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Functional gastrointestinal disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516496/-the-local-registry-data-on-myocardial-infarction-in-women-the-risk-factor-analysis-clinical-characteristics-and-survival
#1
M Hrebenyk, L Zelenenka, L Zoria, S Maslii
The clinical experience implies poor prognosis in women with myocardial infarction (MI). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1395 patients - 987 (70,75%) men and 408 (29,25%) women) aged of 64,63±11,43 years with myocardial infarction and comorbidity hospitalized between 2010-2016. This study shows an increase of mortality in women with myocardial infarction during the last 4 years from 23,1% to 34,2%. We observed more frequent cases of non-STEMI (p=0,014) and recurrent myocardial infarction in females compared with males (р<0,0001)...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515811/recent-advances-in-tmem16a-structure-function-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Qiushuang Ji, Shuai Guo, Xuzhao Wang, Chunli Pang, Yong Zhan, Yafei Chen, Hailong An
TMEM16A (also known as anoctamin 1, ANO1) is the molecular basis of the calcium-activated chloride channels, with ten transmembrane segments. Recently, atomic structures of the transmembrane domains of mouse TMEM16A (mTMEM16A) were determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. This gives us a solid ground to discuss the electrophysiological properties and functions of TMEM16A. TMEM16A is reported to be dually regulated by Ca2+ and voltage. In addition, the dysfunction of TMEM16A has been found to be involved in many diseases including cystic fibrosis, various cancers, hypertension, and gastrointestinal motility disorders...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513401/the-role-of-adipose-tissue-in-the-pathogenesis-of-crohn-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Anna Zielińska, Paweł Siwiński, Aleksandra Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Maria Wiśniewska-Jarosińska, Jakub Fichna, Marcin Włodarczyk
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune system-mediated inflammatory disease affecting gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The pathogenesis of the intestinal lesions is not entirely explained and understood: excessive activation of the immune system may come as a result of the interaction of environmental, genetic and infectious factors and the mediation of abnormal intestinal flora. The main objective of the current study is to further identify the role of adipose tissue in the pathogenesis of CD. Alterations in body fat distribution, accumulation of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT) and mesenteric obesity are well-known features of CD...
September 28, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511769/prebiotic-immunomodulating-and-antifatigue-effects-of-konjac-oligosaccharide
#4
Yan Zeng, Jiangang Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yan Men, Bo Zhang, Yuanxia Sun
Irregular and long time work schedules not only makes people feel fatigue, but also brings great risks of diseases, due to gastrointestinal disorder and immune dysfunction. Therefore, it has positive significance to help challenged people stay energetic and healthy with food supplement. Konjac oligosaccharide has shown various physiological benefits and been recommended in the fortification of functional foods. However, there have been few reports on its application aimed to simultaneously relieve physical fatigue and keep body healthy...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510991/disruption-of-foxp3-ezh2-interaction-represents-a-pathobiological-mechanism-in-intestinal-inflammation
#5
Adebowale O Bamidele, Phyllis A Svingen, Mary R Sagstetter, Olga F Sarmento, Michelle Gonzalez, Manuel B Braga Neto, Subra Kugathasan, Gwen Lomberk, Raul A Urrutia, William A Faubion
Background & Aims: Forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3)+ regulatory T cell (Treg) dysfunction is associated with autoimmune diseases; however, the mechanisms responsible for inflammatory bowel disease pathophysiology are poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a physical interaction between transcription factor FOXP3 and the epigenetic enzyme enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is essential for gene co-repressive function. Methods: Human FOXP3 mutations clinically relevant to intestinal inflammation were generated by site-directed mutagenesis...
2019: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509257/metagenomic-analysis-of-captive-amur-tiger-faecal-microbiome
#6
Fengping He, Dan Liu, Le Zhang, Jiancheng Zhai, Yue Ma, Yanchun Xu, Guangshun Jiang, Ke Rong, Jianzhang Ma
BACKGROUND: The gastrointestinal tracts of animals are home to large, complex communities of microbes. The compositions of these communities ultimately reflect the coevolution of microorganisms with their animal host and are influenced by the living environment, diet and immune status of the host. Gut microbes have been shown to be important for human disease and health, but little research exists in the gut microbiome of the Amur tiger, which is one of the most endangered species in the world...
December 4, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509220/comparison-of-health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-among-healthy-obese-and-chronically-ill-iranian-children
#7
Sara Jalali-Farahani, Fahimeh Alsadat Shojaei, Parnian Parvin, Parisa Amiri
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has frequently been compared between both healthy and obese children and healthy and chronically ill children; however, there is glaring lack of evidence regarding comparison of HRQoL in obese children with their counterparts with chronic diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to compare HRQoL among healthy, obese and chronically ill children. METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among 802 children (8-12 years) who were recruited via convenience sampling method...
December 4, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503365/helminth-microbiomes-a-hidden-treasure-trove
#8
REVIEW
T P Jenkins, P J Brindley, R B Gasser, C Cantacessi
There is increasing attention on the complex interactions occurring between gastrointestinal parasitic helminths and the microbial flora (microbiota) inhabiting the host gut. However, little is known about the occurrence, structure, and function of microbial populations residing within parasite organs and tissues. In this article, we argue that an in-depth understanding of the interplay between parasites and their microbiomes may significantly enhance current knowledge of parasite biology and physiology, and may lead to the discovery of entirely novel, anthelmintic-independent interventions against parasites and parasitic diseases...
November 28, 2018: Trends in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503086/boer-goats-appear-to-lack-a-functional-iga-and-eosinophil-response-against-natural-nematode-infection
#9
N Hayyan Basripuzi, M Shahrom Salisi, N Mahiza Md Isa, Valentina Busin, Callum Cairns, Caitlin Jenvey, Michael J Stear
Gastrointestinal nematode infection is one of the major diseases affecting small ruminants. Although some breeds of goats are quite resistant, many breeds of goats are relatively susceptible. This study used a combined parasitological, immunological, bioinformatic and statistical approach to examine the role of goat IgA and eosinophils in protection against Teladorsagia circumcincta. Molecular modelling suggested that the transmembrane domain of the high affinity IgA receptor was dysfunctional in goats. Statistical analyses failed to find any association in naturally infected goats between high IgA or eosinophil responses and low faecal egg counts...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502914/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-as-a-tool-to-treat-and-reduce-susceptibility-to-disease-in-animals
#10
REVIEW
Megan C Niederwerder
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the process by which fecal microbiota are donated from a healthy individual and subsequently transplanted into a diseased or young individual. The mechanism by which FMT is effective is believed to be due to enhanced beneficial microbes, increased microbiome diversity, and restored normal flora. Beneficial gut microorganisms not only play a role in maintaining an intestinal barrier and metabolizing nutrients, but importantly, these microbes help regulate local and systemic immune function...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502347/localization-of-estrogen-receptor-er%C3%AE-er%C3%AE-and-gpr30-on-myenteric-neurons-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-their-role-in-motility
#11
Julia Y H Liu, Ge Lin, Marong Fang, John A Rudd
Estrogen is well known to have a modulatory role on gastrointestinal tract, particularly through its interaction with nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs), alpha and beta (ERα/β). Recent functional studies also indicate that estrogen can activate a G-protein coupled estrogen receptor, GPR30, or GPER1. The present study was designed to identify either the presence or absence of nuclear ERs and GPR30 in the myenteric plexus of the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon of female and male mice. Immunofluorescence staining revealed a high expression of GPR30 in the cytoplasm but not within the nucleus of enteric neurons in female and male mice...
November 28, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30502249/quantitative-measure-of-intestinal-permeability-using-blue-food-coloring
#12
Stephanie A K Angarita, Sergio Duarte, Tara A Russell, Piotr Ruchala, Irmina A Elliott, Julian P Whitelegge, Ali Zarrinpar
BACKGROUND: Loss of intestinal barrier integrity plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases and is implicated in the onset of sepsis and multiple organ failure. An array of methods to assess different aspects of intestinal barrier function suffers from lack of sensitivity, prolonged periods of specimen collection, or high expense. We have developed a technique to measure the concentration of the food dye FD&C Blue #1 from blood and sought to assess its utility in measuring intestinal barrier function in humans...
January 2019: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501871/imatinib-treatment-of-paediatric-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-esphall2010-a-prospective-intergroup-open-label-single-arm-clinical-trial
#13
Andrea Biondi, Virginie Gandemer, Paola De Lorenzo, Gunnar Cario, Myriam Campbell, Anders Castor, Rob Pieters, André Baruchel, Ajay Vora, Veronica Leoni, Jan Stary, Gabriele Escherich, Chi-Kong Li, Giovanni Cazzaniga, Hélène Cavé, Jutta Bradtke, Valentino Conter, Vaskar Saha, Martin Schrappe, Maria Grazia Valsecchi
BACKGROUND: The EsPhALL2004 randomised trial showed a 10% advantage in disease-free survival for short, discontinuous use of imatinib after induction compared with no use of imatinib in patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia receiving Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster chemotherapy and haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Other contemporary studies showed an advantage from continuous protracted exposure to imatinib, challenging the indications to transplant...
December 2018: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501067/the-role-of-disaccharidase-deficiencies-in-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Mora V Puertolas, Amanda C Fifi
Disaccharidase deficiencies are reportedly underdiagnosed in pediatric populations. Though typically thought to cause diarrheal disease, they can also be a cause of abdominal pain and dyspepsia, and patients diagnosed with these functional disorders may actually have associated enzyme deficiencies. While the effects of lactose deficiency have been widely studied, sucrase, maltase, and isomaltase are less frequently considered when approaching a patient with an apparent functional abdominal pain disorder. This review seeks to provide an up-to-date narrative on the current scientific literature on the possible role of sucrase, maltase, and isomaltase deficiency in pediatric functional gastrointestinal disorders...
November 29, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501018/three-inulin-type-fructans-from-codonopsis-pilosula-franch-nannf-roots-and-their-prebiotic-activity-on-bifidobacterium-longum
#15
Jiankuan Li, Xin Zhang, Lingya Cao, Jiaojiao Ji, Jianping Gao
Radix Codonopsis, derived from the roots of Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf., Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf. Var. modesta (Nannf.) L.T. Shen and Codonopsis tangshen Oliv., has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for improving poor gastrointestinal function, treating gastric ulcers and chronic gastritis in China. Inulin-type fructans are carbohydrates consisting mainly of β (2→1) fructosyl-fructose links in chemical structure and exhibit a range of properties such as prebiotic activity, fat substitutes in low-calorie foods and disease-modifying effects...
November 29, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498703/neoadjuvant-therapy-to-downstage-the-extent-of-resection-of-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#16
REVIEW
Jens Jakob, Peter Hohenberger
Introduction: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare malignant tumors in terms of incidence, and they are not linked to specific symptoms. Often, primary tumors, particularly of the stomach, rectum, or rectovaginal space, are quite large when detected, and multivisceral resection seems to be the treatment of choice as the mainstay of therapy is complete tumor removal. If a gain-of-function mutation in the KIT gene is present, drug therapy with receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) might significantly downstage primary GIST tumors...
October 2018: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30488796/endothelial-and-cardiac-dysfunction-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-does-treatment-modify-the-inflammatory-load-on-arterial-and-cardiac-structure-and-function
#17
Charilaos Triantafyllou, Maria Nikolaou, Ignatios Ikonomidis, Giorgos Bamias, Ioannis Papaconstantinou
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), largely represented by Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), alter gastrointestinal physiology and mucosal immunity through a complex inflammatory process. These diseases can lead to significant arterial endothelial dysfunction. There is also evidence linking IBD with a modification of cardiac structure and function. A growing body of research has associated IBD with an acceleration of arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality...
November 28, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486436/two-novel-multi-functional-peptides-from-meat-and-visceral-mass-of-marine-snail-neptunea-arthritica-cumingii-and-their-activities-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Shan-Shan Zhang, Li-Wen Han, Yong-Ping Shi, Xiao-Bin Li, Xuan-Ming Zhang, Hai-Rong Hou, Hou-Wen Lin, Ke-Chun Liu
Neptunea arthritica cumingii ( Nac ) is a marine snail with high nutritional and commercial value; however, little is known about its active peptides. In this study, two multi-functional peptides, YSQLENEFDR (Tyr-Ser-Gln-Leu-Glu-Asn-Glu-Phe-Asp-Arg) and YIAEDAER (Tyr-Ile-Ala-Glu-Asp-Ala-Glu-Arg), were isolated and purified from meat and visceral mass extracts of Nac using a multi-bioassay-guided method and were characterized by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Both peptides showed high antioxidant, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory, and anti-diabetic activities, with half-maximal effective concentrations values less than 1 mM...
November 27, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30485884/shock-etiologies-and-fluid-management-in-liver-failure
#19
Emmanuel Weiss, Catherine Paugam-Burtz, Samir Jaber
Liver failure can occur in patients with or without underlying chronic liver disease (mainly cirrhosis) and is, respectively, termed acute on chronic liver failure or acute liver failure (ALF). In both cases, it is associated with marked systemic inflammation and profound hemodynamic disturbances, that is, increased cardiac output, peripheral vasodilation, and decreased systemic vascular resistance, on top of several superimposed etiologies of shock. In patients with cirrhosis, sepsis is the main cause of intensive care unit admission but portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal hemorrhage is also common...
October 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484411/identification-of-novel-pancreatic-lipase-inhibitors-using-structure-based-virtual-screening-docking-and-simulations-studies
#20
Umesh Panwar, Sanjeev Kumar Singh
BACKGROUND: Obesity is well known multifactorial disorder towards the public health concern in front of the world. Increasing rates of obesity has characterized with liver diseases, chronic diseases, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and stroke, hearts improper function, reproductive and gastrointestinal, gallstones. An essential enzyme pancreatic lipase recognized for the digestion and absorption of lipids, can be a pleasing drug target towards the future development of anti-obesity therapeutics in cure of obesity disorders...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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