKGROUND: Positioned to face increasing issues relating to the growing and aging population, ill health, climate change, natural disasters, and humanitarian crises, nurses play a crucial role in responding to the challenges of globalisation. With nurses rising to meet these challenges, the term 'global nursing' has been coined. Given the ongoing proliferation of the term, it seems relevant to explore the key relationship of the concepts of 'global' and 'nursing' within the milieus provided through the internet...
September 20, 2018: Contemporary Nurse
Sabrina de Sousa Magalhães, Diana Kraiser Miranda, Débora Marques de Miranda, Leandro Fernandes Malloy-Diniz, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva
The present study introduces the Extreme Climate Event Database (EXCEED), a picture database intended to induce emotionally salient stimuli reactions in the context of natural hazards associated with global climate change and related extreme events. The creation of the database was motivated by the need to better understand the impact that the increase in natural disasters worldwide has on human emotional reactions. This new database consists of 150 pictures divided into three categories: two negative categories that depict images of floods and droughts, and a neutral category composed of inanimate objects...
2018: PloS One
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