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Irritable intestine syndrome

Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Alessio Fasano
In children, functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common at all ages. Consumption of certain foods, particularly gluten, is frequently associated with the development and persistence of FGIDs and functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) in adults and children. However, this association is not well defined. Even without a diagnosis of celiac disease (CD), some people avoid gluten or wheat in their diet since it has been shown to trigger mostly gastrointestinal symptoms in certain individuals, especially in children...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
John P Russell, Ehsan Mohammadi, Casey Ligon, Rocco Latorre, Anthony C Johnson, Bao Hoang, David Krull, Melisa W-Y Ho, Hilary S Eidam, Michael P DeMartino, Mui Cheung, Allen I Oliff, Sanjay Kumar, Beverley Greenwood-Van Meerveld
BACKGROUND: The expression of RET in the developing enteric nervous system (ENS) suggests that RET may contribute to adult intestinal function. ENS cholinergic nerves play a critical role in the control of colonic function through the release of acetylcholine (ACh). In the current study, we hypothesized that a RET-mediated mechanism may regulate colonic ion transport and motility through modulation of cholinergic nerves. METHODS: The effect of RET inhibition on active ion transport was assessed electrophysiologically in rat colonic tissue mounted in Ussing chambers via measurements of short circuit current (Isc) upon electrical field stimulation (EFS) or pharmacologically with cholinergic agonists utilizing a gastrointestinal (GI)-restricted RET inhibitor...
October 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Vadim Osadchiy, Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Based largely on results from preclinical studies, the concept of a brain gut microbiome axis has been established, mediating bidirectional communication between the gut, its microbiome and the nervous system. Limited data obtained in humans suggests that alterations in these interactions may play a role in several brain gut disorders. METHODS: We reviewed the preclinical and clinical literature related to the topic of brain gut microbiome interactions...
October 4, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Wenting Wen, Haibo Zhang, Junlong Shen, Luxia Wei, Shunong Shen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disease characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. Many patients with IBS have a poor quality of life due to abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, and the presence of other diseases. At present, intestinal motility inhibitors, adsorbents, astringents, intestinal mucosal protective agents, and antidepressants have been combined to treat IBS, but the treatment process is long, which results in a large economic burden to patients...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Meng-Juan Lin, Bao-Ping Yu
Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease with hyperalgesia, the mechanisms of which remain elusive. The cholinergic system is known to be involved in pain inhibitory pathways in multiple diseases, and its involvement in IBS is unknown. Objective: We aimed to determine whether high-affinity choline transporter CHT1, a major determinant of the cholinergic signaling capacity, is involved in regulating intestinal sensations associated with stress-induced visceral pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Christopher Chang
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain that occurs with defecation or alterations in bowel habits. Further classification is based on the predominant bowel habit: constipation-predominant IBS, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), or mixed IBS. The pathogenesis of IBS is unclear and is considered multifactorial in nature. GI dysbiosis, thought to play a role in IBS pathophysiology, has been observed in patients with IBS. Alterations in the gut microbiota are observed in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and overgrowth may occur in a subset of patients with IBS...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Zsa Zsa R M Weerts, Daniel Keszthelyi, Lisa Vork, Nic C P Aendekerk, Henderik W Frijlink, Jacobus R B J Brouwers, Cees Neef, Daisy M A E Jonkers, Ad A M Masclee
INTRODUCTION: Peppermint oil (PO) has been shown to reduce abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). PO is assumed to induce intestinal smooth muscle relaxation and desensitization of nociceptive nerve afferents. To increase colonic PO concentration, an ileocolonic release peppermint oil (IC-PO) capsule has been developed. The aim of this study was to compare pharmacokinetic parameters of the currently available small intestinal release PO (SI-PO) and the novel IC-PO...
October 4, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Bruno Bordoni, Bruno Morabito
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most debilitating and common gastrointestinal disorders; nevertheless, its pathophysiology is still unclear. It affects 11% of the world's population, and is characterized by alternating periods of pain and/or motility disorders with periods of remission and without any evidence of any structural and functional organic variation. It has been recently proposed that an altered contractile ability of the diaphragm muscle might adversely influence intestinal motility...
July 23, 2018: Curēus
Larry Miller, Aydin Farajidavar, Anil Vegesna
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are major contributing factors to functional GI diseases that account for >40% of patients seen in gastroenterology clinics and affect >20% of the general population. The autonomic and enteric nervous systems and the muscles within the luminal GI tract have key roles in motility. In health, this complex integrated system works seamlessly to transport liquid, solid, and gas through the GI tract. However, major and minor motility disorders occur when these systems fail...
September 24, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
Mireia Lopez-Siles, Núria Enrich-Capó, Xavier Aldeguer, Miriam Sabat-Mir, Sylvia H Duncan, L Jesús Garcia-Gil, Margarita Martinez-Medina
Akkermansia muciniphila and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii , cohabitants in the intestinal mucosa, are considered members of a healthy microbiota and reduction of both species occurs in several intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Little is known however about a possible link between the reduction in quantity of these species, and in which circumstances this may occur. This study aims to determine the abundances and co-occurrence of the two species in order to elucidate conditions that may compromise their presence in the gut...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Wenjuan Fan, Guijun Fei, Xiaoqing Li, Xiyu Wang, Chaojun Hu, Haiwei Xin, Xiaohong Sun, Yongzhe Li, Jackie D Wood, Xiucai Fang
BACKGROUND: Sera anti-enteric neuronal antibodies (AENA), neuronal inflammation, and degeneration in myenteric plexus in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were reported. Effects of sera AENA in patients with IBS are unclear. METHODS: Patients with IBS met Rome III criteria were enrolled. Controls included healthy subjects (HS) and patients with slow transit functional constipation, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and autoimmune diseases...
September 17, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Sean M P Bennet, Johanna Sundin, Maria K Magnusson, Hans Strid, Julien Tap, Muriel Derrien, Boris Le Nevé, Joël Doré, Hans Törnblom, Magnus Simrén, Lena Öhman
BACKGROUND: Immune activity and gut microbiota may impact the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to determine whether antibacterial gene expression of immune activity-defined IBS patients differed compared to healthy subjects (HS) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and whether antibacterial profiles reflected gut microbiota composition and IBS symptoms. METHODS: Expression of 84 antibacterial genes in biopsies from HS, IBS patients (clustered according to immune activity (systemic and intestinal cytokines): immunonormal or immunoactive), and UC patients was assessed by Human Antibacterial Response RT2 Profiler PCR Array...
September 17, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Cesare Cremon, Maria Raffaella Barbaro, Marco Ventura, Giovanni Barbara
The dynamic relationship between gut microbiota and its human host is also known as a trophic association that might range from commensalism, where only the microbe enjoys a positive effect from the relationship, to intestinal symbiosis where both host and microbe benefit from their interaction. In the last years, we have started to understand how alterations of the gut microbiota composition leading to the disruption of host-microbial interactions are associated and/or predispose individuals to disease conditions ranging from inflammatory bowel diseases to allergy and functional gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome...
September 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Max Schmulson, Mohammad Bashashati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dysbiosis has been related to the pathophysiology of disorders of - gut-brain interaction (DGBI) including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and functional constipation (FC). Accordingly, modulation of gut microbiota has been proposed as a potential treatment for these disorders. Gut microbiota modulation can be effected by probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, postbiotics, antibiotics and fecal transplantation (FMT) or bacteriotherapy. The latter is currently used for recurrent or severe Clostridium difficile colitis and has been the focus of recent research in IBS and FC...
September 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Åsa V Keita, Johan D Söderholm
The intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to harmful luminal content, and uptake is closely controlled and regulated by neuro-immune factors. If control is broken, it might lead to ongoing enhanced mucosal permeability, potentially resulting in functional gastrointestinal disorders. The importance of mast cells in the regulation of the mucosal barrier has become obvious, and increased numbers and more activated mast cells have been observed in irritable bowel syndrome, functional dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease...
September 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Maria Gloria Mumolo, Lorenzo Bertani, Linda Ceccarelli, Gabriella Laino, Giorgia Di Fluri, Eleonora Albano, Gherardo Tapete, Francesco Costa
Fecal calprotectin (FC) has emerged as one of the most useful tools for clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Many different methods of assessment have been developed and different cut-offs have been suggested for different clinical settings. We carried out a comprehensive literature review of the most relevant FC-related topics: the role of FC in discriminating between IBD and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its use in managing IBD patients In patients with intestinal symptoms, due to the high negative predictive value a normal FC level reliably rules out active IBD...
September 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Leidiane A A Menezes, Fabio Minervini, Pasquale Filannino, Maria L S Sardaro, Monica Gatti, Juliano De Dea Lindner
Background: Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are an heterogeneous group of compounds that can be poorly digested and may have a range of effects on gastrointestinal processes. FODMAPs are found in a wide variety of foods, including bread. FODMAPs' intake is associated with the onset of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On the other hand, some FODMAPs contribute to the healthy maintenance of intestinal microbiota. Volume increase of bread dough commonly relies on the use of two biological leavening agents, sourdough and baker's yeast and, in some cases, a combination of both...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marcin Sochal, Paula Mosińska, Jakub Fichna
Chemerin is a protein secreted among others by adipose tissue and liver, with a dual pro- and anti-inflammatory role in the body. These molecules exert systemic effects by modulating tissue-specific immune response and metabolism. Chemerin isoforms correlate with the turnover of fatty acids and lipoproteins that could affect intestinal inflammation. Although chemerin may interact with three types of receptors, CMKLR1 is the best studied. In this paper we reviewed current knowledge about the relationship between chemerin and lower gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer (CRC)...
August 27, 2018: Peptides
Ho-Jae Lee, Ji-Young Cha
Fructose in the form of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup is absorbed by the intestinal transporter and mainly metabolized in the small intestine. However, excess intake of fructose overwhelms the absorptive capacity of the small intestine, leading to fructose malabsorption. Carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that plays a key role in glycolytic and lipogenic gene expression in response to carbohydrate consumption. While ChREBP was initially identified as a glucose-responsive factor in the liver, recent evidence suggests that ChREBP is essential for fructoseinduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the small intestine as well as in the liver...
September 2018: BMB Reports
Yoonjin Nam, Young Sil Min, Uy Dong Sohn
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder, is associated with various factors, including lifestyle, infection, stress, intestinal flora, and related diseases. The pharmacotherapeutic stimulation of receptors and downstream signaling pathways is effective in reducing IBS symptoms; however, it is still associated with adverse effects. Various receptors related to GI motility and visceral hypersensitivity should be considered to enhance the benefit/risk ratio of IBS treatments. This review discusses recent pharmacological advances in IBS management...
October 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
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