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Laura N Syron, Devin L Lucas, Viktor E Bovbjerg, Samantha Case, Laurel Kincl
INTRODUCTION: The U.S. Coast Guard and Federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration have identified the Alaskan offshore seafood processing industry as high-risk. This study used Coast Guard injury reports to describe patterns of traumatic injury among offshore seafood processors, as well as identify modifiable hazards. METHODS: From the reports, we manually reviewed and abstracted information on the incident circumstances, injury characteristics and circumstances, and vessel...
September 2018: Journal of Safety Research
Hunbo Shim, Dong Seop Jeong, Wook Sung Kim, Pyo Won Park, Kiick Sung, Chang Seok Jeon, Young Tak Lee
BACKGROUND: This study compared clinical outcomes between the use of in situ and free internal thoracic artery grafts in patients with upper extremity arteriovenous fistula who underwent coronary artery bypass. METHODS: We reviewed 85 hemodialysis-dependent patients with upper extremity arteriovenous fistula who underwent coronary artery bypass with internal thoracic artery grafts. The patients were categorized into two groups; 48 (56%) with in situ graft ipsilateral to the arteriovenous fistula (Group I) and 37 (44%) with free grafts anastomosed to the ascending aorta (Group F)...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Aaron B Klassen, Morgan Marshall, Mengtao Dai, N Clay Mann, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to describe the injury patterns, EMS response and interventions to mass shooting (MS) and active shooter (AS) incidents. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 2014-15 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) data sets. Date, time, and location for MS incidents were obtained from the Gun Violence Archive and then correlated with NEMSIS data set records. AS incidents were identified through FBI data...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Matthew D Duez, Yosef Zlochower
We review the dramatic progress in the simulations of compact objects and compact-object binaries that has taken place in the first two decades of the twenty-first century. This includes simulations of the inspirals and violent mergers of binaries containing black holes and neutron stars, as well as simulations of black-hole formation through failed supernovae and high-mass neutron star--neutron star mergers. Modeling such events requires numerical integration of the field equations of general relativity in three spatial dimensions, coupled, in the case of neutron-star containing binaries, with increasingly sophisticated treatment of fluids, electromagnetic fields, and neutrino radiation...
August 17, 2018: Reports on Progress in Physics
Ivan Parise
BACKGROUND: Global climate change (GCC) will have an enormous impact on public health in the 21st century. Evidence clearly implicates the use of fossil fuels and the resultant anthropogenic greenhouse gases as the major source of GCC. OBJECTIVE: This paper seeks to examine briefly the association between fossil fuels and GCC, the consequent environmental changes and the predicted public health effects. DISCUSSION: Complex and interrelated climate changes are forecast to present immense challenges, including increased morbidity and mortality, arising from heatwaves, extreme weather events, infectious and non-communicable diseases...
July 2018: Australian journal of general practice
Qi Zhao, Micheline S Z S Coelho, Shanshan Li, Paulo H N Saldiva, Kejia Hu, Michael J Abramson, Rachel R Huxley, Yuming Guo
BACKGROUND: Extreme temperature events are known to be adversely associated with a range of health outcomes, but little is known about the effect of less extreme, but more frequent fluctuation in temperature. We examined the spatiotemporal and demographic variation in the effect of temperature variability (TV) on nationwide hospitalizations in Brazil during 2000-2015. METHODS: Data on daily hospitalizations and weather variables were collected from 1814 cities, comprising 78...
August 13, 2018: Environment International
Silvia Parra Suárez, Stefan Peiffer, Gerhard Gebauer
The monsoon season in South Korea has great influences on biogeochemical and hydrological processes in the entire country, but is specifically of concern in the Soyang lake watershed, the main drinking water reservoir for the 20-million-people metropolis Seoul. Therefore, water quality and nitrate concentration control in Lake Soyang is of high public priority. The Haean catchment is the most prominent agriculture-dominated sub-catchment of the Soyang lake watershed. It is a complex terrain influenced by extreme rain events and non-point nitrate sources...
August 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Andrew J Sinnamon, Jason K C Tong, Elizabeth A Bailey, Caitlin Brown, Latesha Colbert, Shannon Murray, Benjamin M Jackson, Robert E Roses
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a major cause of perioperative morbidity and mortality despite implementation of prophylaxis guidelines. We sought to identify risk factors for occult deep venous thrombosis (DVT) following abdominal surgery for cancer and measure the clinical impact of a prospectively implemented standardized postoperative DVT screening protocol. METHODS: Patients undergoing abdominal surgery for malignant indication were screened with early postoperative lower extremity duplex to identify DVT...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Eike Sebastian Debus, Levente Kriston, Thea Schwaneberg, Sandra Hischke, Henrik Christian Rieß, Martin Härter, Ursula Marschall, Hannes Federrath, Christian-Alexander Behrendt
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic disease of the lower extremity arteries (PAD) remains a significant burden on global healthcare systems with increasing prevalence. Various guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with PAD are available but they often lack a sufficient evidence base for high-grade recommendations since randomized and controlled trials (RCT) remain rare or are frequently subject to conflicts of interest. This registry trial aims to evaluate the outcomes of catheter-based endovascular revascularisations vs...
August 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Thomas L Frölicher, Erich M Fischer, Nicolas Gruber
Marine heatwaves (MHWs) are periods of extreme warm sea surface temperature that persist for days to months1 and can extend up to thousands of kilometres2 . Some of the recently observed marine heatwaves revealed the high vulnerability of marine ecosystems3-11 and fisheries12-14 to such extreme climate events. Yet our knowledge about past occurrences15 and the future progression of MHWs is very limited. Here we use satellite observations and a suite of Earth system model simulations to show that MHWs have already become longer-lasting and more frequent, extensive and intense in the past few decades, and that this trend will accelerate under further global warming...
August 2018: Nature
Otavio Andre Chase, Mailson Borges Teles, Marinaldo de Jesus Dos Santos Rodrigues, José Felipe Souza de Almeida, Wilson Negrão Macêdo, Carlos Tavares da Costa Junior
In this paper, we present a low-cost, stand-alone sensory platform developed for in situ monitoring of environmental parameters, for use in the Amazon region in the north of Brazil. The mission of the platform is to perform monitoring and identification of overirradiance (solar irradiance > 1000 W/m²) and extreme overirradiance events (solar irradiance > 1300 W/m²) using a photovoltaic based irradiance sensor. The sensory platform was built using the ESP8266 microcontroller, an open embedded computer capable of Wi-Fi communication using the IEEE 802...
August 15, 2018: Sensors
A Mančić, F Baronio, Lj Hadžievski, S Wabnitz, A Maluckov
We present a statistical analysis based on the height and return-time probabilities of high-amplitude wave events in both focusing and defocusing Manakov systems. We find that analytical rational or semirational solutions, associated with extreme, rogue wave (RW) structures, are the leading high-amplitude events in this system. We define the thresholds for classifying an extreme wave event as a RW. Our results indicate that there is a strong relationship between the type of RW and the mechanism which is responsible for its creation...
July 2018: Physical Review. E
Ondra Sracek, Bohdan Kříbek, Martin Mihaljevič, Vojtěch Ettler, Aleš Vaněk, Vít Penížek, Jan Filip, František Veselovský, Imasiku Nyambe
The impact of a natural wetland ("dambo" in Zambia) on neutral mine drainage at Luanshya in the Zambian Copperbelt has been investigated during an intermediate discharge period (July) using a multi-method characterization of solid phase samples, sequential extraction analysis, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy combined with water analyses, isotopic analyses, and geochemical modeling. In the wetland, the principal identified solid phases in sediments were carbonates, gypsum, and ferric oxyhydroxides...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ángela López-Sainz, Joel Salazar-Mendiguchía, Ana García-Álvarez, Oscar Campuzano Larrea, Miguel Ángel López-Garrido, Luis García-Guereta, María Eugenia Fuentes Cañamero, Vicente Climent Payá, María Luisa Peña-Peña, Esther Zorio-Grima, Paloma Jordá-Burgos, Carles Díez-López, Ramón Brugada, José Manuel García-Pinilla, Pablo García-Pavía
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Danon disease (DD) is caused by mutations in the LAMP2 gene. It is considered a multisystemic disease characterized by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with pre-excitation and extreme hypertrophy, intellectual disability, myopathy, childhood presentation, and worse prognosis in men. There are scarce data on the clinical characteristics and prognosis of DD. METHODS: We analyzed the clinical records of patients with DD from 10 Spanish hospitals...
August 11, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
Elise Epaillard, Nizar Bouguila
Learning a hidden Markov model (HMM) is typically based on the computation of a likelihood which is intractable due to a summation over all possible combinations of states and mixture components. This estimation is often tackled by a maximization strategy, which is known as the Baum-Welch algorithm. However, some drawbacks of this approach have led to the consideration of Bayesian methods that add a prior over the parameters in order to work with the posterior probability and the marginal likelihood. These approaches can lead to good models but to the cost of extremely long computations (e...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
Andrew F Prouse, Paula Langner, Mary E Plomondon, P Michael Ho, Javier A Valle, Anna E Barón, Ehrin J Armstrong, Stephen W Waldo
Lower extremity arterial thromboembolism is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We sought to establish temporal trends in the incidence, management and outcomes of lower extremity arterial thromboembolism within the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System (VAHS). We identified patients admitted to VAHS between 2003 and 2014 with a primary diagnosis of lower extremity arterial thromboembolism. Medical and procedural management were ascertained from pharmaceutical and administrative data. Subsequent rates of major adverse limb events (MALE), major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and mortality were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models...
August 14, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Muhammad A Memon, Burcak Karaca, Rasha Aboelhassan, Mohsen Barsoum, Mustafa Erman, Mert Basaran, Alper Sevinc, Djedi Hanene, Cassandra Slader, Virginia Pilipovic, Kerboua Esma, Bouzid Kamel
PURPOSE: Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare mesenchymal neoplasms, accounting for < 1% of all newly diagnosed malignancies. These tumors can occur in almost any anatomic site though they most frequently occur in the extremities. The objective of the study was to describe the epidemiology, treatment paradigm, and real-world outcomes in the clinical management of metastatic STS (mSTS) in the Middle East and North Africa (MEA) region. METHODS: MOON was an observational, multicenter, retrospective patient chart review study which included 200 patients with mSTS in the final analysis...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Javier Narváez, Pablo Juarez López, Judit LLuch, José Antonio Narváez, Ramón Palmero, Xavier García Del Muro, Joan Miquel Nolla, Eva Domingo-Domenech
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and type of rheumatic immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) in patients receiving programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibitors. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective observational study, including all cancer patients receiving PD-1 inhibitors between January 2016 and January 2018. RESULTS: During the period analyzed, we evaluated a total of 11 patients. No patient had pre-existing rheumatic or autoimmune disease...
August 10, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
John P Rippe, Justin H Baumann, Daphne N De Leener, Hannah E Aichelman, Eric B Friedlander, Sarah W Davies, Karl D Castillo
Through the continuous growth of their carbonate skeletons, corals record information about past environmental conditions and their effect on colony fitness. Here, we characterize century-scale growth records of inner and outer reef corals across ~200 km of the Florida Keys Reef Tract (FKRT) using skeletal cores extracted from two ubiquitous reef-building species, Siderastrea siderea and Pseudodiploria strigosa. We find that corals across the FKRT have sustained extension and calcification rates over the past century but have experienced a long-term reduction in skeletal density, regardless of reef zone...
August 13, 2018: Global Change Biology
Maxim Tikhonov, Marina Utkina, Oksana Maksimenko, Pavel Georgiev
Alternative splicing (AS) is a regulatory mechanism of gene expression that greatly expands the coding capacities of genomes by allowing the generation of multiple mRNAs from a single gene. In Drosophila, the mod(mdg4) locus is an extreme example of AS that produces more than 30 different mRNAs via trans-splicing that joins together the common exons and the 3' variable exons generated from alternative promoters. To map the regions required for trans-splicing, we have developed an assay for measuring trans-splicing events and identified a 73-bp region in the last common intron that is critical for trans-splicing of three pre-mRNAs synthesized from different DNA strands...
August 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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