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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820054/qsar-modeling-of-histamine-h3r-antagonists-inverse-agonists-as-future-drugs-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
Michelle Fidelis Corrêa, João Paulo Dos Santos Fernandes
Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is associated with several neuropsychological diseases. It is predominantly expressed in the central nervous system as presynaptic receptor, especially in regions associated with cognition and behavior, and is responsible for modulate the synthesis and release of histamine and other neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin. Therefore, H3R is an important target involved in several CNS disorders, such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia...
August 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819922/therapeutic-alliance-client-need-for-approval-and-perfectionism-as-differential-moderators-of-response-to-ehealth-and-traditionally-delivered-treatments-for-comorbid-depression-and-substance-use-problems
#2
Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Amanda L Baker, Kerrin Palazzi, Terry J Lewin, Brian J Kelly
PURPOSE: This study sought to undertake an exploratory analysis of the impact of therapeutic alliance and dysfunctional attitudes (perfectionism and need for approval) on outcomes for participants receiving therapist-delivered and eHealth interventions for comorbid depression and alcohol/cannabis use problems. These factors have been shown in previous research to moderate response to psychological treatment for depression and related disorders. METHOD: Participants (N = 274) with concurrent depression and alcohol/cannabis misuse were randomized to 10 sessions of therapist-delivered cognitive behavior therapy/motivational interviewing (CBT/MI), computer-delivered CBT/MI with brief therapist assistance (SHADE CBT/MI), or supportive counseling (PCT)...
August 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819875/pathways-from-birth-weight-to-adhd-symptoms-through-fluid-reasoning-in-youth-with-or-without-intellectual-disability
#3
Julia E Morgan, Steve S Lee, Sandra K Loo, Joshua W Yuhan, Bruce L Baker
Although individual differences in fluid reasoning reliably mediate predictions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms from birth weight in youth with typical cognitive development (TD), it is unknown if this indirect effect operates similarly in the development of ADHD symptoms secondary to intellectual disability (ID). Thus, we evaluated mediation by fluid reasoning in a longitudinal sample of 163 youth (45% female) with (n = 52) or without (n = 111) ID who were followed prospectively from age 5 to age 13...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819795/leptin-regulation-of-synaptic-function-at-hippocampal-ta-ca1-and-sc-ca1-synapses-implications-for-health-and-disease
#4
Gemma McGregor, Jenni Harvey
Growing evidence indicates that the endocrine hormone leptin regulates hippocampal synaptic function in addition to its established role as a hypothalamic satiety signal. Indeed, numerous studies show that leptin facilitates the cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking, indicating that leptin may be a potential cognitive enhancer. Although there has been extensive investigation into the modulatory role of leptin at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses, recent evidence indicates that leptin also potently regulates excitatory synaptic transmission at the anatomically distinct temporoammonic (TA) input to hippocampal CA1 neurons...
August 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819243/temporal-profiling-of-depression-vulnerability-in-a-preclinical-model-of-sustained-depression
#5
D Riga, L J M Schmitz, W J G Hoogendijk, A B Smit, S Spijker
Major Depression is a prevalent mental disorder that is characterized by negative mood and reduced motivation, and frequently results in social withdrawal and memory-related deficits. Repeated stressors, such as adverse life events, increase the risk for development of the disorder. Consequently, individual variability in stress response greatly weighs on depression-vulnerability and -resilience. Here, we employed the social defeat-induced persistent stress (SDPS) paradigm to identify depression-prone individuals and to examine the temporal development of depression in the months following exposure to brief defeat stress...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819155/context-conditioning-in-humans-using-commercially-available-immersive-virtual-reality
#6
Marijn C W Kroes, Joseph E Dunsmoor, Wayne E Mackey, Mason McClay, Elizabeth A Phelps
Despite a wealth of knowledge on how humans and nonhuman animals learn to associate meaningful events with cues in the environment, far less is known about how humans learn to associate these events with the environment itself. Progress on understanding spatiotemporal contextual processes in humans has been slow in large measure by the methodological constraint of generating and manipulating immersive spatial environments in well-controlled laboratory settings. Fortunately, immersive Virtual Reality (iVR) technology has improved appreciably and affords a relatively straightforward methodology to investigate the role of context on learning, memory, and emotion while maintaining experimental control...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818755/biochemical-abnormalities-in-basal-ganglia-and-executive-dysfunction-in-acute-and-euthymic-episode-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-a-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#7
Shunkai Lai, Shuming Zhong, Xiaoxiao Liao, Ying Wang, Jingyu Huang, Shanhong Zhang, Yao Sun, Hui Zhao, Yanbin Jia
BACKGROUND: Recent studies found abnormal biochemical metabolism and executive cognitive deficits in acute bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence concerning in euthymic BD is limited. Thus, a comparison between acute and euthymic BD is conductive to better understanding the association between cognition and the outcome of neuroimaging. This study sought to investigate the relationship between the executive function and the biochemical metabolism in acute- and euthymic-episode BD patients and delineate the prominent endophenotype of BD...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818561/the-rise-and-fall-of-impulse-control-behavior-disorders
#8
Giovanni Cossu, Roberta Rinaldi, Carlo Colosimo
INTRODUCTION: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are psychiatric disorders characterized by the failure to resist an impulse or by the temptation to perform an act that is harmful to oneself or to others. METHODS: ICDs, including pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive eating and shopping, can occur as a complication of Parkinson's disease (PD) together with other behavioral disorders, including dopamine dysregulation syndrome. This review is based on a literature search updated to May 2017, focusing on the epidemiology, clinical features, and therapeutic options of ICDs associated with PD...
August 1, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817953/the-evidence-base-for-interventions-targeting-individuals-with-work-related-ptsd-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations
#9
Iris Torchalla, Verena Strehlau
The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence base for interventions targeting individuals with work-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to make recommendations for clinicians and administrative decision makers involved in their rehabilitation, and to guide future research in this area. Particular attention was given to studies that were conducted in naturalistic clinical settings or in a workers' compensation claim context. Electronic searches of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, PILOTS, and EMBASE identified 11 articles...
August 1, 2017: Behavior Modification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817952/professional-socialization-a-grounded-theory-of-the-clinical-reasoning-processes-that-rns-and-lpns-use-to-recognize-delirium
#10
Mohamed El Hussein, Sandra Hirst, Joseph Osuji
Delirium is an acute disorder of attention and cognition. It affects half of older adults in acute care settings and is a cause of increasing mortality and costs. Registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) frequently fail to recognize delirium. The goals of this research were to identify the reasoning processes that RNs and LPNs use to recognize delirium, to compare their reasoning processes, and to generate a theory that explains their clinical reasoning processes. Theoretical sampling was employed to elicit data from 28 participants using grounded theory methodology...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816110/reduced-beta-amyloid-sensitivity-for-platelet-monocyte-aggregates-in-edta-blood-of-alzheimer-patients
#11
Michaela Defrancesco, Josef Marksteiner, Christian Humpel
Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is a severe neurodegenerative brain disorder characterized by beta-amyloid plaques, Tau pathology, inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cerebrovascular dysfunction. Besides that, alterations in monocytes and platelets have been reported in the blood of Alzheimer patients. In the present study, we measured circulating levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates in EDTA blood of cognitively healthy participants and 40 AD patients, and examined their changes induced by stimulation with beta-amyloid peptides...
August 17, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816000/investigating-facial-phenotype-in-autism-spectrum-conditions-the-importance-of-a-hypothesis-driven-approach
#12
Maryam Boutrus, Murray T Maybery, Gail A Alvares, Diana Weiting Tan, Kandice J Varcin, Andrew J O Whitehouse
Atypical facial characteristics have been observed in many disorders associated with developmental disability. While autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have not previously been thought to be associated with a distinct facial phenotype, an emerging research literature is casting doubt on this assumption. The identification of differences in the facial phenotype of individuals with ASC may contribute to efforts to promote early identification of the condition and help elucidate etiological pathways. With the aim of identifying facial phenotypes associated with ASC, this commentary evaluated facial features purported to distinguish ASC from typical development...
August 17, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815876/a-treatment-development-study-of-a-cognitive-and-mindfulness-based-therapy-for-adolescents-with-co-occurring-post-traumatic-stress-and-substance-use-disorder
#13
Lisa R Fortuna, Michelle V Porche, Auralyd Padilla
OBJECTIVE: Substance use is common among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to develop and study an integrated treatment for adolescents with co-occurring disorders. DESIGN: This is a therapy development and open pilot trial study of a manualized therapy for adolescents with post-traumatic stress, depression, and substance use that uses a combination of cognitive therapy (CT) and mindfulness. METHODS: Descriptive statistics and paired sample t-tests were calculated to assess for changes in PTSD symptoms, depression, and substance use frequency from baseline to end of treatment using standardized measures and validated by urine drug screens...
August 16, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815684/cognitive-psychophysiological-treatment-of-bodily-focused-repetitive-behaviors-in-adults-an-open-trial
#14
Kieron O'Connor, Marc Lavoie, Benoît Desaulniers, Jean-Sébastien Audet
BACKGROUND: Body-focused repetitive behaviors (BFRBs), such as hair pulling, skin picking, and nail biting, are repetitive, destructive, and nonfunctional habits that cause significant distress. Separate BFRBs form a cohesive group and could be assessed as part of the Tourette/tic spectrum or obsessive-compulsive spectrum of disorders. The treatment of choice is either antidepressant or behavioral treatment, both of which have shown effectiveness. The cognitive psychophysiological (CoPs) model focuses on the tension and emotional build up that triggers habits by addressing cognitive-behavioral, emotional and psychophysiological processes preceding onset rather than the habit itself...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815619/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-in-children-and-adolescents-with-higher-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorders-social-impairments-and-internalizing-symptoms
#15
Outi Reinvall, Teija Kujala, Arja Voutilainen, Anu-Liisa Moisio, Pekka Lahti-Nuuttila, Marja Laasonen
Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was introduced in 1980s in the field of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies indicate that symptoms of SCT are separate from symptoms of ADHD and independently associated with multiple domains of functioning in clinical groups and in typical development. We assessed whether similar pattern would apply to higher functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with higher functioning ASD (N = 55; 5-15 years) were divided into the ASD+High SCT (n = 17), the ASD+Medium SCT (n = 18) and the ASD+Low SCT (n = 20) groups based on parent-rated daydreaming and slowness on the Five to Fifteen questionnaire (FTF)...
August 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815114/an-exploration-of-latent-structure-in-observational-huntington-s-disease-studies
#16
Soumya Ghosh, Zhaonan Sun, Ying Li, Yu Cheng, Amrita Mohan, Cristina Sampaio, Jianying Hu
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive decay of motor and cognitive abilities accompanied by psychiatric episodes. Tracking and modeling the progression of the multi-faceted clinical symptoms of HD is a challenging problem that has important implications for staging of HD patients and the development of improved enrollment criteria for future HD studies and trials. In this paper, we describe the first steps towards this goal. We begin by curating data from four recent observational HD studies, each containing a diverse collection of clinical assessments...
2017: AMIA Summits on Translational Science Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814961/compound-schisandra-ginseng-notoginseng-lycium-extract-ameliorates-scopolamine-induced-learning-and-memory-disorders-in-mice
#17
Ning Li, Cong Liu, Shu Jing, Mengyang Wang, Han Wang, Jinghui Sun, Chunmei Wang, Jianguang Chen, He Li
Schisandra, Ginseng, Notoginseng, and Lycium barbarum are traditional Chinese medicinal plants sharing cognitive-enhancing properties. To design a functional food to improve memory, we prepared a compound Schisandra-Ginseng-Notoginseng-Lycium (CSGNL) extract and investigated its effect on scopolamine-induced learning and memory loss in mice. To optimize the dose ratios of the four herbal extracts in CSGNL, orthogonal experiments were performed. Mice were administered CSGNL by gavage once a day for 30 days and then mouse learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze and step-through tests...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814874/la-belle-indiff%C3%A3-rence-revisited-a-case-report-on-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-misdiagnosed-as-conversion-disorder
#18
Petra J van Meerkerk-Aanen, Lars de Vroege, David Khasho, Aziza Foruz, J Thies van Asseldonk, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis
BACKGROUND: Since the advent of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans, neurological disorders have less often been falsely labeled as conversion disorder (CD). However, misdiagnosis of a neurological disorder as CD still occurs, especially in cases with insidious onset. Misinterpretation of la belle indifférence may contribute to such misdiagnosis. Here, we describe a case of progressive supranuclear palsy/Richardson's syndrome (PSPS) misdiagnosed as a case of CD. CASE: A 62-year-old woman consulted two different neurologists in 2012 because of falling spells since 2009 and was diagnosed with CD...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814760/mir-181a-involves-in-the-hippocampus-dependent-memory-formation-via-targeting-prkaa1
#19
Sun-Fu Zhang, Jun-Chen Chen, Jing Zhang, Jian-Guo Xu
Post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs) is involved in memory formation. However, the roles of individual miRNAs in these processes remain largely unknown. In this study, we want to clarify the role of miR-181a in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. A transient increase in miR-181a expression was observed after conditioned fear conditioning (CFC) and object location task (OLT) training. Selective overexpression or inhibition of miR-181a in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) via the injection of a miR-181a agomir or antagomir enhanced or impaired the CFC- and OLT-dependent memory formation, respectively...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814546/mglu7-potentiation-rescues-cognitive-social-and-respiratory-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-of-rett-syndrome
#20
Rocco G Gogliotti, Rebecca K Senter, Nicole M Fisher, Jeffrey Adams, Rocio Zamorano, Adam G Walker, Anna L Blobaum, Darren W Engers, Corey R Hopkin, J Scott Daniels, Carrie K Jones, Craig W Lindsley, Zixiu Xiang, P Jeffrey Conn, Colleen M Niswender
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The cognitive impairments seen in mouse models of RTT correlate with deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (mGlu7) is the predominant mGlu receptor expressed presynaptically at SC-CA1 synapses in adult mice, and its activation on GABAergic interneurons is necessary for induction of LTP. We demonstrate that pathogenic mutations in MECP2 reduce mGlu7 protein expression in brain tissue from RTT patients and in MECP2-deficient mouse models...
August 16, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
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