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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728097/nonlinear-modulation-of-interacting-between-comt-and-depression-on-brain-function
#1
L Gong, C He, Y Yin, Q Ye, F Bai, Y Yuan, H Zhang, L Lv, H Zhang, Z Zhang, C Xie
BACKGROUND: The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear. METHODS: Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function...
June 9, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728093/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-in-the-elderly-a-report-from-the-international-college-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorders-icocs
#2
B Dell'Osso, B Benatti, C I Rodriguez, C Arici, C Palazzo, A C Altamura, E Hollander, N Fineberg, D J Stein, H Nicolini, N Lanzagorta, D Marazziti, S Pallanti, M Van Ameringen, C Lochner, O Karamustafalioglu, L Hranov, M Figee, L Drummond, J Grant, D Denys, D Cath, J M Menchon, J Zohar
INTRODUCTION: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition, with frequent early onset. Adult/adolescent OCD has been extensively investigated, but little is known about prevalence and clinical characterization of geriatric patients with OCD (G-OCD≥65years). The present study aimed to assess prevalence of G-OCD and associated socio-demographic and clinical correlates in a large international sample. METHODS: Data from 416 outpatients, participating in the ICOCS network, were assessed and categorized into 2 groups, age<vs≥65years, and then divided on the basis of the median age of the sample (age<vs≥42years)...
July 4, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728060/clinical-neurophysiology-of-prolonged-disorders-of-consciousness-from-diagnostic-stimulation-to-therapeutic-neuromodulation
#3
REVIEW
Aldo Ragazzoni, Massimo Cincotta, Fabio Giovannelli, Damian Cruse, G Bryan Young, Carlo Miniussi, Simone Rossi
The identification of signs of awareness in patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC) after severe brain injury is a challenging task for clinicians. Differentiating on behavioural examination the vegetative state (VS) from the minimally conscious state (MCS) can lead to a high misdiagnosis rate. Advanced neuroimaging and neurophysiological techniques can supplement clinical evaluation by providing physiological evidence of brain activity. However, an open issue remains whether these empirical results are directly or indirectly associated with covert consciousness and limitations emerge for their diagnostic application at the single-patient level...
June 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727687/hippocampus-dependent-memory-and-allele-specific-gene-expression-in-adult-offspring-of-alcohol-consuming-dams-after-neonatal-treatment-with-thyroxin-or-metformin
#4
E Tunc-Ozcan, S L Wert, P H Lim, A Ferreira, E E Redei
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), the result of fetal alcohol exposure (FAE), affects 2-11% of children worldwide, with no effective treatments. Hippocampus-based learning and memory deficits are key symptoms of FASD. Our previous studies show hypothyroxinemia and hyperglycemia of the alcohol-consuming pregnant rat, which likely affects fetal neurodevelopment. We administered vehicle, thyroxine (T4) or metformin to neonatal rats post FAE and rats were tested in the hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-conditioning paradigm in adulthood...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727326/-evaluation-of-an-outpatient-multidisciplinary-neuro-hiv-clinic-by-the-patients-and-referring-doctors
#5
Kevin Vallotton, Mélanie Métral, Oury Chocron, Reto Meuli, Deolinda Alves, Renaud Du Pasquier, Matthias Cavassini
The neurocognitive complaints among HIV infected patients remain frequent, and to establish their etiology can be challenging. We created in 2011 an outpatient Neuro-HIV clinical platform that takes advantage of a multidisciplinary approach with 5 specialists (neuropsychologist, neurologist, psychiatrist, infectiologist and neuroradiologist). In order to estimate its utility, we conducted two questionnaire-based interviews by phone calls with the patients and their referring physicians. Three quarters of both the patients and the physicians interviewed consider the platform useful or essential...
April 12, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727115/the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-as-a-key-regulator-of-neural-function-and-the-stress-response-implications-for-human-and-animal-health
#6
N C Wiley, T G Dinan, R P Ross, C Stanton, G Clarke, J F Cryan
The brain-gut-microbiota axis comprises an extensive communication network between the brain, the gut, and the microbiota residing there. Development of a diverse gut microbiota is vital for multiple features of behavior and physiology, as well as many fundamental aspects of brain structure and function. Appropriate early-life assembly of the gut microbiota is also believed to play a role in subsequent emotional and cognitive development. If the composition, diversity, or assembly of the gut microbiota is impaired, this impairment can have a negative impact on host health and lead to disorders such as obesity, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and even potentially neuropsychiatric illnesses, including anxiety and depression...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726593/validation-and-normalization-of-the-tower-of-london-drexel-university-test-2nd-edition-in-an-adult-population-with-intellectual-disability
#7
Javier García-Alba, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Miguel Ángel Castellanos López, Emili Rodríguez Hidalgo, Nuria Ribas Vidal, Fernando Moldenhauer Díaz, Ramón Novell-Alsina
Despite how important it is to assess executive functioning in persons with Intellectual Disability (ID), instruments adapted and validated for this population are scarce. This study's primary goal was to find evidence for the validity of the ID version of the Tower of London (TOLDXtm) test in persons with mild (IDMi) and moderate (IDMo) levels of ID with Down Syndrome (DS). A multicenter study was carried out. Subjects (n = 63, ≥ 39 years old) had DS with mild (n = 39) or moderate ID (n = 24) with no minor neurocognitive disorder or Alzheimer's disease...
July 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726442/ptsd-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-co-morbidity-gaps-in-research-and-potential-shared-mechanisms
#8
Nirit Haruvi-Lamdan, Danny Horesh, Ofer Golan
BACKGROUND: While autism and trauma were often linked in psychoanalytic theory, very few scientific attempts have been made to explore the associations and comorbidity between the two. Instead, each area has grown separately, yielding large bodies of theoretical and clinical knowledge. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: In this article, we suggest several possible pathways that may link trauma and autism. First, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may serve as a vulnerability marker for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically by increasing the risk for exposure to traumatic events...
July 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725956/non-suicidal-self-injury-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-clinical-correlates-and-impact-on-psychosocial-treatment-outcomes
#9
Heather A MacPherson, Sally M Weinstein, Amy E West
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in childhood is not well documented, especially among youth with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). The current study evaluated prevalence and correlates of NSSI, and its impact on intervention response, in a randomized trial of Child- and Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CFF-CBT) versus Treatment As Usual (TAU), adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. This study included 72 children ages 7-13 (58% male) with PBD. NSSI and correlates were assessed at baseline; mood and psychiatric severity were measured longitudinally...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725706/the-effect-of-deep-brain-stimulation-on-the-non-motor-symptoms-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-critical-review-of-the-current-evidence
#10
REVIEW
Mónica M Kurtis, Thadshani Rajah, Luisa F Delgado, Haidar S Dafsari
The benefit of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in controlling the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease is well established, however, the impact on the non-motor symptoms (NMS) remains to be elucidated, although the growing investigative efforts are promising. This article reviews the reported data and considers the level of evidence available with regard to the effect of DBS on NMS total burden and on the cognitive, neuropsychiatric, sleep, pain, dysautonomic, and weight domains. Multiple case series suggest that DBS improves the burden of NMS by reducing prevalence, intensity, and non-motor fluctuations...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725547/spatial-working-memory-in-neurofibromatosis-1-altered-neural-activity-and-functional-connectivity
#11
Amira F A Ibrahim, Caroline A Montojo, Kristen M Haut, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Laura Hansen, Eliza Congdon, Tena Rosser, Robert M Bilder, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder that disrupts central nervous system development and neuronal function. Cognitively, NF1 is characterized by difficulties with executive control and visuospatial abilities. Little is known about the neural substrates underlying these deficits. The current study utilized Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the neural correlates of spatial working memory (WM) deficits in patients with NF1. METHODS: BOLD images were acquired from 23 adults with NF1 (age M = 32...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725201/nature-and-specificity-of-gestural-disorder-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-multiple-case-study
#12
Orianne Costini, Arnaud Roy, Chrystelle Remigereau, Sylvane Faure, Catherine Fossoud, Didier Le Gall
Aim: Praxis assessment in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is usually based on tests of adult apraxia, by comparing across types of gestures and input modalities. However, the cognitive models of adult praxis processing are rarely used in a comprehensive and critical interpretation. These models generally involve two systems: a conceptual system and a production system. Heterogeneity of deficits is consistently reported in DCD, involving other cognitive skills such as executive or visual-perceptual and visuospatial functions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725190/reliability-of-eeg-interactions-differs-between-measures-and-is-specific-for-neurological-diseases
#13
Yvonne Höller, Kevin Butz, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Elisabeth Schmid, Andreas Uhl, Arne C Bathke, Georg Zimmermann, Santino O Tomasi, Raffaele Nardone, Wolfgang Staffen, Peter Höller, Markus Leitinger, Julia Höfler, Gudrun Kalss, Alexandra C Taylor, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Eugen Trinka
Alterations of interaction (connectivity) of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725136/sex-specific-effect-of-recalled-parenting-on-affective-and-cognitive-empathy-in-adulthood
#14
Minna T Lyons, Gayle Brewer, Emily J Bethell
Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980)...
2017: Current Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724748/depressed-synaptic-transmission-and-reduced-vesicle-release-sites-in-huntington-s-disease-neuromuscular-junctions
#15
Ahmad Khedraki, Eric J Reed, Shannon H Romer, Qingbo Wang, William Romine, Mark M Rich, Robert J Talmadge, Andrew A Voss
Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the central nervous system. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724467/differential-associations-between-sensory-loss-and-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-adults-with-and-without-a-neurocognitive-disorder
#16
Kim M Kiely, Moyra E Mortby, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: To investigate the differential associations between sensory loss and neuropsychiatric symptoms among older adults with and without diagnosed neurocognitive disorder. METHODS: The sample comprised 1,393 adults (52.3% men) aged between 72 and 79 years from a community-based cohort study. There were 213 cases of mild and 64 cases of major neurocognitive disorders. The main outcome was number of informant reported symptoms on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI)...
July 20, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724449/novel-promoters-and-coding-first-exons-in-dlg2-linked-to-developmental-disorders-and-intellectual-disability
#17
Claudio Reggiani, Sandra Coppens, Tayeb Sekhara, Ivan Dimov, Bruno Pichon, Nicolas Lufin, Marie-Claude Addor, Elga Fabia Belligni, Maria Cristina Digilio, Flavio Faletra, Giovanni Battista Ferrero, Marion Gerard, Bertrand Isidor, Shelagh Joss, Florence Niel-Bütschi, Maria Dolores Perrone, Florence Petit, Alessandra Renieri, Serge Romana, Alexandra Topa, Joris Robert Vermeesch, Tom Lenaerts, Georges Casimir, Marc Abramowicz, Gianluca Bontempi, Catheline Vilain, Nicolas Deconinck, Guillaume Smits
BACKGROUND: Tissue-specific integrative omics has the potential to reveal new genic elements important for developmental disorders. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with global developmental delay and intellectual disability phenotype underwent array-CGH genetic testing, both showing a partial deletion of the DLG2 gene. From independent human and murine omics datasets, we combined copy number variations, histone modifications, developmental tissue-specific regulation, and protein data to explore the molecular mechanism at play...
July 19, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724423/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-telephone-based-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-in-primary-care-study-protocol-of-tide-telephone-intervention-for-depression
#18
Birgit Watzke, Elisa Haller, Maya Steinmann, Daniela Heddaeus, Martin Härter, Hans-Helmut König, Karl Wegscheider, Thomas Rosemann
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of evidence-based treatments for depression, a large proportion of patients remains untreated or adequate treatment is initiated with delay. This situation is particularly critical in primary care, where not only most individuals first seek help for their mental health problems, but also depressive disorders - particularly mild to moderate levels of severity - are highly prevalent given the high comorbidity of chronic somatic conditions and depression...
July 19, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724392/a-prospective-study-assessing-agreement-and-reliability-of-a-geriatric-evaluation
#19
Isabella Locatelli, Stéfanie Monod, Jacques Cornuz, Christophe J Büla, Nicolas Senn
BACKGROUND: The present study takes place within a geriatric program, aiming at improving the diagnosis and management of geriatric syndromes in primary care. Within this program it was of prime importance to be able to rely on a robust and reproducible geriatric consultation to use as a gold standard for evaluating a primary care brief assessment tool. The specific objective of the present study was thus assessing the agreement and reliability of a comprehensive geriatric consultation...
July 19, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724385/increase-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2-as-hydrolytic-enzyme-of-phospholipids-and-autism-cognitive-social-and-sensory-dysfunction-severity
#20
Hanan Qasem, Laila Al-Ayadhi, Hussain Al Dera, Afaf El-Ansary
BACKGROUND: Autism is neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized by developmental, behavioral, social and sensory abnormalities. Researchers have focused in last years in immunological alteration and inflammation as a hot subject in autism field. This work aims to study the alteration in phospholipids (PE, PS, and PC) together with the change in cPLA2 concentration as the main phospholipid hydrolytic enzyme in autistic patients compared to control. It was also extended to find a correlation between these biomarkers and severity of autism measured as childhood autism rating scale (CARS), Social responsiveness scale (SRS), and Short sensory profile (SSP)...
June 15, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
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