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Nina Xie, He Gong, Joshua A Suhl, Pankaj Chopra, Tao Wang, Stephen T Warren
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common cause of intellectual disability that is most often due to a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the FMR1 gene that triggers epigenetic gene silencing. Epigenetic modifying drugs can only transiently and modestly induce FMR1 reactivation in the presence of the elongated CGG repeat. As a proof-of-principle, we excised the expanded CGG-repeat in both somatic cell hybrids containing the human fragile X chromosome and human FXS iPS cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. We observed transcriptional reactivation in approximately 67% of the CRISPR cut hybrid colonies and in 20% of isolated human FXS iPSC colonies...
2016: PloS One
Takeshi Kimura, Akihiro Yamashita, Keiichi Ozono, Noriyuki Tsumaki
Articular cartilage damage does not spontaneously heal and could ultimately result in a loss of joint function. Damaged cartilage can be repaired with cell/tissue sources that are transplanted, however, autologous chondrocytes are limited in number as a cell source. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a relatively new and abundant cell source and can be made from the patient, but at considerable cost. Because cartilage is immunoprivileged tissue, allogeneic cartilages have been transplanted effectively without matching for human leukocyte antigen (HLA), but are difficult to acquire due to scarcity of donors...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Alexandra Elliot, Linda Marklund, Niclas Håkansson, Huan Song, Weimin Ye, Pär Stjärne, Lalle Hammarstedt-Nordenvall
The true incidence of inverted papilloma (IP) is not yet known. From hospital-based studies, its incidence has been estimated to approximately 0.5/100,000 person years. Earlier hospital case studies have shown that IP can undergo a malignant transformation in 1-53 %. The frequency of its malignant transformation on a population basis is unknown. To our knowledge, no standardised incidence ratio (SIR) has been reported for malignancies among IPs. This study aims to investigate these incidences on a population basis...
October 18, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Whitney A Greene, Teresa A Burke, Elaine D Por, Ramesh R Kaini, Heuy-Ching Wang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the secretion profile of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (iPS-RPE) during wound healing. iPS-RPE was used to develop an in vitro wound healing model. We hypothesized that iPS-RPE secretes cytokines and growth factors which act in an autocrine manner to promote migration and proliferation of cells during wound healing. Methods: iPS-RPE was grown in transwells until fully confluent and pigmented...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Qin Wang, Yan Qin, Shengyu Zhou, Xiaohui He, Jianliang Yang, Suyi Kang, Peng Liu, Sheng Yang, Changgong Zhang, Lin Gui, Yan Sun, Yuankai Shi
The prognostic value of pretreatment serum beta-2 microglobulin (B2MG) level in advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients treated in the modern era has not been well established. We conducted a retrospective study involving 202 advanced classical HL (cHL) patients treated from 1998.5 to 2015.7 to evaluate the impact of serum B2MG level on prognosis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum B2MG level ≥ 2.5 mg/L was an independent predictor for freedom from progression (FFP) (P = 0.001), lymphoma-specific survival (P = 0...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Qunying Lin, Liangkun Long, Liangliang Wu, Fenglun Zhang, Shuling Wu, Weiming Zhang, Xiaoming Sun
BACKGROUND: In commercial production of Cordyceps militaris (a famous Chinese medicine), usually cereal grains were utilized as cultivation substrates. This study is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of agricultural wastes as substitute materials in the low cost production of C. militaris. Cottonseed shells (CS), corn cob particles (CCP), Italian poplar sawdusts (IPS) and substrates spent by Flammulina velutipes (SS) were employed to cultivate C. militaris, using rice medium as control...
October 17, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Naoya Uchida, Juan J Haro-Mora, Atsushi Fujita, Duck-Yeon Lee, Thomas Winkler, Matthew M Hsieh, John F Tisdale
Human embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent an ideal source for in vitro modeling of erythropoiesis and a potential alternative source for red blood cell transfusions. However, iPS cell-derived erythroid cells predominantly produce ε- and γ-globin without β-globin production. We recently demonstrated that ES cell-derived sacs (ES sacs), known to express hemangioblast markers, allow for efficient erythroid cell generation with β-globin production. In this study, we generated several iPS cell lines derived from bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and peripheral blood erythroid progenitors (EPs) from sickle cell disease patients, and evaluated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) generation after iPS sac induction as well as subsequent erythroid differentiation...
October 14, 2016: Stem Cells
Alessandra Lo Cicero, Anne-Laure Jaskowiak, Anne-Laure Egesipe, Johana Tournois, Benjamin Brinon, Patricia R Pitrez, Lino Ferreira, Annachiara de Sandre-Giovannoli, Nicolas Levy, Xavier Nissan
Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare fatal genetic disorder that causes systemic accelerated aging in children. Thanks to the pluripotency and self-renewal properties of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC), HGPS iPSC-based modeling opens up the possibility of access to different relevant cell types for pharmacological approaches. In this study, 2800 small molecules were explored using high-throughput screening, looking for compounds that could potentially reduce the alkaline phosphatase activity of HGPS mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) committed into osteogenic differentiation...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Guilherme Teixeira Theodoro, Lívia Fiorin, Izabela Cristina Maurício Moris, Renata Cristina Silveira Rodrigues, Ricardo Faria Ribeiro, Adriana Cláudia Lapria Faria
Dental ceramics have been widely used because of aesthetic, but wear is still questioned. There are relates that ceramic surface is prone to degradation by acidulated fluoride, that can increase wear rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral and acidulated fluoride gel, used as preventive agents for professional use, at wear and compression strength of dental ceramics IPS e.max ZirPress (ZIR), IPS Empress Esthetic (EMP) e IPS Inline POM (POM). For this, 30 crowns and 30 disks were obtained by heat-pressing...
September 28, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Min Su Kim, Philip J Bos, Dong-Woo Kim, Deng-Ke Yang, Joong Hee Lee, Seung Hee Lee
Technology of displaying static images in portable displays, advertising panels and price tags pursues significant reduction in power consumption and in product cost. Driving at a low-frequency electric field in fringe-field switching (FFS) mode can be one of the efficient ways to save powers of the recent portable devices, but a serious drop of image-quality, so-called image-flickering, has been found in terms of the coupling of elastic deformation to not only quadratic dielectric effect but linear flexoelectric effect...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ping Lu, Xiaolong Chen, Yun Feng, Qiao Zeng, Cizhong Jiang, Xianmin Zhu, Guoping Fan, Zhigang Xue
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients carry the expansion of over 200 CGG repeats at the promoter of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1), leading to decreased or absent expression of its encoded fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). However, the global transcriptional alteration by FMRP deficiency has not been well characterized at single nucleotide resolution, i.e., RNA-seq. Here, we performed in-vitro neuronal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells that were derived from fibroblasts of a FXS patient (FXS-iPSC)...
October 11, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Daijirou Arakawa, Arisa Ito, Fumitaka Osakada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Yuji Shiba, Toshihito Gomibuchi, Tatsuichiro Seto, Yuko Wada, Hajime Ichimura, Yuki Tanaka, Tatsuki Ogasawara, Kenji Okada, Naoko Shiba, Kengo Sakamoto, Daisuke Ido, Takashi Shiina, Masamichi Ohkura, Junichi Nakai, Narumi Uno, Yasuhiro Kazuki, Mitsuo Oshimura, Itsunari Minami, Uichi Ikeda
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) constitute a potential source of autologous patient-specific cardiomyocytes for cardiac repair, providing a major benefit over other sources of cells in terms of immune rejection. However, autologous transplantation has substantial challenges related to manufacturing and regulation. Although major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-matched allogeneic transplantation is a promising alternative strategy, few immunological studies have been carried out with iPSCs. Here we describe an allogeneic transplantation model established using the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), the MHC structure of which is identical to that of humans...
October 10, 2016: Nature
J Aznar, J Tudela
On the 10-year anniversary of the discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells, we review the main results from their various fields of application, the obstacles encountered during experimentation and the potential applications in clinical practice. The efficacy of induced pluripotent cells in clinical experimentation can be equated to that of human embryonic stem cells; however, unlike stem cells, induced pluripotent cells do not involve the severe ethical difficulties entailed by the need to destroy human embryos to obtain them...
October 4, 2016: Revista Clínica Española
Kenta Shimba, Shoko Iida, Kiyoshi Kotani, Yasuhiko Jimbo
Cell cycle phase and [Ca(2+)]i are key determinants of self-renewal and differentiation in pluripotent stem cells. However, little is known about their relationship in human pluripotent stem cells owing to the lack of an effective method. Here, we applied an imaging-based approach for evaluating the relationship between the cell cycle and Ca(2+) transients in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Ca imaging and DNA staining was simultaneously performed at the same site. Then, individual cells were recognized and the cell cycle phase was estimated from the image of nuclei...
September 12, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Bojidarka Ivanova, Michael Spiteller
The research draws on experimental and theoretical data about energetics and kinetics of mass spectrometric (MS) reactions of glycyl homopenta- (G5) and glycyl homohexapeptides (G6). It shows the great applicability of the methods of quantum chemistry to predict MS profile of peptides using energetics of collision induced dissociation (CID) fragment species. Mass spectrometry is among irreplaceable methods, providing unambiguous qualitative, quantitative and structural information about analytes, applicable to many scientific areas like environmental chemistry; food chemistry; medicinal chemistry; and more...
October 5, 2016: Biopolymers
Haruka Chino, Eri Hagiwara, Hideya Kitamura, Tomohisa Baba, Hideaki Yamakawa, Tamiko Takemura, Takashi Ogura
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare systemic vasculitis that often involves the lung. However, interstitial pneumonia (IP) is rarely seen in GPA patients. We herein report 3 cases of IP associated with GPA diagnosed by surgical lung biopsy. High-resolution CT showed uniform subpleural reticular opacity with traction bronchiectasis. Biopsies from all 3 patients revealed neutrophilic capillaritis, microabscesses with giant cells, and coexisting histological findings of usual IP pattern or fibrosing nonspecific IP pattern...
October 6, 2016: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Keshi Chen, Qi Long, Tao Wang, Danyun Zhao, Yanshuang Zhou, Juntao Qi, Yi Wu, Shengbiao Li, Chunlan Chen, Xiaoming Zeng, Jianguo Yang, Zisong Zhou, Weiwen Qin, Xiyin Liu, Yuxing Li, Yingying Li, Xiaofen Huang, Dajiang Qin, Jiekai Chen, Guangjin Pan, Hans R Schöler, Guoliang Xu, Xingguo Liu, Duanqing Pei
Reprogramming of somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells rewrites the code of cell fate at the chromatin level. Yet, little is known about this process physically. Here, we describe a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method to assess the dynamics of heterochromatin/euchromatin and show significant heterochromatin loosening at the initial stage of reprogramming. We identify growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein a (Gadd45a) as a chromatin relaxer in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, which also enhances somatic cell reprogramming efficiency...
October 4, 2016: EMBO Reports
Flávia Zardo Trindade, Luiz Felipe Valandro, Niek de Jager, Marco Antônio Bottino, Cornelis Johannes Kleverlaan
PURPOSE: To determine the elastic properties of five ceramic systems with different compositions (lithium disilicate vs. feldspathic ceramics) and processing methods and compare the stress distribution in premolars in the interface with inlays made with these systems loaded with the maximum normal bite force (665 N) using 3D finite element analysis (FEA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The elastic properties of five ceramic restoration materials (IPS e.max Press, IPS e...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Wei Zhou, Xiaojuan Wang, Zhichao Xia, Yanchao Bi, Ping Li, Hua Shu
When reading a narrative text, both the dorsal and ventral visual systems are activated. To illustrate the patterns of interactions between the dorsal and ventral visual systems in text reading, we conducted analyses of functional connectivity (FC) and effective connectivity (EC) in a left-hemispheric network for reading-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) data. In reading-driven fMRI (Experiment 1), we found significant FCs among the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG), the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the visual word form area (VWFA), and there were top-down effects from the left MFG to the left IPS, from the left MFG to the VWFA, and from the left IPS to the VWFA...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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