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Land resource

Kirsten Henderson, Michel Loreau
It is estimated that the Earth's biocapacity is unable to meet current demands, which begs the question: is a sustainable future possible for both humans and the environment? The UN projects a human population of approximately 11 billion by the end of the 21st century; requiring additional agricultural land, greater demands for natural resources, and technological advancements. We model human population over the next century, emphasizing feedbacks between natural and agricultural resource availability and human demography...
August 17, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Lisa N Scott, Amy M Villamagna, Paul L Angermeier
Human impact, particularly land cover changes (e.g., agriculture, construction) increase erosion and sediment loading into streams. Benthic species are negatively affected by silt deposition that coats and embeds stream substrate. Given that riparian buffers are effective sediment filters, riparian restoration is increasingly implemented by conservation groups to protect stream habitats. Limited funding and a multitude of impaired streams warrant the need for cost-effective prioritization of potential restoration actions...
August 16, 2018: Environmental Management
Sabrina Kuchling, Ian Kopacka, Elfriede Kalcher-Sommersguter, Michael Schwarz, Karl Crailsheim, Robert Brodschneider
The health of honey bee colonies is, amongst others, affected by the amount, quality and diversity of available melliferous plants. Since landscape is highly diverse throughout Austria regarding the availability of nutritional resources, we used data from annual surveys on honey bee colony losses ranging over six years to analyse a possible relationship with land use. The data set comprises reports from a total of 6,655 beekeepers and 129,428 wintered honey bee colonies. Regions surrounding the beekeeping operations were assigned to one of six clusters according to their composition of land use categories by use of a hierarchical cluster analysis, allowing a rough distinction between urban regions, regions predominated by semi-natural areas and pastures, and mainly agricultural environments...
August 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patricia A Pesavento, Dalen Agnew, Michael K Keel, Kevin D Woolard
Cancer is ubiquitous in wildlife, affecting animals from bivalves to pachyderms and cetaceans. Reports of increasing frequency demonstrate that neoplasia is associated with substantial mortality in wildlife species. Anthropogenic activities and global weather changes are shaping new geographical limitations for many species, and alterations in living niches are associated with visible examples of genetic bottlenecks, toxin exposures, oncogenic pathogens, stress and immunosuppression, which can all contribute to cancers in wild species...
August 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Adnane Bargaz, Karim Lyamlouli, Mohamed Chtouki, Youssef Zeroual, Driss Dhiba
Tomorrow's agriculture, challenged by increasing global demand for food, scarcity of arable lands, and resources alongside multiple environment pressures, needs to be managed smartly through sustainable and eco-efficient approaches. Modern agriculture has to be more productive, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. While macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) supplied by mineral fertilizers are vital to crop production, agriculturally beneficial microorganisms may also contribute directly (i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jin Zhang, Lijun Ren, Huaxia Deng, Mengchao Ma, Xiang Zhong, Pengcheng Wen
The limited load capacity and power resources of small-scale fixed-wing drones mean that it is difficult to employ internal high-precision inertial navigation devices to assist with the landing procedure. As an alternative, this paper proposes an attitude measurement system based on a monocular camera. The attitude angles are obtained from a single captured image containing five coded landmark points using the radial constraint method and three-dimensional coordinate transformations. The landing procedure is simulated for pitch angles from -15 ∘ to -40 ∘ , roll angles from -15 ∘ to +15 ∘ and yaw angles from -15 ∘ to +15 ∘ ...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Jolanda Jetten, Sharon Dane, Elyse Williams, Shuang Liu, Catherine Haslam, Cindy Gallois, Vivienne McDonald
PURPOSE: Over and above the risks associated with ageing, older migrants are also at risk of social isolation. The social identity approach, and the Social Identity Model of Identity Change (SIMIC) in particular, provides a theoretical basis from which to understand the factors contributing to social isolation and how this then impacts on older migrants' capacity to age well in a foreign land. Building on the recognition that migration involves a major life change, we explore this transition qualitatively focusing specifically on social connectedness and adjustment...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Renalda N Munubi, Peter B McIntyre, Yvonne Vadeboncoeur
Food quality determines the growth rate of primary consumers and ecosystem trophic efficiencies, but it is not clear whether variation in primary consumer densities control, or is controlled by, variation in food quality. We quantified variation in the density and condition of an abundant algae-eating cichlid, Tropheus brichardi, with respect to the quality and productivity of algal biofilms within and across rocky coastal sites in Lake Tanganyika, East Africa. Adjacent land use and sediment deposition in the littoral zone varied widely among sites...
August 12, 2018: Oecologia
Olabanji Odunayo Aladejana, Ayobami Taofeek Salami, Olusola-Ige O Adetoro
Adequate insights into how land degradation alters the hydrology of river basins will help forecast the hydrological impacts of land cover change dynamics, thereby providing unique information required for sustainable river basin management. This study attempts to utilize a multi-dimensional methodology involving the application of the physically based Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model and Partial Least Square regression (PLSR) statistical model to evaluate the response of the hydrological components within the Northwest Benin Owena River Basin (NWBORB) in Nigeria to land degradation...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Žiga Malek, Peter H Verburg
Meeting the growing demand for food in the future will require adaptation of water and land management to future conditions. We studied the extent of different adaptation options to future global change in the Mediterranean region, under scenarios of water use and availability. We focused on the most significant adaptation options for semiarid regions: implementing irrigation, changes to cropland intensity, and diversification of cropland activities. We used Conversion of Land Use on Mondial Scale (CLUMondo), a global land system model, to simulate future change to land use and land cover, and land management...
2018: Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change
Aritta Suwarno, Meine van Noordwijk, Hans-Peter Weikard, Desi Suyamto
The Indonesian government recently confirmed its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to mitigate global climate change. A forest moratorium policy that protects forest and peatland is a significant part of the INDCs; however, its effectiveness is unclear in the face of complex land-use and land-cover change. This study aims to assess the dynamics of land-use change and ecosystem service supply as a function of local decision-making. We developed an agent-based model, Land-Use Change and Ecosystem Services (LUCES), and used it to explore the possible effects of the forest moratorium policy on the land-use decisions of private companies and communities...
2018: Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change
Divya Sharma, Apoorv Tiwari, Salej Sood, Gautam Jamra, N K Singh, Prabina Kumar Meher, Anil Kumar
Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is an important dry-land cereal in Asia and Africa because of its ability to provide assured harvest under extreme dry conditions and excellent nutritional properties. However, the genetic improvement of the crop is lacking in the absence of suitable genomic resources for reliable genotype-phenotype associations. Keeping this in view, a diverse global finger millet germplasm collection of 113 accessions was evaluated for 14 agro-morphological characters in two environments viz...
2018: PloS One
Sarah Rizvi, Chris Pagnutti, Evan Fraser, Chris T Bauch, Madhur Anand
Global food security and agricultural land management represent two urgent and intimately related challenges that humans must face. We quantify the changes in the global agricultural land footprint if the world were to adhere to the dietary guidelines put forth by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), while accounting for the land use change incurred by import/export required to meet those guidelines. We analyze data at country, continental, and global levels. USDA guidelines are viewed as an improvement on the current land-intensive diet of the average American, but despite this our results show that global adherence to the guidelines would require 1 gigahectare of additional land-roughly the size of Canada-under current agricultural practice...
2018: PloS One
Joseph G Klinger
The paper will provide a brief overview of past preparedness efforts in Illinois with special emphasis on the Chicago urban area for an improvised nuclear device (IND) event, current status, and near- and long-term plans to address this daunting challenge. The planning assumption involved the detonation of a 10 kT IND in downtown Chicago at noon on a workday. Major efforts began in 2010 involving over 300 federal, state, and local public and private entities. The planning efforts included three summits and 16 workshops that produced essential response planning documents...
February 2018: Health Physics
Zhuo Jia, Jianmin Bian, Yu Wang
Groundwater is the major available water resources in Harbin City, China, but rapid urbanization has adversely affected it in recent years and groundwater quality is deteriorating. In this study, the groundwater pollution indexes of groundwater monitoring wells were analyzed by using the projection pursuit dynamic clustering model and its spatial distribution was interpolated by using the modified local polynomial interpolation method. The "searchlight" shape model was used to extract the types of land use within the scope of each monitoring well in order to evaluate the relationship between the spatial distribution of groundwater pollution and land use...
August 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Alexandra D Syphard, Timothy Sheehan, Heather Rustigian-Romsos, Kenneth Ferschweiler
Understanding where and how fire patterns may change is critical for management and policy decision-making. To map future fire patterns, statistical correlative models are typically developed, which associate observed fire locations with recent climate maps, and are then applied to maps of future climate projections. A potential source of uncertainty is the common omission of static or dynamic vegetation as predictor variables. We therefore assessed the sensitivity of future fire projections to different combinations of vegetation maps used as explanatory variables in a statistically based fire modeling framework...
2018: PloS One
Matthew K Gnagey
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA) has worked toward minimizing the degradation of wetlands since its inception. In 1985 the definition of the US waters regulated under Section 404 was expanded due to a Supreme Court ruling in an effort to specifically reduce environmental damage caused by new residential development. This study analyzes the resulting development permit approval process from the new regulatory environment following Section 404's expansion to examine the regulation's efficacy and illustrate potential tradeoffs between water resource protection and land fragmentation...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Lennart Andersen, Anne Lamp, Christiane Dieckmann, Sven Baetge, Lisa-Marie Schmidt, Martin Kaltschmitt
In order to minimize the environmental impacts of growing population, progressive exploitation of fossil resources and negative consequences of climate change the politically intended goal is to successively transform our primarily oil-based into a bio-based economy. Hence, one goal is to significantly reduce the utilization of fossil resources by increasing the use of renewable energy and resources (i.e. biomass) and the efficiency of their conversion processes. Including existing technologies into the development of future concepts could accelerate the transition to a bio-economy...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Martin J Clifford, Saleem H Ali, Kazuyo Matsubae
In this empirically grounded perspective, we explore how, if managed correctly, mining might go beyond a straight conversion of finite natural capital to financial resources. We suggest a process where mineral extraction could act as a catalyst for more diversified growth and even serve as a basis to restore forms of 'natural capital' it had previously diminished. The case in point-small in scale but significant in consequence-is the particularly challenging instance of the small-island state of Nauru, which has a very negative history of socio-ecological impacts of phosphate mining...
August 3, 2018: Ambio
William A V Stiles, David Styles, Stephen P Chapman, Sandra Esteves, Angela Bywater, Lynsey Melville, Alla Silkina, Ingrid Lupatsch, Claudio Fuentes Grünewald, Robert Lovitt, Tom Chaloner, Andy Bull, Chris Morris, Carole A Llewellyn
Managing organic waste streams is a major challenge for the agricultural industry. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organicwastes is a preferred option in the waste management hierarchy, as this processcangenerate renewableenergy, reduce emissions from wastestorage, andproduce fertiliser material.However, Nitrate Vulnerable Zone legislation and seasonal restrictions can limit the use of digestate on agricultural land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential of cultivating microalgae on digestate as a feedstock, either directlyafter dilution, or indirectlyfromeffluent remaining after biofertiliser extraction...
July 21, 2018: Bioresource Technology
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