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Stress enduring cells

Weixiu Ji, Linjia Wang, Shiyi He, Lu Yan, Tieying Li, Jianxiong Wang, Ah-Ng Tony Kong, Siwang Yu, Ying Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hypoxia training enhances the endurance capacity of athletes. This response may in part be attributed to the hypoxia-induced increase in antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscles. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor which regulates the expression of genes via binding to the antioxidant-response element (ARE) of these genes, plays a crucial role in stimulating the body's defense system and potentially responds to hypoxia. Meanwhile, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an important player in protecting cells from hypoxic stress...
2018: PloS One
Katsuhiro Hosoyama, Yoshikatsu Saiki
The aorta is a well-organized, multilayered structure comprising several cell types, namely, endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), and fibroblasts, as well as an extracellular matrix (ECM), which includes elastic and collagen fibers. Aortic aneurysms (AAs) are defined as progressive enlargements of the aorta that carries an incremental risk of rupture as the diameter increases over time. The destruction of the aortic wall tissue is triggered by atherosclerosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, leading to the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, resulting in the loss of the structural back bone of VSMCs, ECM, and ECs...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Setsuya Aiba
The skin composes physiological and chemical barrier and renews skin component cells throughout the human life. Melanocytes locate in the basal layer of the epidermis and produce melanin to protect the skin from ultraviolet. Melanin plays key roles in determining human skin and hair color. Melanocyte dysfunction observed in albinism and vitiligo not only causes cosmetic problems but also increases risk of skin cancer. As rejuvenate therapy, embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been reported to generate melanocytes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Satoshi S Nishizuka, Yuji Suzuki, Hirokatsu Katagiri, Yasuhiro Takikawa
Cellular compensation from extrahepatic resources is expected to improve the prognosis of liver diseases. Currently, liver dysfunction is treated by a variety of modalities including drugs, cytokines, vascular interventions, energy devices, surgery, and liver transplantation; however, in recent years there have been few significant advancements in treatment efficacy. A next-generation therapeutic strategy for liver disease, cellular compensatory therapy (i.e., cell therapy), is now being considered for clinical practice...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Satoshi Kuroda, Masaki Koh, Emiko Hori, Yumiko Hayakawa, Takuya Akai
Multilineage-differentiating stress enduring (Muse) cells are one of the most promising donor cells for cell therapy against ischemic stroke, because they can differentiate into any type of cells constructing the central nervous system (CNS), including the neurons. They can easily be isolated from the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), which may also contribute to functional recovery after ischemic stroke as donor cells. In this chapter, we concisely review their biological features and then future perspective of Muse cell transplantation for ischemic stroke...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kuniyasu Niizuma, Cesar V Borlongan, Teiji Tominaga
Stroke is defined as a sudden onset of neurologic deficits arising from cerebrovascular complications. It is the second common cause of death around the world and the major cause of disability. Because brain is an organ with complicated neural networks and neurons are highly differentiated, it has been traditionally considered to possess a limited potential for regeneration. The number of stroke patients is increasing, and stroke represents a serious problem from the viewpoint of the national medical economy...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Marcelo Javier Perone, María Laura Gimeno, Florencia Fuertes
It is well established the link between inflammation and the development of insulin resistance and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells mediated by autoreactive T lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory agents. Therefore, developing new strategies to efficiently control dysregulated inflammation could have substantial benefits in the treatment of diabetes. Recently, a novel population of non-tumorigenic pluripotent stem cells, named multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, was discovered...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shohei Wakao, Yoshihiro Kushida, Mari Dezawa
Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells exhibit the core characteristics of pluripotent stem cells, namely, the expression of pluripotency markers and the capacity for trilineage differentiation both in vitro and in vivo and self-renewability. In addition, Muse cells have unique characteristics not observed in other pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells, control of pluripotency by environmental switch of adherent suspension, symmetric and asymmetric cell division, expression of factors relevant to stress tolerance, and distinctive tissue distribution...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mari Dezawa
Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, identified as cells positive for the pluripotent marker stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA-3+), were discovered as stress-tolerant pluripotent stem cells from among mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and fibroblasts, as well as from the adult human bone marrow mononucleated fraction. MSCs are a crude population of cells that differentiate into multiple cell types covering all three germ layers in low proportion and were thus deduced to contain a genuine pluripotent stem cell subpopulation...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Amin Cheikhi, Callen Wallace, Claudette St Croix, Charles Cohen, Wan-Yee Tang, Peter Wipf, Panayiotis V Benos, Fabrisia Ambrosio, Aaron Barchowsky
Cellular memory underlies cellular identity, and thus constitutes a unifying mechanism of genetic disposition, environmental influences, and cellular adaptation. Here, we demonstrate that enduring physicochemical changes of mitochondrial networks invoked by transient stress, a phenomenon we term 'mitoengrams', underlie the transgenerational persistence of epigenetically scripted cellular behavior. Using C2C12 myogenic stem-like cells, we show that stress memory elicited by transient, low-level arsenite exposure is stored within a self-renewing subpopulation of progeny cells in a mitochondrial-dependent fashion...
November 22, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Shruti Naik, Samantha B Larsen, Christopher J Cowley, Elaine Fuchs
Stem cells regenerate tissues in homeostasis and under stress. By taking cues from their microenvironment or "niche," they smoothly transition between these states. Immune cells have surfaced as prominent members of stem cell niches across the body. Here, we draw parallels between different stem cell niches to explore the context-specific interactions that stem cells have with tissue-resident and recruited immune cells. We also highlight stem cells' innate ability to sense and respond to stress and the enduring memory that forms from such encounters...
November 1, 2018: Cell
Benjamin L Krog, Michael D Henry
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exist in a microenvironment quite different from the solid tumor tissue microenvironment. They are detached from matrix and exposed to the immune system and hemodynamic forces leading to the conclusion that life as a CTC is "nasty, brutish, and short." While there is much evidence to support this assertion, the mechanisms underlying this are much less clear. In this chapter we will specifically focus on biomechanical influences on CTCs in the circulation and examine in detail the question of whether CTCs are mechanically fragile, a commonly held idea that is lacking in direct evidence...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Melda Pelin Yargic, Seyma Torgutalp, Senay Akin, Naila Babayeva, Murat Torgutalp, Ali Haydar Demirel
IL-6, Hsp72, and IL-15 are molecules that have significant metabolic effects on glucose and fat metabolisms and cell's stress response. The aim of this study is to determine their serum levels after a long-distance trail run. Serum IL-15 levels after such endurance events have not been investigated yet. Blood samples were collected from 37 athletes (11 female, 26 male) before and after a 35-km trail run, with a total climb of 940m. Serum was obtained from the samples and IL-6, IL-15 and Hsp72 levels were measured from serum by sandwich ELISA method...
October 26, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Giamaica Conti, Dario Bertossi, Elena Dai Prè, Chiara Cavallini, Maria Teresa Scupoli, Giulia Ricciardi, Pierpaolo Parnigotto, Yves Saban, Andrea Sbarbati, Pierfrancesco Nocini
Published studies regarding Bichat fat pad focused, quite exclusively, on the implant of this adipose depot for different facial portions reconstruction. The regenerative components of Bichat fat pad were poorly investigated. The present study aimed to describe by an ultrastructural approach the Bichat fat pad, providing novel data at the ultrastructural and cellular level. This data sets improve the knowledge about the usefulness of the Bichat fat pad in regenerative and reconstructive surgery. Bichat fat pads were harvested form eight patients subjected to maxillofacial, dental and aesthetic surgeries...
October 23, 2018: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
Aysegul Batioglu-Karaaltin, Ercüment Ovali, Mehmet V Karaaltin, Murat Yener, Mehmet Yılmaz, Fatma Eyüpoğlu, Yetkin Zeki Yılmaz, Erol Rüştü Bozkurt, Necdet Demir, Esma Konuk, Ergun Süreyya Bozdağ, Özgür Yiğit, Harun Cansiz
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to shorten the decellularization time of trachea by using combination of physical, chemical, and enzymatic techniques. Methods: Approximately 3.5-cm-long tracheal segments from 42 New Zealand rabbits (3.5±0.5 kg) were separated into seven groups according to decellularization protocols. After decellularization, cellular regions, matrix and strength and endurance of the scaffold were followed up. Results: DNA content in all groups was measured under 50 ng/mg and there was no significant difference for the glycosaminoglycan content between group 3 (lyophilization+deoxycholic acid+de-oxyribonuclease method) and control group (P=0...
October 18, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Otorhinolaryngology
Simon G English, Hanane Hadj-Moussa, Kenneth B Storey
Some animals must endure prolonged periods of oxygen deprivation to survive. One such extreme model is the Northern Crayfish ( Orconectes virilis ), that regularly survives year-round hypoxic and anoxic stresses in its warm stagnant summer waters and in its cold, ice-locked winter waters. To elucidate the molecular underpinnings of anoxia-resistance in this natural model, we surveyed the expression profiles of 76 highly-conserved microRNAs in crayfish hepatopancreas and tail muscle from normoxic, acute 2hr anoxia, and chronic 20hr anoxia exposures...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Emma Madden, Susan E Logue, Sandra J Healy, Serge Manie, Afshin Samali
Tumour cells endure both oncogenic and environmental stresses during cancer progression. Transformed cells must meet increased demands for protein and lipid production needed for rapid proliferation and must adapt to exist in an oxygen- and nutrient-deprived environment. To overcome such challenges, cancer cells exploit intrinsic adaptive mechanisms such as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a pro-survival mechanism triggered by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a condition referred to as ER stress...
October 10, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Danica Michalickova, Rajna Minic, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljevic, Marija Andjelkovic, Nenad Dikic, Marija Kostic-Vucicevic, Ondrej Slanar, Brizita Djordjevic
Michalickova, D, Minic, R, Kotur-Stevuljevic, J, Andjelkovic, M, Dikic, N, Kostic-Vucicevic, M, Slanar, O, and Djordjevic, B. Changes in parameters of oxidative stress, immunity, and behavior in endurance athletes during a preparation period in winter. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The current study monitored markers of immunological and oxidative status in 9 male elite endurance athletes: V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 68 ± 11 ml·kg·min, age: 24 ± 2.5 years, and training loads: 128 ± 21 metabolic equivalents-h·wk during a 3-month preparation period in winter (January-March)...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Bryan E Luu, Kenneth B Storey
The North American wood frog, Rana sylvatica, endures seasonal whole-body freezing during the winter and thawing during the spring without sustaining any apparent damage from ice or oxidative stress. Strategies from these frogs may solve the shortage of human donor organs, which is a multidisciplinary problem that can be alleviated by eliminating geographical boundaries. Rana sylvatica deploys an array of molecular and physiological responses, such as glucose production and microRNA regulation, to help it survive the cold...
August 27, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Yuehui He, Zicong Li
Plants are immobile and must respond to or endure fluctuating surroundings and diverse environmental challenges. Environmental inputs often induce chromatin modifications at various responsive genes and consequent changes in their expression. Environment-induced chromatin marks at certain loci are transmittable through cell divisions after relief from the original external signals, leading to acquired 'memorization' of environmental experiences in plants, namely epigenetic environmental memories, which enable plants to adapt to environmental changes or to perform better when events recur...
August 22, 2018: Trends in Genetics: TIG
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