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Jubo Jiang, Xianbao Liu, Yuxin He, Qiyuan Xu, Qifeng Zhu, Sanjay Jaiswal, Lihan Wang, Po Hu, Feng Gao, Yinghao Sun, Chunhui Liu, Xiaoping Lin, Jie Liang, Kaida Ren, Jian Apos An Wang
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a recent and an effective treatment option for high- or extreme-surgical-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. However, pure severe native aortic valve regurgitation (NAVR) without aortic stenosis remains a contraindication to TAVR. The aim of our systemic review analysis was to evaluate TAVR in patients with pure NAVR. METHODS: We searched the published articles in the PubMed and Web of Science databases (2002-2017) using the Boolean operators for studies of NAVR patients undergoing TAVR...
December 5, 2018: Cardiology
Alan Cervantes Farrell, Xiao Meng, Dingkun Ren, Hyunseok Kim, Pradeep Senanayake, Nick Y Hsieh, Zixuan Rong, Ting-Yuan Chang, Khalifa Mohammad Azizur-Rahman, Diana L Huffaker
Single photon detection at near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths is critical for light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems used in imaging technologies such as autonomous vehicle trackers and atmospheric remote sensing. Portable, high-performance LiDAR relies on silicon-based single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) due to their extremely low dark count rate (DCR) and afterpulsing probability, but their operation wavelengths are typically limited up to 905 nm. Although InGaAs-InP SPADs offer an alternative platform to extend the operation wavelengths to eye-safe ranges, their high DCR and afterpulsing severely limit their commercial applications...
December 5, 2018: Nano Letters
Jay Panchal, Gerard Malanga, Mitchell Sheinkop
The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of using autologous, micro-fractured, minimally manipulated adipose tissue in patients with refractory knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 17 subjects (26 knees) with a median age of 72 years (range: 54-78 years) and a history of knee OA (Kellgren-Lawrence, grade of 3 or 4) underwent treatment with ultrasound-guided injection of micro-fractured adipose tissue. Micro-fractured fat was obtained using a minimal manipulation technique in a closed system (Lipogems), without the addition of enzymes or any other additives...
November 2018: American Journal of Orthopedics
Martina Dal Bello, Luca Rindi, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi
Research on regime shifts has focused primarily on how changes in the intensity and duration of press disturbances precipitate natural systems into undesirable, alternative states. By contrast, the role of recurrent pulse perturbations, such as extreme climatic events, has been largely neglected, hindering our understanding of how historical processes regulate the onset of a regime shift. We performed field manipulations to evaluate whether combinations of extreme events of temperature and sediment deposition that differed in their degree of temporal clustering generated alternative states in rocky intertidal epilithic microphytobenthos (biofilms) on rocky shores...
December 5, 2018: Ecology
Hyunmee Kim, Woojin Kim, Jee Eun Choi, Changsoo Kim, Jungwoo Sohn
OBJECTIVES: A positive association between air pollution and both the incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported in some epidemiologic and animal studies, but little research has evaluated the relationship between air pollution and diabetic coma. Diabetic coma is an acute complication of DM caused by diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, which is characterized by extreme hyperglycemia accompanied by coma. We conducted a time-series study with a generalized additive model using a distributed-lag non-linear model to assess the association between ambient air pollution (particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter, nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and emergency department (ED) visits for DM with coma in Seoul, Korea from 2005 to 2009...
November 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Xu Tian, Xiao-Ling Liu, Yuan-Ping Pi, Hui Chen, Wei-Qing Chen
Chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis is an extremely serious complication faced by cancer patients. The role of oral zinc sulfate in preventing and treating chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis remains a subject of debate. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the potential of oral zinc sulfate to alleviate this morbid condition. A systematic search was conducted electronically in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to capture all potential randomized controlled trials investigating efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulfate in prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis, and the retrieval time was limited from their inception to April 2018...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Brenda B Lin, Monika H Egerer, Heidi Liere, Shalene Jha, Stacy M Philpott
Urban gardens are vital green spaces, providing food for residents and space for engaged citizenry and community development. In California, climate change conditions (heat and drought) are becoming more extreme, threatening the resilience of urban gardens. Water use restrictions limit the timing and amount of water that gardeners can access, exacerbating these climate challenges for urban food production. Together with volunteer gardeners, we examined how ambient temperature, water use, vegetation, ground cover, and soil management affect rates of soil moisture gain and loss in urban gardens for a six-week period in the summer of 2017, during the hottest part of the growing season...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xichao Gao, Qian Zhu, Zhiyong Yang, Jiahong Liu, Hao Wang, Weiwei Shao, Guoru Huang
Theoretically, precipitation extremes will increase at a rate of 6-7% with temperature increasing, namely the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. However, many gauge observations suggest a peak structure of the relationship between precipitation extremes and atmospheric temperature, deviating from the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. In this study, a comprehensive investigation about the temperature dependence of precipitation extremes (hourly, daily, and event-based) across China is implemented. The results confirm the widespread existence of the peak structure for daily and hourly precipitation extremes and show that (1) there is a generally positive spatial correlation between the precipitation extremes at the peak and temperature at the peak, and this scaling rate is close to the C-C rate; (2) the scaling of event-based extremes for precipitation amount with temperature follows a similar pattern to the daily precipitation extremes while the event-based precipitation intensity does not show a peak structure; (3) the decrease of rain duration is the main cause for the peak structure of the rain amount scaling...
December 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maximilian Luehr, Christian D Etz, Mikolaj Berezowski, Michael Nozdrzykowski, Thomas Jerkku, Sven Peterss, Michael A Borger, Martin Czerny, Ramin Banafsche, Maximilian A Pichlmaier, Friedhelm Beyersdorf, Christian Hagl, Andrej Schmidt, Bartosz Rylski
BACKGROUND: Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of left subclavian artery (LSA) flow preservation during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) on outcome. METHODS: Between 08/2001-10/2016, 176 patients (mean age 61.3±15.8yrs) underwent TEVAR with complete LSA coverage. Fifty-five of those patients (31.3%) also underwent LSA revascularization while 121 (68.7%) patients did not. Perioperative data was acquired retrospectively for statistical analysis at the three study institutions...
November 30, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Yamnia I Cortés, Nisha Parikh, Matthew A Allison, Michael H Criqui, Natalie Suder, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, Christina L Wassel
OBJECTIVE: Reproductive events have been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in women, but whether they are associated with pre-clinical peripheral arterial disease (PAD) has been understudied. We evaluated associations between reproductive factors and later-life ankle-brachial index (ABI), femoral artery intima-media thickness (fIMT), and femoral plaques. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 707 multiethnic women who participated in a follow-up exam of the San Diego Population Study in 2007-2011...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
James Ingersoll, Michael Moody, Robert Holland, Wesley Kuegler, Charles Murrah, John Winslow, Neal Reynolds, Nathaniel Lloyd, Brian Dugan, Madalyn Hammock, Katherine Houlé, Erin Clabough
The Barnes maze is a reliable measure of spatial learning and memory that does not require food restriction or exposure to extremely stressful stimuli. The Barnes maze can also assess other mouse behaviors, such as general motivation to escape from the maze platform and exploratory behavior. The Barnes maze can measure whether a genetic mutation or environmental variable can impact the acquisition and retention of spatial memories, as well as provide information about the search strategy employed by the mice...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
José Juan Vázquez, Alexia Suarez, Alberto Berríos, Sonia Panadero
Nicaragua is one of Latin America's least developed countries and has a lack of data on homeless people, a stigmatized group living in extreme poverty. We conducted structured interviews with homeless people living in the city of León (Nicaragua; n = 41) to obtain data on the quantity, types, timing, and perceived causality of stressful life events (SLEs) experienced during their childhood and adolescence as well as throughout their adult lives. The findings showed that our participants had experienced a high number of extremely severe SLEs at very early ages and most of these SLEs occurred before they first became homeless...
January 2019: Journal of Community Psychology
Masayuki Kaneko, Mamoru Narukawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Empagliflozin and canagliflozin decreased the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) compared with placebo in randomized clinical trials which were conducted to evaluate their cardiovascular risks. However, canagliflozin increased the risks of amputation and bone fracture, and the reasons for these observed differences remain unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety risks, specifically the risks of amputation and bone fracture, associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors by using the difference in restricted mean survival time (RMST), an alternative measure to the hazard ratio...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
F Carbone, A G Bruno, A Naccarato, F De Simone, C N Gencarelli, F Sprovieri, I M Hedgecock, M S Landis, H Skov, K A Pfaffhuber, K A Read, L Martin, H Angot, A Dommergue, O Magand, N Pirrone
The probability density function (PDF) of the time intervals between subsequent extreme events in atmospheric Hg0 concentration data series from different latitudes has been investigated. The Hg0 dynamic possesses a long-term memory autocorrelation function. Above a fixed threshold Q in the data, the PDFs of the interoccurrence time of the Hg0 data are well described by a Tsallis q-Exponential function. This PDF behavior has been explained in the framework of superstatistics, where the competition between multiple mesoscopic processes affects the macroscopic dynamics...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Qing Miao
There has been a growing interest in understanding whether and how people adapt to extreme weather events in a changing climate. This article presents one of the first empirical analyses of adaptation to flooding on a global scale. Using a sample of 97 countries between 1985 and 2010, we investigate the extent and pattern of flood adaptation by estimating the effects of a country's climatological risk, recent flood experiences, and socioeconomic characteristics on its flood-related fatalities. Our results provide mixed evidence on adaptation: countries facing greater long-term climatological flooding risks do not necessarily adapt better and suffer fewer fatalities; however, after controlling for the cross-country heterogeneity, we find that more recent flooding shocks have a significant and negative effect on fatalities from subsequent floods...
November 30, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Hao Pham, Todd Russell, Andrew Seiwert, Gregory Kasper, Fedor Lurie
OBJECTIVE: To describe the timing of venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosis in patients with cerebral or spinal trauma and stroke and describe the relationships between VTE prophylaxis and timing of VTE diagnosis at a community hospital. METHODS: Retrospective cohort observational study over a span of 10 years from 200 to 2016. RESULTS: Lower extremity ultrasound surveillance identified 138 patients who developed VTE during their hospital stay (mean age 62 years, 61...
November 27, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Shawn D Taylor, Joan M Meiners, Kristina Riemer, Michael C Orr, Ethan P White
Large-scale observational data from citizen science efforts are becoming increasingly common in ecology, and researchers often choose between these and data from intensive local-scale studies for their analyses. This choice has trade-offs related to spatial scale, observer variance, and inter-annual variability. Here we explored this issue with phenology by comparing models built using data from the large-scale, citizen science USA National Phenology Network (USANPN) effort with models built using data from more intensive studies at Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites...
November 29, 2018: Ecology
E S Strotmeyer, M E Winger, J A Cauley, R M Boudreau, D Cusick, R F Collins, D Chalhoub, B Buehring, E Orwoll, T B Harris, P Caserotti
OBJECTIVE: To determine normative values for weight-bearing, countermovement leg extension ("jump") tests in the oldest men and characteristics of those not completing vs. completing tests. DESIGN: 2014-16 cross-sectional exam. SETTING: Six U.S. sites from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling men (N=1,841) aged 84.5±4.2 (range: 77-101) years. INTERVENTIONS: N/A...
2018: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Rosetta Melfi, Elisabetta Ricottini
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease represents one of leading cause of mortality and morbidity in Western countries. An increased risk of CV events was identified in patients with peripheral arterial diseases (PADs), which include all arterial diseases, other than coronary arteries and the aorta. In particular, lower extremity artery disease (LEAD) and/or carotid artery disease present growing incidence in general population and a consequent increase in mortality and morbidity. Medical treatment, including antiplatelet therapy, is a cornerstone in management of these patients, even when they are treated with endovascular or surgical procedures...
October 2018: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Qiong Nie, Guang Qiao, Lei Peng, Xiaopeng Wen
Frequent somatic variations exist in pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) plants grown under abiotic stress conditions. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons can be activated under stressful conditions and play key roles in plant genetic variation and evolution. However, whether LTR retrotransposons promotes pitaya somatic variations by regulating abiotic stress responses is still uncertain. In this study, transcriptionally active LTR retrotransposons were identified in pitaya after exposure to a number of stress factors, including in vitro culturing, osmotic changes, extreme temperatures and hormone treatments...
November 14, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
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