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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937953/the-biological-basis-of-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-following-blast-injury-a-literature-review
#1
Matt Aldag, Regina C Armstrong, Faris Bandak, Patrick S F Bellgowan, Timothy Bentley, Sean Biggerstaff, Katrina Caravelli, Joan Cmarik, Alicia Crowder, Thomas J DeGraba, Travis A Dittmer, Richard G Ellenbogen, Colin Greene, Raj K Gupta, Ramona Hicks, Stuart Hoffman, Robert C Latta, Michael J Leggieri, Donald Marion, Robert Mazzoli, Michael McCrea, John O'Donnell, Mark Packer, James B Petro, Todd E Rasmussen, Wendy Sammons-Jackson, Richard Shoge, Victoria Tepe, Ladd A Tremaine, James Zheng
The United States Department of Defense Blast Injury Research Program Coordinating Office organized the 2015 International State-of-the-Science meeting to explore links between blast-related head injury and the development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Before the meeting, the planning committee examined articles published between 2005 and October 2015 and prepared this literature review, which summarized broadly CTE research and addressed questions about the pathophysiological basis of CTE and its relationship to blast- and nonblast-related head injury...
September 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937921/internalizing-risk-factors-for-college-students-alcohol-use-a-combined-person-and-variable-centered-approach
#2
Stephanie E Wemm, Stephanie M Ernestus, Cathryn Glanton Holzhauer, Renata Vaysman, Edelgard Wulfert, Allen C Israel
BACKGROUND: Most studies that investigate internalizing problems (i.e., depression and anxiety symptoms) and alcohol use disorders use variable-centered approaches, losing important information about differences among individuals. OBJECTIVES: To group college students by different profiles of alcohol-use risk factors using a person-centered cluster analysis in two separate samples. METHODS: Questionnaires were used in both studies to assess positive expectancies regarding alcohol use, coping motives for alcohol use, and symptoms of depression and anxiety...
September 22, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937620/dysbindin-1-involvement-in-the-etiology-of-schizophrenia
#3
REVIEW
Haitao Wang, Jiangping Xu, Philip Lazarovici, Wenhua Zheng
Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder that afflicts about 1% of the world's population, falling into the top 10 medical disorders causing disability. Existing therapeutic strategies have had limited success on cognitive impairment and long-term disability and are burdened by side effects. Although new antipsychotic medications have been launched in the past decades, there has been a general lack of significant innovation. This lack of significant progress in the pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia is a reflection of the complexity and heterogeneity of the disease...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937452/use-and-effectiveness-of-sleep-medications-by-parent-report-in-individuals-with-williams-syndrome
#4
Marilee A Martens, Daisha L Seyfer, Rebecca R Andridge, Daniel L Coury
OBJECTIVE: Sleep disorders are common in individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), and sleep disturbance has a significant negative effect on attention, learning, and behavior. The use of sleep-inducing medicine in individuals with WS has not been widely investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and effectiveness of sleep medications among a large sample of individuals with WS by parent survey. METHODS: A survey of the use and effectiveness of sleep medications was completed by 513 (of 2846) members of the Williams Syndrome Association...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936707/immunoglobulin-genotypes-and-cognitive-functions-in-schizophrenia
#5
Janardan P Pandey, Aryan M Namboodiri, Paul J Nietert, Reiji Yoshimura, Hikaru Hori
Exposure to neurotropic viruses, such as herpes simplex virus type 1 and human cytomegalovirus, has been reported to be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. These viruses have evolved highly sophisticated strategies for decreasing the efficacy of the host immune response and interfering with viral clearance. Particular immunoglobulin GM (γ marker) genotypes modulate these viral immunoevasion strategies, influence antibody responsiveness to viral proteins, and are also associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia, providing an excellent rationale for determining their possible involvement in the cognitive functions in this highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder...
September 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936548/auditory-feature-perception-and-auditory-hallucinatory-experiences-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder
#6
Ashley M Schnakenberg Martin, Lisa Bartolomeo, Josselyn Howell, William P Hetrick, Amanda R Bolbecker, Alan Breier, Gary Kidd, Brian F O'Donnell
Schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SZ) is associated with deficits in auditory perception as well as auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH). However, the relationship between auditory feature perception and auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), one of the most commonly occurring symptoms in psychosis, has not been well characterized. This study evaluated perception of a broad range of auditory features in SZ and determined whether current AVHs relate to auditory feature perception. Auditory perception, including frequency, intensity, duration, pulse-train and temporal order discrimination, as well as an embedded tone task, was assessed in both AVH (n = 20) and non-AVH (n = 24) SZ individuals and in healthy controls (n = 29) with the Test of Basic Auditory Capabilities (TBAC)...
September 21, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936173/combining-spect-and-quantitative-eeg-analysis-for-the-automated-differential-diagnosis-of-disorders-with-amnestic-symptoms
#7
Yvonne Höller, Arne C Bathke, Andreas Uhl, Nicolas Strobl, Adelheid Lang, Jürgen Bergmann, Raffaele Nardone, Fabio Rossini, Harald Zauner, Margarita Kirschner, Amirhossein Jahanbekam, Eugen Trinka, Wolfgang Staffen
Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and Electroencephalography (EEG) have become established tools in routine diagnostics of dementia. We aimed to increase the diagnostic power by combining quantitative markers from SPECT and EEG for differential diagnosis of disorders with amnestic symptoms. We hypothesize that the combination of SPECT with measures of interaction (connectivity) in the EEG yields higher diagnostic accuracy than the single modalities. We examined 39 patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD), 69 patients with depressive cognitive impairment (DCI), 71 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and 41 patients with amnestic subjective cognitive complaints (aSCC)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936170/affective-processing-in-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-over-prefrontal-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Wei Liu, Ya Shu Leng, Xiao Han Zou, Zi Qian Cheng, Wei Yang, Bing Jin Li
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the most frequently targeted brain region by non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS) studies. Non-invasively stimulating the PFC has been shown to both modulate affective processing and improve the clinical symptoms of several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia. The magnitude of the modulation depends on several factors, including the stimulation frequency, the number of stimulation sessions, and the specific sub-region of the PFC that is stimulated. Although some of the potential underlying mechanisms have been identified, the exact mechanisms that underlie these cognitive and affective changes remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935618/social-communication-coaching-smartglasses-well-tolerated-in-a-diverse-sample-of-children-and-adults-with-autism
#9
Neha U Keshav, Joseph P Salisbury, Arshya Vahabzadeh, Ned T Sahin
BACKGROUND: Augmented reality (AR) smartglasses are an emerging technology that is under investigation as a social communication aid for children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and as a research tool to aid with digital phenotyping. Tolerability of this wearable technology in people with ASD is an important area for research, especially as these individuals may experience sensory, cognitive, and attentional challenges. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability and usability of a novel smartglasses system that has been designed as a social communication aid for children and adults with autism (the Brain Power Autism System [BPAS])...
September 21, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935587/glutamatergic-synapses-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Edoardo Moretto, Luca Murru, Giuseppe Martano, Jenny Sassone, Maria Passafaro
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a group of diseases whose symptoms arise during childhood or adolescence and that impact several higher cognitive functions such as learning, sociability and mood. Accruing evidence suggests that a shared pathogenic mechanism underlying these diseases is the dysfunction of glutamatergic synapses. We summarize present knowledge on autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), Down syndrome (DS), Rett syndrome (RS) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), highlighting the involvement of glutamatergic synapses and receptors in these disorders...
September 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935341/conduct-problems-in-youth-and-the-rdoc-approach-a-developmental-evolutionary-based-view
#11
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934395/abnormal-polyamine-metabolism-is-unique-to-the-neuropathic-forms-of-mps-potential-for-biomarker-development-and-insight-into-pathogenesis
#12
Christian Hinderer, Nathan Katz, Jean-Pierre Louboutin, Peter Bell, Jakub Tolar, Paul J Orchard, Troy C Lund, Mohamad Nayal, Liwei Weng, Clementina Mesaros, Carolina F M de Souza, Amauri Dalla Corte, Roberto Giugliani, James M Wilson
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are rare genetic disorders marked by severe somatic and neurological symptoms. Development of treatments for the neurological manifestations of MPS has been hindered by the lack of objective measures of central nervous system disease burden. Identification of biomarkers for central nervous system disease in MPS patients would facilitate the evaluation of new agents in clinical trials. High throughput metabolite screening of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from a canine model of MPS I revealed a marked elevation of the polyamine, spermine, in affected animals, and gene therapy studies demonstrated that reduction of CSF spermine reflects correction of brain lesions in these animals...
October 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#13
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934194/arginine-vasopressin-ameliorates-spatial-learning-impairments-in-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-via-v1a-receptor-and-autophagy-signaling-partially
#14
C Yang, X Zhang, J Gao, M Wang, Z Yang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is a major factor contributing to neurological disorders and cognitive decline. Autophagy activation is believed to provide both beneficial and detrimental roles during hypoxic/ischemic cellular injury. Although arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been strongly involved in many behaviors, especially in learning and memory, the effects of AVP on CCH and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, to investigate whether there was neuroprotective effects of AVP on CCH through V1a receptor (an AVP receptor) signaling, permanent bilateral carotid arteries occlusion (two vessel occlusion, 2VO) was used to establish a rat model of CCH, and hypertonic saline (5...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934193/oxidative-stress-prefrontal-cortex-hypomyelination-and-cognitive-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#15
REVIEW
D A Maas, A Vallès, G J M Martens
Schizophrenia (SZ) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a broad symptomatology, including cognitive symptoms that are thought to arise from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The neurobiological aetiology of these symptoms remains elusive, yet both impaired redox control and PFC dysconnectivity have been recently implicated. PFC dysconnectivity has been linked to white matter, oligodendrocyte (OL) and myelin abnormalities in SZ patients. Myelin is produced by mature OLs, and OL precursor cells (OPCs) are exceptionally susceptible to oxidative stress...
July 18, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934108/markers-of-microbial-translocation-and-immune-activation-predict-cognitive-processing-speed-in-heavy-drinking-men-living-with-hiv
#16
Mollie A Monnig, Christopher W Kahler, Patricia A Cioe, Peter M Monti, Kenneth H Mayer, David W Pantalone, Ronald A Cohen, Bharat Ramratnam
HIV infection and alcohol use disorder are associated with deficits in neurocognitive function. Emerging evidence points to pro-inflammatory perturbations of the gut-brain axis as potentially contributing to neurocognitive impairment in the context of HIV and chronic heavy alcohol use. This study examined whether plasma markers of microbial translocation (LPS) from the gastrointestinal tract and related immune activation (sCD14, EndoCAb) were associated with neurocognition in 21 men living with HIV who were virally suppressed on antiretroviral therapy...
September 21, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933610/exercise-interventions-in-multiple-sclerosis-rehabilitation-need-better-reporting-on-comorbidities-a-systematic-scoping-review
#17
Etienne J Bisson, Afolasade Fakolade, Julie Pétrin, Julie Lamarre, Marcia Finlayson
OBJECTIVE: To identify the extent to which exercise intervention studies in multiple sclerosis rehabilitation are addressing comorbidities and if researchers consider comorbidities as possible moderators or mediators of exercise outcomes. METHODS: Five databases were searched from inception to January 8, 2016, for exercise-related terms in combination with multiple sclerosis. Studies were screened and limited to randomized control trials, full text, and English language...
October 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933327/concussion-in-sports-what-trauma-orthopedic-surgeons-need-to-know
#18
A Gänsslen, T Neubauer, W Krutsch
Concussion in sport is often underdiagnosed with the potential risk of long-term sequelae. This article presents the mechanisms, the underlying pathophysiology and typical primary signs and symptoms. The recognition and resulting medical measures including the present recommendations and decisions on return to play are described. The majority of patients with concussion present with clinical and cognitive symptoms only for short time intervals. As a rule a complete subjective recovery is observed within a few hours or days...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933261/pharmacological-treatment-of-cognitive-symptoms-in-major-depressive-disorder
#19
Zihang Pan, Radu C Grovu, Danielle S Cha, Nicole E Carmona, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Margarita Shekotikhina, Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Roger S McIntyre
: Background: Cognitive dysfunction is a core transdiagnostic domain of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and is a principal determinant of functional recovery. However, it has been insufficiently targeted within the current therapeutic framework for MDD. OBJECTIVE: To highlight these unmet cognitive needs in MDD. METHODS: An article search was conducted using PubMed from inception to November 2016: Major Depressive Disorder (and/or variant) was cross-referenced with the following terms: antidepressants, augmentation, cognition, cognitive deficits, cognitive dysfunction, functional outcomes, mechanism of action, and treatment...
September 18, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933218/effects-of-human-es-derived-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-and-kindling-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Stefania Beretta, Kelly M Cunningham, Daniel L Haus, Eric M Gold, Harvey Perez, Luci López-Velázquez, Brian J Cummings
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the population worldwide, with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. Posttraumatic hyperexcitability is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect people after a head injury. A reliable animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability induced by TBI which allows one to test effective treatment strategies is yet to be developed. To address these issues, in the present study, we tested human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in an animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability in which the brain injury was produced in one hemisphere of immunodeficient athymic nude rats by controlled cortical impact, and spontaneous seizures were produced by repeated electrical stimulation (kindling) in the contralateral hemisphere...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
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