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Functional gastrointestinal disease

Chengdeng Chi, Xiaoxi Li, Tao Feng, Xiaolan Zeng, Ling Chen, Lin Li
To improve starch functionalities such as digestibility and antioxidant activity, rice starch was complexed with antioxidant dodecyl gallate (DG). Molecular dynamics simulation showed that the starch-DG inclusion complex was favorable, and in 50 ns, the dodecyl segment resided in the helix of the amylose cavities, but the gallate tail left outside. This theoretical finding was validated by UV-vis spectroscopy, calorimetric and crystalline measurements, indicating V-type crystalline structures containing type I and type II inclusion complexes can be formed after DG complexation...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Shanhong Lu, Ting Zhang, Wen Gu, Xingxin Yang, Jianmei Lu, Ronghua Zhao, Jie Yu
Background: The dried mature fruit of Amomum villosum has been historically used in China as food and in the auxiliary treatment of digestive system disorders. Numerous studies have shown that gastrointestinal function is closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease via the "gut-liver" axis. Objective: The present study aimed to explore whether the mechanism underlying the regulation of lipid accumulation in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may affect related disorders using the active ingredients in A...
2018: BioMed Research International
Liza Konnikova, Gilles Boschetti, Adeeb Rahman, Vanessa Mitsialis, James Lord, Camilla Richmond, Vesselin T Tomov, Will Gordon, Scott Jelinsky, James Canavan, Andrew Liss, Sarah Wall, Michael Field, Fanny Zhou, Jeffery D Goldsmith, Meenakshi Bewtra, David T Breault, Miriam Merad, Scott B Snapper
Simultaneous analyses of peripheral and mucosal immune compartments can yield insight into the pathogenesis of mucosal-associated diseases. Although methods to preserve peripheral immune cells are well established, studies involving mucosal immune cells have been hampered by lack of simple storage techniques. We provide a cryopreservation protocol allowing for storage of gastrointestinal (GI) tissue with preservation of viability and functionality of both immune and epithelial cells. These methods will facilitate translational studies allowing for batch analysis of mucosal tissue to investigate disease pathogenesis, biomarker discovery and treatment responsiveness...
August 15, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Dongchang Zhao, Yeung-Hyen Kim, Seihwan Jeong, Joel K Greenson, Mohammed S Chaudhry, Matthias Hoepting, Erik R Anderson, Marcel Rm van den Brink, Jonathan U Peled, Antonio Lc Gomes, Ann E Slingerland, Michael J Donovan, Andrew C Harris, John E Levine, Umut Özbek, Lora V Hooper, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Aaron M Ver Heul, Ta-Chiang Liu, Pavan Reddy, James Lm Ferrara
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains the major cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The Paneth cell protein, regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (REG3α), is a biomarker specific for GI GVHD. REG3α serum levels rose in the systematic circulation as GVHD progressively destroyed Paneth cells and reduced GI epithelial barrier function. Paradoxically, GVHD suppressed intestinal REG3γ (the mouse homologue of human REG3α), and the absence of REG3γ in BMT recipients intensified GVHD but did not change the composition of the microbiome...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Cai-Yun Long, Xiao-Bing Tang, Wei-Lin Wang, Zheng-Wei Yuan, Yu-Zuo Bai
Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are one of the most common congenital malformations of the digestive tract; however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in gastrointestinal development and may be involved in the pathogenesis of ARMs. The present study aimed to profile miRNAs and examine their potential functions in rats with ethylenethiourea (ETU)‑induced ARMs. Pregnant Wistar rats (n=36) were divided randomly into ETU‑treated and control groups...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
David Y Graham, Gyanprakash A Ketwaroo, Mary E Money, Antone R Opekun
Post-prandial gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal distension, flatulence, bloating, and feeling of fullness are common complaints of often unknown etiology and pathogenesis. There is a long history of trials reporting successful use of products containing a variety of combinations of digestive enzymes including a number of randomized placebo-controlled trials. We provide a narrative review of studies describing the use of multi-digestive enzymes for symptoms consistent with the irritable bowel syndrome...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Rabia Miray Kisla Ekinci, Sibel Balcı, Okkes Ozgur Mart, Gokhan Tumgor, Sibel Yavuz, Halil Celik, Dilek Dogruel, Derya Ufuk Altintas, Mustafa Yilmaz
Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP), the most common childhood vasculitis is characterized by non-thrombocytopenic palpable purpura, arthritis/arthralgia, abdominal pain and renal involvement. Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are heterogeneous disease spectrum with unclear etiology and include the most common subtypes: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain and functional constipation. Formerly, FGIDs were known as non-organic disorders; however, recent advances revealed that low-grade inflammation may also play a role...
August 12, 2018: Rheumatology International
Jean-Frederic Colombel, Andrea Shin, Peter R Gibson
DESCRIPTION: The purpose of this clinical practice update review is to describe key principles in the diagnosis and management of functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: The evidence and best practices summarized in this manuscript are based on relevant scientific publications, systematic reviews, and expert opinion where applicable. BEST PRACTICE ADVICE 1: A stepwise approach to rule-out ongoing inflammatory activity should be followed in IBD patients with persistent GI symptoms (measurement of fecal calprotectin, endoscopy with biopsy, cross-sectional imaging)...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Ruben J Colman, Neal Bryan S Rosario, Analydia Gutierrez Bonilla, Gabriela Benavidez Alvarez, Joel Benavidez Alvarez, Vincent P Uy, Paulo R Pina, David H Rubin
AIM: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (such as functional abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional dyspepsia) are a common cause of chronic GI symptoms in children. Prior studies demonstrated a high comorbidity of functional GI disorders (FGIDs) among patients with asthma. However, data exploring specific disease characteristics within the US populations are scarce. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and comorbidities of FGIDs among pediatric asthma patients at a university-affiliated urban community hospital...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Ondrej Adamovsky, Amanda Buerger, Alexis M Wormington, Naomi Ector, Robert J Griffitt, Joseph H Bisesi, Christopher J Martyniuk
The microbiome plays an essential role in the health and onset of diseases in all animals, including humans. The microbiome has emerged as a central theme in environmental toxicology, as microbes interact with the host immune system in addition to its role in chemical detoxification. Pathophysiological changes in the gastrointestinal tissue caused by ingested chemicals, and metabolites generated from microbial biodegradation, can lead to systemic adverse effects. This critical review dissects what we know about the impacts of environmental contaminants on the microbiome of aquatic species, with special emphasis on the gut microbiome...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Sarah Ballou, Eaman Alhassan, Elise Hon, Cara Lembo, Vikram Rangan, Prashant Singh, William Hirsch, Thomas Sommers, Johanna Iturrino, Judy Nee, Anthony Lembo
BACKGROUND: Poor sleep quality is common among patients with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, few studies have assessed the presence of insomnia or reported circadian preferences and none have directly compared sleep between common GI conditions. AIMS: To compare clinical sleep characteristics in patients presenting to a tertiary care GI clinic for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional dyspepsia (FD), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and celiac disease (CD)...
August 9, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Kerrie-Anne Chen, Michelle Farrar, Michael Cardamone, Deepak Gill, Robert Smith, Christopher T Cowell, Linda Truong, John A Lawson
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the tolerability and safety of cannabidiol for treating drug-resistant epilepsy in children, and to describe adverse events associated with such treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, open label cohort study. SETTING: Three tertiary NSW referral centres with paediatric neurology services. PARTICIPANTS: First 40 children enrolled in the NSW Compassionate Access Scheme for children with drug-resistant epilepsy and uncountable daily seizures...
August 13, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Veronica Cocetta, Daniela Catanzaro, Vittoria Borgonetti, Eugenio Ragazzi, Maria C Giron, Paolo Governa, Ilaria Carnevali, Marco Biagi, Monica Montopoli
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are considered a growing global disease, with about ten million people being affected worldwide. Maintenance of intestinal barrier integrity is crucial for preventing IBD onset and exacerbations. Some recent patents regarding oily formulations containing probiotics (WO2010122107A1 and WO2010103374A9) and the use of probiotics for gastrointestinal complaints (US20110110905A1 and US9057112B2) exist, or are pending application. OBJECTIVE: In this work we studied the effect of a fixed combination of registered Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus acidophilus strains and herbal extracts in an in vitro inflammation experimental model...
August 8, 2018: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
Mohammad Hossein Biglu, Morteza Ghojazadeh, Samira Kashefi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Yuji Naito, Kazuhiko Uchiyama, Tomohisa Takagi
Redox-related gaseous molecular species in the gastrointestinal tract are derived from the chemical oxidation-reduction reactions, enzymatic reactions, swallowing, and bacterial production. Recent studies have demonstrated the crucial roles of the microbiota and gaseous molecules in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal inflammatory and functional diseases. Especially in the hypoxic condition of the large intestine, various bacteria produce acetic acid, methane, and hydrogen sulfide using hydrogen molecules generated by the fermentation reaction as an energy source...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
Atibordee Meesing, Roshini S Abraham, Raymund R Razonable
INTRODUCTION: Control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after solid organ transplantation (SOT) requires a functional immune system. We assessed the association between quantitation and function of CMV-specific CD8+ T cells and CMV infection in SOT recipients. METHODS: During a 10-year period, selected kidney, heart, lung, pancreas, liver and composite tissue recipients were tested for CMV-specific CD8+ T cells immune competence (CMV-CD8+), as measured by enumeration, interferon-gamma production and CD107a/b degranulation...
August 6, 2018: Transplantation
Leda Roncoroni, Karla A Bascuñán, Luisa Doneda, Alice Scricciolo, Vincenza Lombardo, Federica Branchi, Francesca Ferretti, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Valeria Montanari, Maria Teresa Bardella, Luca Elli
A subset of patients with celiac disease (CD) on a gluten-free diet (GFD) reported the persistence of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Foods containing fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAP) can trigger a broad range of gastrointestinal symptoms in sensitive individuals. We evaluated the effects of a low FODMAP diet (LFD) on gastrointestinal and psychological symptomatology in CD patients. A total of 50 celiac patients on GFDs and with persistence of gastrointestinal symptoms were included...
August 4, 2018: Nutrients
V S Myakotnykh, E S Ostapchuk, V L Postovalova
There was held stationary survey of 661 patients in different age: 234 - from 60 to 102 years, 427 - from 18 to 59 years. Identify options for pathology, clearly increasing its prevalence in parallel with the increase of age. It is, first and foremost, diseases of musculoskeletal apparatus, gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system. At the same time, acute violations of cerebral circulation in the form of strokes, on the contrary, prevailed among persons under the age of 60 years, and an increase in the frequency of ischemic heart disease, angina without myocardial infarction among patients of elderly and senile age in relation to persons under the age of 60 years was insignificant...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
J A Uranga, G Vera, R Abalo
Cannabis sp and their products (marijuana, hashish...), in addition to their recreational, industrial and other uses, have a long history for their use as a remedy for symptoms related with gastrointestinal diseases. After many reports suggesting these beneficial effects, it was not surprising to discover that the gastrointestinal tract expresses endogenous cannabinoids, their receptors, and enzymes for their synthesis and degradation, comprising the so-called endocannabinoid system. This system participates in the control of tissue homeostasis and important intestinal functions like motor and sensory activity, nausea, emesis, the maintenance of the epithelial barrier integrity, and the correct cellular microenvironment...
August 1, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Yu Zhang, Ziqing Li, Fan Han
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional intestinal disease characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal distension, constipation and diarrhea. Many IBS sufferers are usually present with poor quality of life for the abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, and other complaints. At present, the commonly used drug therapy for IBS in the Western clinic, such as antidiarrheal, laxative, gastrointestinal antispasmodic, often cannot get satisfying curative effect...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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