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Functional gastrointestinal disease

Rohit Sahdev, Brendan W Wu, Nina Anderson, Shehryar N Khawaja, Somi Kim, David A Keith
PURPOSE: Disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) occur frequently, with a prevalence of 15 to 18%. Total joint replacement (TJR) surgery is indicated for severe joint damage associated with impaired function, pain, or occlusal change for which other treatments have been unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to assess changes in pain and range of motion (ROM), as well as postoperative complications and comorbidities, in patients receiving TJR surgery at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Barbara Deschler, Gabriele Ihorst, Michael Hüll, Peter Baier
AIMS: The effectiveness of surgery depends on it being carried out safely, which allows patients to return to independent lives. Because gastrointestinal cancers are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older people, we examined the dynamics of recuperation after elective, curative surgery. As disease parameters alone may not suffice to address geriatric patients' issues after onco-surgical interventions, Comprehensive Geriatric and QOL Assessments (CGA/QOL) were performed at four time points to gain information on clinical, functional, and cognitive aspects...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Keisuke Eda, Tatsuki Mizuochi, Yugo Takaki, Kosuke Ushijima, Junji Umeno, Yushiro Yamashita
INTRODUCTION: Chronic nonspecific multiple ulcers of the small intestine (CNSU), an entity with female preponderance and manifestations including anemia and hypoproteinemia reflecting persistent gastrointestinal bleeding and intestinal protein loss, has been considered idiopathic. Umeno et al recently reported that CNSU is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 gene (SLCO2A1) encoding a prostaglandin transporter, renaming the disorder "chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene mutation" (CEAS)...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
E N Burns, M H Bordbari, M J Mienaltowski, V K Affolter, M V Barro, F Gianino, G Gianino, E Giulotto, T S Kalbfleisch, S A Katzman, M Lassaline, T Leeb, M Mack, E J Müller, J N MacLeod, B Ming-Whitfield, C R Alanis, T Raudsepp, E Scott, S Vig, H Zhou, J L Petersen, R R Bellone, C J Finno
The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) project aims to identify genomic regulatory elements in both sexes across multiple stages of development in domesticated animals. This study represents the first stage of the FAANG project for the horse, Equus caballus. A biobank of 80 tissue samples, two cell lines and six body fluids was created from two adult Thoroughbred mares. Ante-mortem assessments included full physical examinations, lameness, ophthalmologic and neurologic evaluations. Complete blood counts and serum biochemistries were also performed...
October 11, 2018: Animal Genetics
Jun Mo, Lei Huang, Jianhua Peng, Umut Ocak, Jianmin Zhang, John H Zhang
Autonomic disturbances often occur in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease due to damage of the central autonomic network. We summarize the structures of the central autonomic network and the clinical tests used to evaluate the functions of the autonomic nervous system. We review the clinical and experimental findings as well as management strategies of post-stroke autonomic disturbances including electrocardiographic changes, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial damage, thermoregulatory dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary incontinence, sexual disorders, and hyperglycemia...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Garima Sharma, Sin Hyeog Im
The prevalence of allergic disorders has dramatically increased over the past decade, particularly in developed countries. Apart from gastrointestinal disorders, neoplasia, genital and dermatological diseases etc. , dysregulation of gut microbiota (dysbiosis) has also been found to be associated with increased risk of allergies. Probiotics are increasingly being employed to correct dysbiosis and, in turn, to modulate allergic diseases. However, several factors like strain variations and effector metabolites or component of them in a bacterial species can affect the efficacy of those as probiotics...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Audrey Poupeau, Christian Garde, Karolina Sulek, Kiymet Citirikkaya, Jonas T Treebak, Manimozhiyan Arumugam, David Simar, Louise E Olofsson, Fredrik Bäckhed, Romain Barrès
Remodeling of the gut microbiota is implicated in various metabolic and inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. We hypothesized that the gut microbiota affects the DNA methylation profile of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) which could, in turn, alter intestinal function. In this study, we used mass spectrometry and methylated DNA capture to respectively investigate global and genome-wide DNA methylation of intestinal epithelial cells from germ-free (GF) and conventionally raised mice. In colonic IECs from GF mice, DNA was markedly hypermethylated...
October 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
L Anselmi, C Bove, F H Coleman, K Le, M P Subramanian, K Venkiteswaran, T Subramanian, R A Travagli
Increasing evidence suggests that environmental neurotoxicants or misfolded α-synuclein generated by such neurotoxicants are transported from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system via the vagus nerve, triggering degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and causing Parkinson's disease (PD). We tested the hypothesis that gastric co-administration of subthreshold doses of lectins and paraquat can recreate the pathology and behavioral manifestations of PD in rats...
2018: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
Laura C Figueroa-Diaz, Felipe G Rodriguez-Ruiz, Manuel Betancourt-Torres, Ivonne L Ojeda-Boscana, Jose A Lara
BACKGROUND Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal disease caused either by deficiency or presence of a non-functioning C1 inhibitor. The lack or non-functionality of said inhibitors leads to activation of an inflammatory cascade, which result in cutaneous and mucosal edema. Most patients with HAE present with either cutaneous, laryngeal/pharyngeal, or gastrointestinal exacerbations. An uncommon gastrointestinal manifestation of HAE is an intussusception, which in most cases require invasive/surgical management...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Vritika Batura, Aleixo M Muise
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the current understanding and recent advances on the genetic aetiology in the pathogenesis of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD). RECENT FINDINGS: IBD is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract whose manifestation is a result of complex interactions between genetics, environment, immune system and microbial flora. Over 230 IBD risk loci have been reported in genome wide association studies but the genetic contribution of the majority of these loci in the manifestation of IBD is very low...
October 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mirjam B Zeisel, Punita Dhawan, Thomas F Baumert
Over the past two decades a growing body of evidence has demonstrated an important role of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the physiology and disease biology of GI and liver disease. On one side, TJ proteins exert their functional role as integral proteins of TJs in forming barriers in the gut and the liver. Furthermore, TJ proteins can also be expressed outside TJs where they play important functional roles in signalling, trafficking and regulation of gene expression. A hallmark of TJ proteins in disease biology is their functional role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
October 8, 2018: Gut
Lusine Ambartsumyan, Hengqi B Zheng, Ramesh S Iyer, Jennifer Soares, Gretchen Henstorf, Anne M Stevens
OBJECTIVE: Juvenile systemic sclerosis (jSSc) is a disabling autoimmune condition that affects multiple organs in addition to skin, notably the gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. The relationship between esophageal abnormalities and pulmonary disease in jSSc is not well understood. We describe associations between radiologic esophageal abnormalities and pulmonary function. METHODS: Clinical and radiographic data of children less than 18 years who fulfilled 2007 Pediatric Rheumatology Provisional Classification Criteria for jSSc between 1994 and 2016 were reviewed...
October 8, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
Camilla Virili, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, detoxification and vitamins' synthesis...
October 8, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Aurélien Venara, Pascal Alfonsi, Eddy Cotte, Jérôme Loriau, Jean-François Hamel, Karem Slim
PURPOSE: Postoperative ileus (POI) occurrence within enhanced recovery programs (ERPs) has decreased. Also, intra-abdominal complications (IAC) such as anastomotic leakage (AL) generally present late. The aim was to characterize the link between POI and the other complications occurring after surgery. METHODS: This retrospective analysis of a prospective database was conducted by the Francophone Group for Enhanced Recovery after Surgery. POI was considered to be present if gastrointestinal functions had not been recovered within 3 days following surgery or if a nasogastric tube replacement was required...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Junyi Li, Fei Sun, Yanchao Guo, Heng Fan
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are known to be largely influenced by one's lifestyle and dietary uptake. A high-salt diet (HSD) is well recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular complications, hypertension, and metabolic syndromes. However, the relationship between an HSD and the GI system, which is the compartment that comes in direct contact with exogenous stimulants, has not been fully explored. AIMS: We seek to better understand the complexity of the pathogenic effects of an HSD in the context of GI disorders...
October 5, 2018: Digestion
A Menys, E Saliakellis, O Borrelli, N Thapar, S A Taylor, T Watson
Gastrointestinal symptoms including constipation, diarrhoea, pain and bloating represent some of the most common clinical problems for patients. These symptoms can often be managed with cheap, widely available medication or will spontaneously resolve. However, for many patients, chronic GI symptoms persist and frequently come to dominate their lives. At one end of the spectrum there is Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) with a clearly defined but expensive treatment pathway. Contrasting with this is Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), likely a collection of pathologies, has a poorly standardised pathway with unsatisfactory clinical outcomes...
October 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Daniel J Smith, Kerenaftali Klein, Gunter Hartel, Claire E Wainwright, Scott C Bell, Gregory J Anderson, David W Reid
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Genetic modifiers contribute to variable disease phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF). We explored the association between mutations in the hemochromatosis (HFE) gene and disease severity in adults with CF. METHODS: HFE genotyping was performed in 163 adults with CF attending a single centre. Results were correlated with lung disease severity, prevalence of CF-related diabetes (CFRD) and history of meconium ileus (MI) or distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS)...
October 3, 2018: Gene
Wenting Wen, Haibo Zhang, Junlong Shen, Luxia Wei, Shunong Shen
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional bowel disease characterized by chronic or recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. Many patients with IBS have a poor quality of life due to abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, constipation, and the presence of other diseases. At present, intestinal motility inhibitors, adsorbents, astringents, intestinal mucosal protective agents, and antidepressants have been combined to treat IBS, but the treatment process is long, which results in a large economic burden to patients...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Prashanth Rawla, Tagore Sunkara, Jeffrey Pradeep Raj
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that is usually associated with chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. The two spectra of the disease include constipation-predominant IBS and Diarrhea-predominant IBS. Earlier it was thought to be an unexplained brain-gut disorder, but of late, various underlying causes suggesting primary gut disturbance have been identified. The initial management primarily includes the non-pharmacological measures such as dietary modifications, increasing physical activity, and psychological therapy...
October 2, 2018: Life Sciences
Katrin Stuecher, Claus Bolling, Lutz Vogt, Daniel Niederer, Katharina Schmidt, Axel Dignaß, Winfried Banzer
PURPOSE: Although growing evidence underlines the benefits of physical activity as supportive intervention for cancer patients, sparse data are available for exercise in patients with advanced disease stages, in particular for gastrointestinal cancer (GIC) patients who experience specific disease-associated limitations. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of home-based moderate intensity exercise on functional capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and body composition in patients with advanced GIC during first-line chemotherapy...
October 4, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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