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Irritable intestine syndrome

Ovidiu Burta, Claudia Iacobescu, Radu Bogdan Mateescu, Tudor Nicolaie, Nicoleta Tiuca, Corina Silvia Pop
Background: Bloating is a common symptom reported by around 16% to 31% of the general population. Functional bloating is diagnosed in patients with recurrent symptoms of bloating who do not meet the diagnostic criteria of irritable bowel syndrome or other functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods: This double-blind, multicentre, randomised study compared the safety and efficacy of APT036 (xyloglucan plus tyndallized Lactobacillus reuteri and Bifidobacterium brevis ; Aprotecol® ) and simethicone in treating functional bloating in adults...
2018: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Matthew T Pereira, Mridu Malik, Jillian A Nostro, Gretchen J Mahler, Laura Palanker Musselman
Increased intestinal barrier permeability has been correlated with aging and disease, including type 2 diabetes, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis and irritable bowel syndrome. The prevalence of these ailments has risen together with an increase in industrial food processing and food additive consumption. Additives, including sugar, metal oxide nanoparticles, surfactants and sodium chloride, have all been suggested to increase intestinal permeability. We used two complementary model systems to examine the effects of food additives on gut barrier function: a Drosophila in vivo model and an in vitro human cell co-culture model...
November 28, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Aref Shariati, Fateme Fallah, Ali Pormohammad, Ali Taghipour, Hossein Safari, Alireza Salami Chirani, Sahar Sabour, Mahmood Alizadeh-Sani, Taher Azimi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prolonged and disabling functional gastrointestinal disorder with the incidence rate of 18% in the world. IBS could seriously affect lifetime of patients and cause high economic burden on the community. The pathophysiology of the IBS is hardly understood, whereas several possible mechanisms, such as visceral hypersensitivity, irregular gut motility, abnormal brain-gut relations, and the role of infectious agents, are implicated in initiation and development of this syndrome...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Alexis Goichon, Wafa Bahlouli, Ibtissem Ghouzali, Philippe Chan, David Vaudry, Pierre Déchelotte, Philippe Ducrotté, Moïse Coëffier
A role for immunoproteasome in the regulation of intestinal permeability has been previously suggested both in mice during water avoidance stress (WAS) and in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Here, we provide evidence that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) contributes to the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, we report that colonic proteome is altered in WAS mice and that β2i subunit deficiency modifies the proteome response that is associated with a limitation of colonic hyperpermeability. Interestingly, we show specific alterations of proteins involved in UPS, mitochondrial, and energy metabolism...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Elisabet Johannesson, Eva Jakobsson Ung, Riadh Sadik, Gisela Ringström
OBJECTIVE: Increased physical activity has been tested among patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in a randomized trial which demonstrated improvement in gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The patients' experiences of the effects of physical activity on IBS symptoms are unknown. This knowledge is necessary to enable suitable support from health care professionals. The aim of this study was therefore to explore patients' experiences of the effects of physical activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Deep interviews were conducted with 15 patients (10 women and 5 men) aged 31-78 years...
November 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Giovanni Barbara, Cesare Cremon, Fernando Azpiroz
We have only recently begun to understand how alterations of the intestinal microbial ecosystem lead to the disruption of host-microbial interactions and are associated with diseases, including functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although we are still far from understanding the human microbiome, gut microbiota is already a therapeutic target. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit to the host and may represent a therapeutic option for diseases characterized by dysbiosis such as IBS...
December 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Johannes Peter, Camille Fournier, Bettina Keip, Nina Rittershaus, Nicola Stephanou-Rieser, Marija Durdevic, Clemens Dejaco, Maria Michalski, Gabriele Moser
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder with brain-gut-microbiome alterations. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (GHT) has been shown to improve quality of life and symptoms in IBS. This therapy targets psychological coping, central nervous processing and brain-gut interaction. Studies have also demonstrated effects of hypnosis on intestinal transit and the mucosal immune system. So far, no study has examined the effect of GHT on the intestinal microbiome. This study aimed at examining microbial composition, IBS symptoms, and psychological distress before and after GHT...
November 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lijun Du, Yanqin Long, John J Kim, Binrui Chen, Yubin Zhu, Ning Dai
BACKGROUND: The role of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) in the pathogenesis of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not well defined. AIMS: To investigate the role of PAR-2-mediated visceral hypersensitivity in a post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. METHODS: T. spiralis-infected PI-IBS mouse model was used. Fecal serine protease activity and intestinal mast cells were evaluated. Intestinal permeability was assessed by urine lactulose/mannitol ratio, and colonic expressions of PAR-2 and tight junction (TJ) proteins were examined by Western blot...
November 16, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Dervla O'Malley
NEW FINDINGS: Pathophysiological changes linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) include stress and immune activation, changes in gastrointestinal microbial and bile acids profiles and sensitisation of extrinsic and intrinsic gut neurons. This review explores the potential role for L-cells in these pathophysiological changes. L-cells, which secrete glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to nutrients, microbial factors, bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, may sense IBS-related changes in the luminal environment...
November 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Denitsa Simeonova, Mariya Ivanovska, Mariana Murdjeva, Andre F Carvalho, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: Increased intestinal permeability with heightened translocation of Gram-negative bacteria, also known as "leaky gut", is associated with the pathophysiology of neuroimmune disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), chronic fatigue syndrome (CSF) and (deficit) schizophrenia, as well as with general medical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. This review aims to summarize clinical biochemistry and molecular immunology tests that may aid in the recognition of leaky gut in clinical practice...
November 14, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Johanna Sundin, Mats Stridsberg, Julien Tap, Muriel Derrien, Boris Le Nevé, Joël Doré, Hans Törnblom, Magnus Simrén, Lena Öhman
Altered fecal levels of chromogranins (Cg) and secretogranins (Sg) are demonstrated in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but their role in IBS pathophysiology remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if granins are associated with bacterial composition, immune activation and IBS symptoms. Protein levels of fecal granins (CgA, CgB, SgII and SgIII) were analysed with immunoassays. Mucosal mRNA expression of granins, TPH1 and immune markers were evaluated with RT-qPCR. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on fecal and mucosal bacteria...
November 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rebeca M Cruz-Aguliar, Nina Wantia, Thomas Clavel, Maria J G T Vehreschild, Thorsten Buch, Monther Bajbouj, Dirk Haller, Dirk Busch, Roland M Schmid, Christoph K Stein-Thoeringer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The gut microbiota is altered in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and microbiota manipulations by diet or antibiotics can reduce its symptoms. As fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) in IBS is still controversial, we investigated the clinical and side effects of FMT in a cohort of IBS patients with recurrent, treatment refractory symptoms, and studied gut microbiota signatures. METHODS: Using an observational, prospective study design, we applied FMTs from one unrelated, healthy donor to 13 IBS patients...
November 13, 2018: Digestion
Jindong Zhang, Lijin Song, Yujing Wang, Chang Liu, Lu Zhang, Shiwei Zhu, Shuangjiang Liu, Liping Duan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Emerging evidence indicates that psychological stress is involved in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity and may be accompanied by gut dysbiosis. However, how such stress contributes to the development of visceral hypersensitivity is incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the influence that stress-induced microbial changes exert on visceral sensitivity, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms associated with this effect...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
J G Muir, J E Varney, M Ajamian, P R Gibson
Wheat- and gluten-containing products are often blamed for triggering a wide range of gastrointestinal symptoms, and this has fueled demand for gluten-free products worldwide. The best studied 'gluten intolerance' is coeliac disease, an auto-immune disease that affects the small intestine. Coeliac disease occurs in 1% of the population and requires strict, life-long avoidance of gluten-containing foods as the only medical treatment. There is a larger group of individuals (around 10-15% of the population) who report a wide-range of gastrointestinal symptoms that respond well to a 'gluten-free diet', but who do not have coeliac disease - so called 'non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)'...
October 24, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Jean-Pierre Raufman, Melissa Metry, Jessica Felton, Kunrong Cheng, Su Xu, James Polli
In up to 50% of people diagnosed with a common ailment, diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea results from excess spillage of bile acids into the colon-data emerging over the past decade identified deficient release of a gut hormone, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and a consequent lack of feedback suppression of bile acid synthesis as the most common cause. 75 Selenium homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) testing, considered the most sensitive and specific means of identifying individuals with bile acid diarrhea, is unavailable in many countries, including the United States...
November 1, 2018: Magma
Faith D Ihekweazu, James Versalovic
The intestinal microbiota are important in human growth and development. Microbial composition may yield insights into the temporal development of microbial communities and vulnerabilities to disorders of microbial ecology such as recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Discoveries of key microbiome features of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are lending new insights into possible therapies or preventative strategies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the development of the pediatric gastrointestinal microbiome, the influence of the microbiome on the developing brain through the gut-brain axis, and the impact of dysbiosis on disease development...
November 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Ashok K Tuteja, Nicholas J Talley, Gregory J Stoddard, G Nicholas Verne
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs in up to 33% of Gulf War (GW) Veterans. Alterations in gut microflora including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) during deployment may play a role in development of IBS. Rifaximin is a minimally absorbed antibiotic speculated to improve IBS symptoms, in part, by restoring normal gut microflora. The aim of this study was to compare rifaximin to placebo on IBS symptoms and quality of life (QOL) in GW Veterans with IBS without constipation...
October 28, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Andreas Straube, Hilke Müller, Verena Stiegelbauer, Anita Frauwallner
BACKGROUND: Patients with migraine often also suffer from gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease or celiac disease. All these diseases share increased intestinal permeability ("leaky gut") and thus increased inflammatory activity. There is an increase in proinflammatoric cytokines in the serum, which in turn can trigger migraine attacks. Probiotics can have a positive effect on the intestinal epithelium and reduce inflammatory activity...
November 2018: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
A Bak, M Ashford, D J Brayden
Current treatments for intestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, and colonic bacterial infections are typically small molecule oral dosage forms designed for systemic delivery. The intestinal permeability hurdle to achieve systemic delivery from oral formulations of macromolecules is challenging, but this drawback can be advantageous if an intestinal region is associated with the disease. There are some promising formulation approaches to release peptides, proteins, antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides, RNA, and probiotics in the colon to enable local delivery and efficacy...
October 22, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Sophie Reade, Jonathan M Williams, Raphael Aggio, Carrie A Duckworth, Awad Mahalhal, Rachael Hough, D Mark Pritchard, Chris S Probert
Metabolomics studies have the potential to discover biomarkers. Fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found to differ in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Murine models of colitis offer an alternative to human studies in which diet can be controlled. We aimed to investigate fecal VOCs from mice in which acute and chronic colitis was induced. Groups of adult C57BL/6 mice underwent treatment with oral dextran sulfate sodium to induce colitis. Control mice received no treatment or had acute osmotic diarrhea induced with magnesium sulfate...
October 25, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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