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Land resource

Carlos L Muñoz Brenes, Kelly W Jones, Peter Schlesinger, Juan Robalino, Lee Vierling
Protected areas (PAs) are a prominent approach to maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services. A critical question for safeguarding these resources is how PA governance processes and management structures influence their effectiveness. We conduct an impact evaluation of 12 PAs in three Central American countries to assess how processes in management restrictions, management capacity, and decentralization affect the annual change in the satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)...
2018: PloS One
Jae Eun Shim, Seo-Jin Kim, Kirang Kim, Ji-Yun Hwang
Different contextual factors of a household and a community, such as access to resources and transportation, may influence the level of food insecurity. The objective of this study was to identify how food environmental factors and economic resources were related to food insecurity in Korean older adults residing in different contexts of rural areas. Face-to-face interviews with 248 older adults residing in land ( n = 149) and mountain ( n = 99) rural areas were performed. In both areas, risk of food insecurity was increased for households with limited community food accessibility measured by having difficulties in food purchasing due to food stores far from home...
October 16, 2018: Nutrients
Gert-Jan Nabuurs, Eric J M M Arets, Mart-Jan Schelhaas
BACKGROUND: In June 2018, the European Parliament and Council of the European Union adopted a legislative regulation for incorporating greenhouse gas emissions and removals from Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (EU-LULUCF) under its 2030 Climate and Energy Framework. The LULUCF regulation aim to incentivise EU Member States to decrease greenhouse gas emissions and increase removals in the LULUCF sector. The regulation, however, does not set a target for increasing the LULUCF carbon sink, but rather includes a 'no net debit' target for LULUCF (Forests and Agricultural soils)...
October 16, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
N I Dzyubenko
N.I. Vavilov was among the first scientists who recognized the high potential value of plant genetic resources (PGR) for humankind. In addition to his fundamental work on the centers of crop origin, he emphasized the importance of collection and ex situ conservation of cultivated plants and their wild relatives, to make them available for breeding programs and for future generations. Vavilov's ideas formed a solid scientific basis for the long-term efforts on securing PGR in ex situ genebanks, both internationally and in Russia...
October 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Bindu Panikkar, Jonathan Tollefson
This article examines the social, historical and political constitution of land and resource imaginaries in Bristol Bay, Alaska. We compare the dynamics of these different imaginaries in the region within the early permitting debates concerning the proposed Pebble Mine to understand the contemporary politics of defining and constructing ideologies of extractive resource use. We show that the civic epistemologies and ontologies embedded in different social, scientific and political practices help explain environmental actions and outcomes...
October 2018: Social Studies of Science
Vincent de Paul Obade
Sustainably utilizing global resources is critical for ensuring soil security which is pertinent for biomass production, climate change mitigation, environmental quality, biodiversity conservation and thus human wellbeing. A plethora of soil quality assessment metrics encapsulated in different concepts exist, with each typically biased towards identifying the interrelationship between agricultural production and specific physical, chemical or biological soil attributes. Because of diversity in soil classifications and crop requirements, considerable variation exist between these metrics making it difficult for end-users to select a suitable method...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Patricia M Blair, Miriam L Land, Marek J Piatek, Daniel A Jacobson, Tse-Yuan S Lu, Mitchel J Doktycz, Dale A Pelletier
Natural products (NPs) isolated from bacteria have dramatically advanced human society, especially in medicine and agriculture. The rapidity and ease of genome sequencing have enabled bioinformatics-guided NP discovery and characterization. As a result, NP potential and diversity within a complex community, such as the microbiome of a plant, are rapidly expanding areas of scientific exploration. Here, we assess biosynthetic diversity in the Populus microbiome by analyzing both bacterial isolate genomes and metagenome samples...
September 2018: MSystems
A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, M Rinne, M Lamminen, C Mapato, T Ampapon, M Wanapat, A Vanhatalo
Ruminant-based food production faces currently multiple challenges such as environmental emissions, climate change and accelerating food-feed-fuel competition for arable land. Therefore, more sustainable feed production is needed together with the exploitation of novel resources. In addition to numerous food industry (milling, sugar, starch, alcohol or plant oil) side streams already in use, new ones such as vegetable and fruit residues are explored, but their conservation is challenging and production often seasonal...
October 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jafar Y Al-Jawad, Hassan M Alsaffar, Douglas Bertram, Robert M Kalin
Water resource system complexity, high-dimension modelling difficulty and computational efficiency challenges often limit decision makers' strategies to combine environmental flow objectives (e.g. water quality, ecosystem) with social flow objectives (e.g. hydropower, water supply and agriculture). Hence, a novel Optimum Social-Environmental Flows (OSEF) with Auto-Adaptive Constraints (AAC) approach introduced as a river basin management decision support tool. The OSEF-AAC approach integrates Socio-Environmental (SE) objectives with convergence booster support to soften any computational challenges...
October 6, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Shoki Kosai, Eiji Yamasue
In view of the increasing demand for metal use, it is of significant importance to evaluate the environmental impact of metal production. The global warming potential (GWP) in the process of metal production has often been focused upon as a major indicator for evaluating the burden on the environment. Moreover, the environmental impact and mineral exploitation arising from metal ore mining activities, which generate unavoidable mine wastes and have an impact on the ecological biodiversity, cannot be ignored...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Philipp Stadler, Luke C Loken, John T Crawford, Paul J Schramm, Kirsti Sorsa, Catherine Kuhn, Domenico Savio, Robert G Striegl, David Butman, Emily H Stanley, Andreas H Farnleitner, Matthias Zessner
This study used automated enzymatic activity measurements conducted from a mobile research vessel to detect the spatial variability of beta‑d‑glucuronidase (GLUC) activity in large freshwater bodies. The ship-borne observations provided the first high-resolution spatial data of GLUC activity in large water bodies as rapid indication of fecal pollution and were used to identify associations with hydrological conditions and land use. The utility of this novel approach for water quality screening was evaluated by surveys of the Columbia River, the Mississippi River and the Yahara Lakes, covering up to a 500 km river course and 50 km2 lake area...
October 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
M Melissa Rojas-Downing, A Pouyan Nejadhashemi, Behin Elahi, Kimberly A Cassida, Fariborz Daneshvar, J Sebastian Hernandez-Suarez, Mohammad Abouali, Matthew R Herman, Sabah Anwer Dawood Al Masraf, Timothy Harrigan
Livestock productions require significant resources allocation in the form of land, water, energy, air, and capital. Meanwhile, owing to increase in the global demand for livestock products, it is wise to consider sustainable livestock practices. In the past few decades, footprints have emerged as indicators for sustainability assessment. In this study, we are introducing a new footprint measure to assess sustainability of a grazing dairy farm while considering carbon, water, energy, and economic impacts of milk production...
October 11, 2018: Environmental Management
Arnaud Hélias, Reinout Heijungs
Life cycle impact assessment uses so-called characterization factors to address different types of environmental impact (e.g. climate change, particulate matter, land use…). For the topic of resource depletion, a series of proposals was based on heuristic and formal arguments, but without the use of expert-based models from relevant research areas. A recent study in using fish population models has confirmed the original proposal for characterization factors for biotic resources of the nineties. Here we trace the milestones of the arguments and the designs of resource depletion, delivering an ecological-based foundation for the biotic case, and extend it by a novel analysis of the Hubbert peak theory for the abiotic case...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Chundi Chen, Hui Cheng, Junsong Jia, Xingyu Wang, Juanjuan Zhao
The extensive flooded land associated with the Three Gorges Reservoir, poses a great social and environmental challenge, yet it is a potential valuable land and sociological resource for resolving human-land conflicts in the surrounding communities. Controversies arose over use or non-use of such land among local communities and authorities; and different management strategies were adopted. We compared two representative ecosystems, Wuyang Bay in small-scale agricultural use through opportunistic farming, and Baijiaxi Bay in a state of natural succession, and learned the challenges-cum-opportunities regarding sustainability through an agro-ecological perspective...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Marco Springmann, Michael Clark, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Keith Wiebe, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Luis Lassaletta, Wim de Vries, Sonja J Vermeulen, Mario Herrero, Kimberly M Carlson, Malin Jonell, Max Troell, Fabrice DeClerck, Line J Gordon, Rami Zurayk, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner, Brent Loken, Jess Fanzo, H Charles J Godfray, David Tilman, Johan Rockström, Walter Willett
The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the food system could increase by 50-90% in the absence of technological changes and dedicated mitigation measures, reaching levels that are beyond the planetary boundaries that define a safe operating space for humanity...
October 10, 2018: Nature
Juliano J Corbi, Camila G Costa, Guilherme R Gorni, Vanessa Colombo, Leonardo Rios
In Brazil, innumerable regions of native landcover have been removed and replaced by agricultural cultivation, especially of sugarcane. In this culture, the application of fertilizers containing metals has caused impacts on the water resources causing contamination of stream sediments and occasioning bioaccumulation of metals in aquatic invertebrates. In the year of 2006, an environmental diagnosis of metals in sediments of streams located near sugarcane cultivation areas and in streams located in preserved areas, was published...
July 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Minghong Tan, Luqian Zheng
The Heihe River is located in the arid zone of northwestern China. In its middle-reach region, irrigation agriculture is well developed. With rapid population growth and expansion of the cultivated land in this region, effective water resource use is vital for the sustainable development of the river basin and the increase of incomes from farming practices. In this study, based on farmer survey data, the input parameters of the CROPWAT model were modified, the water use amount was simulated after deducting the influences of climate, seeds, and irrigation systems, and the variation of economic efficiency of water use (EEWU) induced by crop structure adjustment from 2001 to 2012 was analyzed...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Bonnie M McGill, Stephen K Hamilton, Neville Millar, G Philip Robertson
Groundwater irrigation of cropland is expanding worldwide with poorly known implications for climate change. This study compares experimental measurements of the net global warming impact of a rainfed vs. a groundwater-irrigated corn (maize)-soybean-wheat, no-till cropping system in the Midwest US, the region that produces the majority of US corn and soybean. Irrigation significantly increased soil organic carbon (C) storage in the upper 25 cm, but not by enough to make up for the CO2 -equivalent (CO2 e) costs of fossil fuel power, soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2 O), and degassing of supersaturated CO2 and N2 O from the groundwater...
October 8, 2018: Global Change Biology
Thomas D Linley, Jessica Craig, Alan J Jamieson, Imants G Priede
Baited cameras were deployed over a depth range of 532-5111 m in the Ionian Sea to characterise the large mobile fauna. The planned installation of a neutrino telescope also offers the potential for biological observatories. The current study was intended to aid observatory placement. At increasing depths, sediment was observed to become more uniform and animal burrows and tracks reduced. A total of 10 species of deep-sea fishes were identified from images; four elasmobranchs, which were not recorded deeper than 1841 m, and six teleosts...
2018: Marine Biology
Goldy De Bhowmick, Ajit K Sarmah, Ramkrishna Sen
In spite of tremendous efforts and huge investments on resources, biodiesel from oleaginous microalgae has not yet become a commercially viable and sustainable alternative to petro-diesel. This is mainly because of the technological and economic challenges hovering around large scale cultivation and downstream processing of algae, water and land usage, stabilized production technology, market forces and government policies on alternative energy and carbon credits. This review attempts to capture and analyse the global trends and developments in the areas of biofuel and bio-product of microalgae and proposes possible strategies that can be adopted to produce biofuel, biochar and bio-products utilizing wastewater in a bio-refinery model...
October 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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