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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031556/the-characteristics-and-prevalence-of-agitation-in-an-urban-county-emergency-department
#1
James R Miner, Lauren R Klein, Jon B Cole, Brian E Driver, Johanna C Moore, Jeffrey D Ho
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We seek to determine the characteristics and prevalence of agitation among patients in an urban county emergency department (ED). METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of ED patients at an urban Level I trauma center. All ED patients were screened during daily randomized 8-hour enrollment periods. Adult agitated patients, defined as having an altered mental status score greater than 1, were included. Trained research volunteers collected demographics and baseline data, including the presenting altered mental status score, use and type of restraints, and whether any initial sedative was given...
July 18, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024456/intramuscular-ketamine-protocol-as-an-alternative-to-physical-restraints-for-electroconvulsive-therapy-administration-in-a-psychotic-patient-a-case-report
#2
Lucia Angela Smith-Martinez, Lauren Nicole Chatham, Purushothaman Muthukanagaraj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018022/effect-of-acute-restraint-stress-in-a-polytrauma-rat-model
#3
Françoise Arnaud, Georgina Pappas, Ye Chen, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard McCarron
INTRODUCTION: A stressful environment may contribute to poor outcomes after TBI. The current study evaluates the impact of acute stress in a polytrauma rat model. METHODS: Rats were stressed by a 45-minute immobilization period before instrumentation under ketamine (t1). Polytrauma was produced by blast overpressure and controlled hemorrhage (t2). Rats were euthanized immediately after a 3 h simulated Medevac-transport time (t3) or after 72 h post-trauma (t4)...
July 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986699/evaluation-of-anaesthesia-and-analgesia-quality-during-disbudding-of-goat-kids-by-certified-swiss-farmers
#4
N Wagmann, C Spadavecchia, U Morath-Huss, G Schüpbach-Regula, P Zanolari
BACKGROUND: Certified Swiss farmers are allowed to disbud their goat kids using a standard intramuscularly administered anaesthetic mixture. This mixture, containing xylazine and ketamine, is officially distributed with the goal to provide a painless disbudding. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of analgesia and anaesthesia achieved during disbudding, when performed by Swiss farmers. To assess this, 174 goat kids at 31 different farms were observed and filmed during cautery disbudding...
July 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29395692/approach-to-the-agitated-emergency-department-patient
#5
Michael Gottlieb, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Acute agitation is a common occurrence in the emergency department (ED) that requires rapid assessment and management. OBJECTIVE: This review provides an evidence-based summary of the current ED evaluation and management of acute agitation. DISCUSSION: Acute agitation is an increasingly common presentation to the ED and has a broad differential diagnosis including metabolic, neurologic, infectious, toxicologic, and psychiatric etiologies...
April 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174627/role-of-nmda-receptor-glun2d-subunit-in-the-antidepressant-effects-of-enantiomers-of-ketamine
#6
Soichiro Ide, Yuiko Ikekubo, Masayoshi Mishina, Kenji Hashimoto, Kazutaka Ikeda
We investigated the rapid and sustained antidepressant effects of enantiomers of ketamine in N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor GluN2D subunit knockout (GluN2D-KO) mice. Intraperitoneal administration of ketamine or its enantiomers 10 min before the tail-suspension test exerted significant antidepressant effects on restraint stress-induced depression in both wildtype and GluN2D-KO mice. The antidepressant effects of (RS)-ketamine and (S)-ketamine were sustained 96 h after the injection in both wildtype and GluN2D-KO mice, but such sustained antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine were only observed in wildtype mice...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129149/anaesthetic-and-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-ketamine-plus-dexmedetomidine-for-chemical-restraint-in-black-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-nigritus
#7
Jab Chagas, Lcp Santos, J R Silva Filho, C Bondan
AIMS: To evaluate the quality of anaesthesia and cardiorespiratory effects of ketamine and two doses of dexmedetomidine in captive black capuchin monkeys (Sapajus nigritus) undergoing routine clinical examination. METHODS: Twenty-four animals undergoing routine clinical examination were enrolled in the study. Animals were briefly physically restrained and examined to ensure no obvious illness was present and that they were healthy. Monkeys were randomly allocated to two groups (n=12 per group) and then treated with a combination of I/M 7...
March 2018: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769008/ketamine-alleviates-depressive-like-behaviors-via-down-regulating-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-chronic-restraint-stress-in-mice
#8
Sijie Tan, Yan Wang, Ke Chen, Zhifeng Long, Ju Zou
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether ketamine's rapid antidepressant effects were associated with its anti-inflammatory actions and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Depressive-like behaviors was induced in mice using chronic restraint stress (CRS) method. Anti-depressive effects of ketamine were evaluated by forced swimming tests (FST) and sucrose preference test (SPT). Subsequently, brain tissue was harvested to investigate inflammatory response in the hippocampus via investigating reactive microglia numbers, serum cytokines levels and the toll-like receptor type 4 (TLR4)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315642/comparison-of-atipamezole-with-yohimbine-for-antagonism-of-xylazine-in-mice-anesthetized-with-ketamine-and-xylazine
#9
Christopher F Janssen, Pauline Maiello, M Jerry Wright, Kara B Kracinovsky, Joseph T Newsome
The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263534/cytotoxicity-of-ketamine-xylazine-and-hellabrunn-mixture-in-liver-heart-and-kidney-derived-cells-from-fallow-deer
#10
Veronika Kovacova, Ehdaa Eltayeb Eltigani Abdelsalam, Hana Bandouchova, Jiri Brichta, Barbora Havelkova, Vladimir Piacek, Frantisek Vitula, Jiri Pikula
OBJECTIVES: Chemical restraint of wild animals is practiced to accomplish intended procedures such as capture, clinical examination, collection of diagnostic samples, treatment and/or transport. Extra-label use of animal medicinal drugs is often necessary in wildlife because most approved therapeutics do not list wild species on the labelling. Here, we used cellular in vitro models, a cutting-edge tool of biomedical research, to examine cytotoxicity of anaesthetic agents in fallow deer and extrapolate these data for anaesthetic risks in wildlife...
December 18, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188706/comparison-of-atipamezole-with-yohimbine-for-antagonism-of-xylazine-in-mice-anesthetized-with-ketamine-and-xylazine
#11
Christopher Janssen, Pauline Maiello, M Jerry Wright, Kara Kracinovsky, Joseph Newsome
The α2 adrenergic agonist xylazine produces a sedative effect and is typically combined with ketamine and used for anesthesia or chemical restraint of laboratory mice. Xylazine's sedative effect-and its undesirable side effects of bradycardia, hypotension, and poor tissue perfusion-can be reversed by administration of α2 antagonists, such as atipamezole or yohimbine. Although atipamezole and yohimbine dosing guidelines are available for mice, no controlled comparison has been performed to guide the lab animal community in the selection of one over the other...
February 10, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891593/remote-chemical-immobilisation-method-for-free-ranging-australian-cattle
#12
J O Hampton, A Skroblin, A L Perry, T R De Ridder
BACKGROUND: Many situations are encountered in Australia where the capture and restraint of free-ranging cattle (Bos taurus/Bos indicus) is required. Chemical immobilisation via darting is a potentially useful tool for managing and researching large wild herbivores; however, there is no reliable method for its application to Australian cattle. The aim of this study was to develop an efficacious, humane, cost-effective ground darting method for free-ranging cattle. METHODS: The 30 female cattle were darted and captured on a pastoral station in north-west Australia from a vehicle...
December 2016: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756905/chronic-stress-prior-to-pregnancy-potentiated-long-lasting-postpartum-depressive-like-behavior-regulated-by-akt-mtor-signaling-in-the-hippocampus
#13
Baomei Xia, Chang Chen, Hailou Zhang, Wenda Xue, Juanjuan Tang, Weiwei Tao, Ruyan Wu, Li Ren, Wei Wang, Gang Chen
Postpartum depression (PPD) affects over 10% of new mothers and adversely impacts the health of offspring. One of the greatest risk factors for PPD is prepregnancy stress but the underlying biological mechanism is unknown. Here we constructed an animal model which recapitulated prepregnancy stress induced PPD and tested the role of Akt-mTOR signaling in the hippocampus. Female virgin Balb/c mice received chronic restraint stress, followed by co-housing with a normal male mouse. We found that the chronic stress led to a transient depressive-like condition that disappeared within two weeks...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368710/echocardiographic-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-ketamine-in-chinchillas-chinchilla-lanigera
#14
Grayson A Doss, Christoph Mans, Rebecca L Stepien
Alpha2-agonist anesthetic combinations are often used in rodent anesthesia but no information about their effects on cardiac function in chinchillas exists. The purpose of this study was to utilize echocardiography to evaluate the cardiovascular effects of dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in chinchillas. Echocardiographic examinations were performed in eight adult chinchillas under manual restraint and following dexmedetomidine (0.015 mg/kg) and ketamine (4 mg/kg) administration. Dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia resulted in a significantly decreased heart rate, fractional shortening, cardiac output, and flow velocity across the aortic and pulmonic valves, and significantly increased left ventricular internal diameter in systole...
February 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27106168/ketamine-modulates-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-but-not-stressor-induced-neurochemical-changes
#15
Melanie Clarke, Sara Razmjou, Natalie Prowse, Zach Dwyer, Darcy Litteljohn, Rowan Pentz, Hymie Anisman, Shawn Hayley
Considerable recent attention has focused on the rapid antidepressant effects observed in treatment resistant patients produced by the NMDA receptor antagonist, ketamine. Surprisingly, the effects of ketamine in the context of stressor exposure, as well as the consequences of its chronic use are unclear. Thus, we assessed the impact of acute and repeated ketamine treatment together with acute [restraint or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] or chronic (unpredictable different psychogenic challenges) stressor exposure...
January 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27010260/comparison-between-dexmedetomidine-s-ketamine-and-midazolam-s-ketamine-in-immobilization-of-oncilla-leopardus-tigrinus
#16
Caio Filipe da Motta Lima, Silvia Renata Gaido Cortopassi, Claudio Alves de Moura, Ewaldo de Mattos, Isis Zanini das Candeias, Bruno Gregnanin Pedron, Rodrigo Hidalgo Friciello Teixeira, Ramiro das Neves Dias Neto
Established immobilization protocols are required for safe procedures on wildlife and zoo animals. This study evaluated the cardiovascular, respiratory, and anesthetic effects of dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) with S-ketamine (5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) with S-ketamine (5 mg/kg) in 12 specimens of oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus) at Quinzinho de Barros Municipal Zoo Park in Sorocaba, São Paulo, Brazil, between January and March 2010. Each animal underwent both protocols, totaling 24 anesthetic procedures...
March 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26611223/a-ketamine-protocol-and-intubation-rates-for-psychiatric-air-medical-retrieval
#17
Minh Le Cong, Ian Humble
OBJECTIVE: The air medical transfer of psychiatric patients with acute agitation is a regular requirement in only a few countries, with ours (Australia) being one of them. The optimal strategy has yet to be well described, ranging from physical restraints to general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation. In an Australian air medical service, Royal Flying Doctor Service (Queensland Section) rates of endotracheal intubation required for patient management were retrospectively compared before and after implementation of a ketamine sedation protocol for this patient population...
November 2015: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457384/evaluation-of-ophthalmic-and-hemodynamic-parameters-in-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-sp-submitted-to-dissociative-anesthetic-protocols
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A C S Raposo, R Ofri, D P H Schaffer, D C Gomes Júnior, F A Libório, E F Martins Filho, A P Oriá
BACKGROUND: Dissociative drugs are used for chemical restraint in monkeys. The aim was to evaluate muscle relaxation, recovery, and ophthalmic and hemodynamic parameters in 24 capuchin monkeys subjected to four dissociative anesthesia protocols. METHODS: Animals were anesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ), ketamine-xylazine (KX), ketamine-midazolam (KM), or ketamine-dexmedetomidine (KD). Muscle relaxation, digital reflex, lacrimal production, intraocular pressure (IOP), heart and respiratory rates, oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), rectal temperature, non-invasive arterial blood pressure, palpebral and pupillary reflexes, and eyeball positioning were evaluated every 5 minutes for 20 minutes...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26222788/evaluation-of-blood-pressure-in-feline-night-monkeys-aotus-azarae-infulatus-under-different-restraint-protocols
#19
Rosa Helena de Figueiredo Chaves, Nazaré Fonseca de Souza, Aline Amaral Imbeloni, Ana Cláudia de Souza Neves, Renan Kleber Costa Teixeira, Camila de Cassia Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Feline night monkeys are very susceptible to stress when handled, and because of that, the use of anesthetic and physical restraint methods should be carefully evaluated. To ensure a safer anesthesia to the animals the present study aimed to observe the influence of four restraint protocols in the blood pressure of Aotus azarae infulatus. METHODS: Blood pressure was obtained from 10 animals subjected to restraining protocols using tiletamine and zolazepam, isoflurane, ketamine and midazolam, and physical restraint and results were evaluated to determine their effect on this exam...
December 2015: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25900119/rapid-antidepressant-action-and-restoration-of-excitatory-synaptic-strength-after-chronic-stress-by-negative-modulators-of-alpha5-containing-gabaa-receptors
#20
Jonathan Fischell, Adam M Van Dyke, Mark D Kvarta, Tara A LeGates, Scott M Thompson
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the primary pharmacological treatment for depression, but SSRIs are effective in only half of the patients and typically take several weeks to relieve symptoms. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine exerts a rapid antidepressant action, but has troubling side effects. We hypothesized that negative allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors would exert similar effects on brain activity as ketamine, but would not exert as many side effects if targeted only to GABAA receptors containing α5 subunits, which are enriched in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex...
October 2015: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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