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Irritable intestine syndrome

Hirokazu Fukui, Tadayuki Oshima, Yoshiki Tanaka, Yosuke Oikawa, Yutaka Makizaki, Hiroshi Ohno, Toshihiko Tomita, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Although gut microbiota and early life events are likely involved in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), it remains unclear how these factors interact in the pathophysiology of IBS. In the present study, using rats subjected to maternal separation (MS) as a model of IBS, we investigated interrelationships among gut microbiota, stress susceptibility and intestinal permeability, and examined the effect of the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1) on those interrelationships. When compared with the controls at postnatal day 20, MS rats showed hypercorticosteronemia, enhanced intestinal permeability and changes in gut microbiota structure...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
QiQi Zhou, Meghan L Verne, Jeremy Z Fields, John J Lefante, Sarpreet Basra, Habeeb Salameh, G Nicholas Verne
BACKGROUND: More effective treatments are needed for patients with postinfectious, diarrhoea-predominant, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). Accordingly, we conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week-long trial to assess the efficacy and safety of oral glutamine therapy in patients who developed IBS-D with increased intestinal permeability following an enteric infection. METHODS: Eligible adults were randomised to glutamine (5 g/t.i.d.) or placebo for 8 weeks...
August 14, 2018: Gut
Shengtao Zhu, Li Min, Qingdong Guo, Hengcun Li, Yang Yu, Ye Zong, Liyong Wang, Peng Li, Junchao Gu, Shutian Zhang
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder that is associated with psychological stress. However, the full landscape of IBS‑related epigenetic factors remains unveiled and needs to be elucidated. The water‑avoidance stress (WAS) method was used to induce a rat IBS model. Each rat was monitored, and its defecation and behavior were recorded. Total colon RNA was isolated and subjected to Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. Reduced Representation Bisulfate Sequencing (RRBS) was applied to determine the genome‑wide methylation pattern in both IBS and control rats...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Jeremy R Glissen Brown, Prashant Singh
Coeliac disease (CD) develops in genetically susceptible individuals who, in response to unclear environmental triggers, develop an immune response triggered by gluten ingestion. It is now recognised as a global disease affecting about 0.7% of the world's population. The clinical presentation ranges from malabsorption to asymptomatic individuals diagnosed by screening high-risk groups. Diagnosis requires the demonstration of small intestinal villous atrophy in the presence of circulating coeliac auto-antibodies and/or an unequivocal response to a gluten-free diet (GFD)...
August 13, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Xiaojun Zhuang, Zhenyi Tian, Li Li, Zhirong Zeng, Minhu Chen, Lishou Xiong
Altered gut microbiota are assumed to be involved in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, gut microbiota alterations reported in different studies are divergent and sometimes even contradictory. To better elucidate the relationship between altered gut microbiota and IBS, we characterized fecal microbiota of diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and further explored the effect of rifaximin on gut microbiota using bacterial 16S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing. In our study, IBS-D patients defined by Rome III criteria and age-and-gender matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled to investigate the fecal microbiota alterations...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Juan Sebastian Lasa, María Josefina Altamirano, Luis Florez Bracho, Silvina Paz, Ignacio Zubiaurre
BACKGROUND: Intestinal secretagogues have been tested for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. The class-effect of these type of drugs has not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of intestinal secretagogues for the treatment of chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. METHODS: A computer-based search of papers from 1966 to September 2017 was performed...
August 6, 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Antonella Gagliardi, Valentina Totino, Fatima Cacciotti, Valerio Iebba, Bruna Neroni, Giulia Bonfiglio, Maria Trancassini, Claudio Passariello, Fabrizio Pantanella, Serena Schippa
A microbial ecosystem in which bacteria no longer live in a mutualistic association is called dysbiotic. Gut microbiota dysbiosis is a condition related with the pathogenesis of intestinal illnesses (irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and inflammatory bowel disease) and extra-intestinal illnesses (obesity, metabolic disorder, cardiovascular syndrome, allergy, and asthma). Dysbiosis status has been related to various important pathologies, and many therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring the balance of the intestinal ecosystem have been implemented...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
J A Uranga, G Vera, R Abalo
Cannabis sp and their products (marijuana, hashish...), in addition to their recreational, industrial and other uses, have a long history for their use as a remedy for symptoms related with gastrointestinal diseases. After many reports suggesting these beneficial effects, it was not surprising to discover that the gastrointestinal tract expresses endogenous cannabinoids, their receptors, and enzymes for their synthesis and degradation, comprising the so-called endocannabinoid system. This system participates in the control of tissue homeostasis and important intestinal functions like motor and sensory activity, nausea, emesis, the maintenance of the epithelial barrier integrity, and the correct cellular microenvironment...
August 1, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Yu Zhang, Ziqing Li, Fan Han
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional intestinal disease characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal distension, constipation and diarrhea. Many IBS sufferers are usually present with poor quality of life for the abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, and other complaints. At present, the commonly used drug therapy for IBS in the Western clinic, such as antidiarrheal, laxative, gastrointestinal antispasmodic, often cannot get satisfying curative effect...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xu Han, Allen Lee, Sha Huang, Jun Gao, Jason R Spence, Chung Owyang
Disruption of intestinal barrier homeostasis is an important pathogenic factor in conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) improves IBS symptoms through unclear mechanisms. Previous studies utilizing colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines showed that LGG metabolites prevented interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) induced barrier damage but the model employed limited these findings. We aimed to interrogate the protective effects of LGG on epithelial barrier function using human intestinal epithelial cultures (enteroids and colonoids) as a more physiologic model...
July 24, 2018: Gut Microbes
Clair R Martin, Vadim Osadchiy, Amir Kalani, Emeran A Mayer
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown bidirectional interactions within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Gut microbes communicate to the central nervous system through at least 3 parallel and interacting channels involving nervous, endocrine, and immune signaling mechanisms. The brain can affect the community structure and function of the gut microbiota through the autonomic nervous system, by modulating regional gut motility, intestinal transit and secretion, and gut permeability, and potentially through the luminal secretion of hormones that directly modulate microbial gene expression...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Giovanni Casella, Vincenzo Villanacci, Camillo Di Bella, Gabrio Bassotti, Justine Bold, Kamran Rostami
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), also referred to as non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS), is a clinical syndrome characterized by both intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms responsive to the withdrawal of gluten-containing food from the diet. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances in research and provide a brief overview of the history of the condition for the benefit of professionals working in gastroenterology. Academic databases such as PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using key words such as "non-celiac gluten sensitivity", "gluten related disorders", and the studies outlined in reference page were selected and analysed...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Giovanni Barbara, Madhusudan Grover, Premysl Bercik, Maura Corsetti, Uday C Ghoshal, Lena Ohman, Mirjana Rajilić-Stojanović
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The existence of post-infection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) has been substantiated by epidemiology studies conducted in diverse geographic and clinical settings. However, the available evidence has not been well summarized and there is little guidance for diagnosis and treatment of PI-IBS. The ROME Foundation has produced a working team report was to summarize the available evidence on the pathophysiology of PI-IBS and provide guidance for diagnosis and treatment, based upon findings reported in the literature and clinical experience...
July 12, 2018: Gastroenterology
Yukinori Nagakura, Nana Ohsaka, Ryutarou Azuma, Saeri Takahashi, Yuuka Takebayashi, Saori Kawasaki, Shuhei Murai, Masaya Miwa, Hiroko Saito
Functional somatic syndromes (FSS), a clinical condition manifesting a variety of unexplained somatic symptoms, has been proposed as an inclusive nosology encompassing individual syndromes such as fibromyalgia syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Accumulating evidence suggests that disturbance of the endogenous monoamine system could be involved in the aetiology of FSS. Therefore, the purpose of present study was to investigate whether the disturbance of the monoamine system would cause FSS-associated symptomatology in mice...
October 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Sofie Ingdam Halkjær, Alice Højer Christensen, Bobby Zhao Sheng Lo, Patrick Denis Browne, Stig Günther, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Andreas Munk Petersen
OBJECTIVE: IBS is associated with an intestinal dysbiosis and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been hypothesised to have a positive effect in patients with IBS. We performed a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate if FMT resulted in an altered gut microbiota and improvement in clinical outcome in patients with IBS. DESIGN: We performed this study in 52 adult patients with moderate-to-severe IBS. At the screening visit, clinical history and symptoms were assessed and faecal samples were collected...
July 6, 2018: Gut
Kaige Li, Mengwei Guo, Lihua Tan, Xiaohong Li, Yanying Wu, Ying Lan, Wenlian Zhu, Yafang Zhao, Lufen Zhang, Xiaoxuan Ren
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at "Dachangshu" (BL 25) or "Tianshu" (ST 25) for visceral sensitivity, gene expression product c-kit of colonic Cajal interstitial cells (ICC) and capsaicin receptor 1 (TRPV1) of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rats, so as to investigate the effect and mechanism differences of EA at the back shu point and the front mu point of large intestine for IBS rats. METHODS: Forty-two Wistar neonatal rats were randomly divided into a blank group (9 rats) and a model group (33 rats)...
June 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Jun Hu, Lingli Chen, Yimei Tang, Chunlin Xie, Baoyang Xu, Min Shi, Wenyong Zheng, Shuyi Zhou, Xinkai Wang, Liu Liu, Yiqin Yan, Tao Yang, Yaorong Niu, Qiliang Hou, Xiaofan Xu, Xianghua Yan
The intestine of pigs harbors a mass of microorganisms which are essential for intestinal homeostasis and host health. Intestinal microbial disorders induce enteric inflammation and metabolic dysfunction, thereby causing adverse effects on the growth and health of pigs. In the human medicine, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which engrafts the fecal microbiota from a healthy donor into a patient recipient, has shown efficacy in intestinal microbiota restoration. In addition, it has been used widely in therapy for human gastrointestinal diseases, including Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel diseases, and irritable bowel syndrome...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Tingting Su, Rongbei Liu, Allen Lee, Yanqin Long, Lijun Du, Sanchuan Lai, Xueqin Chen, Lan Wang, Jianmin Si, Chung Owyang, Shujie Chen
Alterations in gut microbiota are postulated to be an etiologic factor in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). To determine whether IBS patients in China exhibited differences in their gut microbial composition, fecal samples were collected from diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) and healthy controls and evaluated by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence and quantitative real-time PCR. A mouse model of postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS) was established to determine whether the altered gut microbiota was associated with increased visceral hypersensitivity...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Ying Xu, Su-Ying Cui, Quan Ma, Jing Shi, Ying Yu, Jian-Xin Li, Liang Zheng, Yi Zhang, Jian-Min Si, Ying-Cong Yu
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder characterized by abdominal pain and abnormalities in defecation associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety due to the dysfunction of brain-gut axis. This study aims to determine whether trans -Resveratrol affects chronic-acute combined stress (CACS)-induced IBS-like symptoms including depression, anxiety and intestinal dysfunction. Methods: ICR male mice were exposed to the CACS for 3 weeks. trans -Resveratrol were administrated daily (2...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
M R Barbaro, D Fuschi, C Cremon, M Carapelle, P Dino, M M Marcellini, G Dothel, F De Ponti, V Stanghellini, G Barbara
BACKGROUND: Intestinal permeability is altered in a subgroup of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and may contribute to symptom development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on Caco-2 permeability alterations induced by mediators released by IBS mucosal biopsies compared to asymptomatic controls (AC). METHODS: Caco-2 cells were used as an in vitro model of intestinal permeability...
June 28, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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