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Martin Frank, Dorothee Marx, Vedran Nedelkovski, Julia-Theresa Fischer, Dieter H Pahr, Philipp J Thurner
Trabecular bone is located inside flat bones as well as in the epi- and metaphysis of long bones and plays a key role with respect to load transfer. Disorders, such as osteoporosis, weaken the structural integrity and may also cause changes in the mechanical properties of individual trabeculae, such as Young's modulus. Knowledge of mechanical tissue properties are necessary to assess risk of bone fracture with finite element analysis (FEA). However, such parameters are most often obtained from experiments on air-dried specimens which do not reflect the physiological conditions...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Urs Benck, Matthias Jung, Bernd Krüger, Anja Grimm, Christel Weiss, Benito A Yard, Frank Lehner, Anja Kiessling, Lutz Fischer, Anja Gallinat, Axel Kleespies, Thomas Lorf, Robert Sucher, Christian Mönch, Marcus N Scherer, Axel Rahmel, Peter Schemmer, Bernhard K Krämer, Peter Schnuelle
Treatment of the brain-dead donor (DBD) with low-dose dopamine improves the outcomes after kidney and heart transplantation. This study investigates the course of liver allografts from multi-organ donors enrolled in the randomized dopamine trial between 2004 and 2007 (clinicalTrials. gov Identifier: NCT00115115). Twohundred sixty-four hemodynamically stable DBDs were randomly assigned to receive low-dose dopamine. Dopamine was infused at 4 μg/kg/min for a median duration of 6.0 hours (IQR 4.4-7.5 hours). We assessed the outcomes of 212 liver transplants performed at 32 European centers...
August 13, 2018: Liver Transplantation
David S Fischer, Fabian J Theis, Nir Yosef
Temporal changes to the concentration of molecular species such as mRNA, which take place in response to various environmental cues, can often be modeled as simple continuous functions such as a single pulse (impulse) model. The simplicity of such functional representations can provide an improved performance on fundamental tasks such as noise reduction, imputation and differential expression analysis. However, temporal gene expression profiles are often studied with models that treat time as a categorical variable, neglecting the dependence between time points...
August 8, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Agnes Moors, Maja Fischer
The paper sketches the historical development from emotion as a mysterious entity and the source of maladaptive behaviour, to emotion as a collection of ingredients and the source of also adaptive behaviour. We argue, however, that the underlying mechanism proposed to take care of this adaptive behaviour is not entirely up for its task. We outline an alternative view that explains so-called emotional behaviour with the same mechanism as non-emotional behaviour, but that is at the same time more likely to produce adaptive behaviour...
August 13, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Eva Dohle, Smriti Singh, Akihiro Nishiguchi, Thorsten Fischer, Matthias Wessling, Martin Möller, Robert Sader, Jennifer Yvonne Kasper, Shahram Ghanaati, C James Kirkpatrick
The development of an in vitro model resembling the alveolar-capillary barrier might be a highly beneficial tool to study lung physiology as well as the immune response of the lung to infection or after exposure to nanoparticles. This study is based on an in vitro alveolar barrier developed on a basement membrane mimic, composed of ultrathin nanofiber meshes generated via electrospinning using bioresorbable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). As cellular components, NCI H441, resembling the alveolar epithelial cells, and ISO-HAS-1, an endothelial cell line, were used to perform bipolar co-culture experiments for a total cultivation period of 14 days...
August 13, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Annette Fischer, Thomas Rudel
Chlamydia belong to the group of obligate intracellular bacteria which reside in a membrane bound vacuole during the entire intracellular phase of their life cycle. This vacuole called inclusion shields the bacteria from adverse influences in the cytosol of the host cell like the destructive machinery of the cell-autonomous defense system. The inclusion thereby prevents the digestion and eradication in specialized compartments of the intact and viable cell called phagolysosomes or autophagolysosomes. It is becoming more and more evident that keeping the inclusion intact also prevents the onset of cell intrinsic cell death programs which are activated upon damage of the inclusion and direct the cell to destruct itself and the pathogen inside...
August 12, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Athanasios K Petridis, Andreas Filis, Elias Chasoglou, Igor Fischer, Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Richard Bostelmann, Hans Jakob Steiger, Bernd Turowski, Rebecca May
The increasing number of incidental intracranial aneurysms creates a dilemma of which aneurysms to treat and which to observe. Clinical scoring systems consider risk factors for aneurysm rupture however objective parameters for assessment of aneurysms stability are needed. We retrospectively analysed contrast enhancing behaviour of un-ruptured aneurysms in the black blood magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in N=71 patients with 90 aneurysms and assessed correlation between aneurysm wall contrast enhancement (AWCE) and aneurysm anatomy and clinical scoring systems...
July 10, 2018: Clinics and Practice
Evert Van de Vliert, Christian Welzel, Andrey Shcherbak, Ronald Fischer, Amy C Alexander
The roots and routes of cultural evolution are still a mystery. Here, we aim to lift a corner of that veil by illuminating the deep origins of encultured freedoms, which evolved through centuries-long processes of learning to pursue and transmit values and practices oriented toward autonomous individual choice. Analyzing a multitude of data sources, we unravel for 108 Old World countries a sequence of cultural evolution reaching from (a) ancient climates suitable for dairy farming to (b) lactose tolerance at the eve of the colonial era to (c) resources that empowered people in the early industrial era to (d) encultured freedoms today...
August 2018: Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology
Alexander W Fischer, Kirstin Albers, Lucia M Krott, Britta Hoffzimmer, Markus Heine, Hartwig Schmale, Ludger Scheja, Philip L S M Gordts, Joerg Heeren
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is associated with impaired receptor dependent hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), promoting hypertriglyceridemia and atherosclerosis. Next to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and syndecan-1, the LDLR-related protein 1 (LRP1) stimulated by insulin action contributes to the rapid clearance of TRL in the postprandial state. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the adaptor protein phosphotyrosine interacting domain-containing protein 1 (PID1) regulates LRP1 function, thereby controlling hepatic endocytosis of postprandial lipoproteins...
July 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
A Eskander, M K Krzyzanowska, H D Fischer, N Liu, P C Austin, J C Irish, D J Enepekides, J Lee, E Gutierrez, E Lockhart, M Raphael, S Singh
BACKGROUND: Mucosal head and neck squamous cell cancers are often managed with multimodality treatment which can be associated with significant toxicity. The objective of this study was to assess emergency department visits and unplanned hospitalizations for these patients during and immediately after their treatment. METHODS: A cohort of patients treated for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was developed using administrative data. Emergency department visits and hospitalizations in the 90-day post-treatment period was determined...
August 2018: Oral Oncology
Christoph Gayer, Jessica Abert, Martin Bullemer, Stefanie Grom, Lucas Jauer, Wilhelm Meiners, Frank Reinauer, Marijan Vučak, Konrad Wissenbach, Reinhart Poprawe, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum, Horst Fischer
Complex 3D scaffolds with interconnected pores are a promising tool for bone regeneration. Such 3D scaffolds can be manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) from biodegradable composite powders. However, the mechanical strength of these scaffolds is often too low for medical application. We propose that the mechanical strength of laser-sintered scaffolds can be improved through composite powders with tailored properties (e.g., suitable powder particle size and melt viscosity for SLS). To prove this, two batches of a poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite powder with 50 wt% PDLLA and 50 wt% β-TCP were synthesized...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
P J Hohensinner, J Baumgartner, B Ebenbauer, B Thaler, M Fischer, K Huber, W S Speidl, J Wojta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages are versatile immune cells involved in tissue degradation and remodeling. Proinflammatory macrophages have the highest capacity of matrix degradation and proteolysis. Within atherosclerotic lesions, proinflammatory macrophages are associated with unstable plaques. Statins have been demonstrated to increase plaque stability. Possible changes of polarized macrophage tissue degradation behavior under statin treatment are currently unknown. METHODS: Polarized macrophages were tested in vitro for matrix degradation capacity with or without statin treatment...
August 8, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Kerstin Mayer, Jana Weßing, Thomas F Fässler, Roland A Fischer
Atom-precise, ligand-stabilized metalloid clusters have emerged as outstanding model systems to study fundamental structure and bonding situations of compositionally related extended solid phases. However, this fascinating field of research is still largely restricted to homometallic and pseudo-heterometallic systems of closely related d-block metals. In this article, we will highlight our own, and others', efforts to project the structural and compositional diversity of intermetallics with dissimilar d- and p-block metal combinations, particularly the Zintl and Hume-Rothery phases, onto the molecular level in order to bridge the still gaping chasm between heterometallic molecular coordination chemistry and solid state intermetallics...
August 11, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Line Flytkjær Virgilsen, Anette Fischer Pedersen, Berit Andersen, Peter Vedsted
PURPOSE: Breast cancer can be detected at early stages through organised screening. This study explored reasons for non-participation in breast cancer screening among previous cancer patients, who have high risk of developing a new primary cancer. METHOD: We conducted a population-based historical cohort study, including all women invited to the first organised screening round in 2008-2009 in the Central Denmark Region (n = 149,234). All data were based on national registers...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Kai Lee Yap, Amy E Knight Johnson, David Fischer, Priscilla Kandikatla, Jacea Deml, Viswateja Nelakuditi, Sara Halbach, George S Jeha, Lindsay C Burrage, Olaf Bodamer, Valeria C Benavides, Andrea M Lewis, Sian Ellard, Pratik Shah, Declan Cody, Alejandro Diaz, Aishwarya Devarajan, Lisa Truong, Siri Atma W Greeley, Diva D De Leon, Andrew C Edmondson, Soma Das, Paul Thornton, Darrel Waggoner, Daniela Del Gaudio
The author Diva D. De Leon was incorrectly listed as instead of Diva D. De Leó-Critchlow in the original version of this paper.
August 11, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Alexis D Fischer, Michael L Brosnahan, Donald M Anderson
Many dinoflagellate cysts experience dormancy, a reversible state that prevents germination during unfavorable periods. Several of these species also cause harmful algal blooms (HABs), so a quantitative understanding of dormancy cycling is desired for better prediction and mitigation of bloom impacts. This study examines the effect of cold exposure on the duration of dormancy in Alexandrium catenella, a HAB dinoflagellate that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Mature, dormant cysts from Nauset Marsh (Cape Cod, MA USA) were stored at low but above freezing temperatures for up to six months...
June 18, 2018: Protist
Kenneth Allen Dyar, Michaël Jean Hubert, Ashfaq Ali Mir, Stefano Ciciliot, Dominik Lutter, Franziska Greulich, Fabiana Quagliarini, Maximilian Kleinert, Katrin Fischer, Thomas Oliver Eichmann, Lauren Emily Wright, Marcia Ivonne Peña Paz, Alberto Casarin, Vanessa Pertegato, Vanina Romanello, Mattia Albiero, Sara Mazzucco, Rosario Rizzuto, Leonardo Salviati, Gianni Biolo, Bert Blaauw, Stefano Schiaffino, N Henriette Uhlenhaut
Circadian clocks are fundamental physiological regulators of energy homeostasis, but direct transcriptional targets of the muscle clock machinery are unknown. To understand how the muscle clock directs rhythmic metabolism, we determined genome-wide binding of the master clock regulators brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) and REV-ERBα in murine muscles. Integrating occupancy with 24-hr gene expression and metabolomics after muscle-specific loss of BMAL1 and REV-ERBα, here we unravel novel molecular mechanisms connecting muscle clock function to daily cycles of lipid and protein metabolism...
August 10, 2018: PLoS Biology
Joshua Pottel, Anat Levit, Magdalena Korczynska, Marcus Fischer, Brian K Shoichet
Unrelated ligands, often found in drug discovery campaigns, can bind to the same receptor, even with the same protein residues. To investigate how this might occur, and whether it might be typically possible to find unrelated ligands for the same drug target, we sought examples of topologically unrelated ligands that bound to the same protein in the same site. Seventy-six pairs of ligands, each bound to the same protein (152 complexes total), were considered, classified into three groups. In the first (31 pairs of complexes), unrelated ligands interacted largely with the same pocket residues through different functional groups...
August 10, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Devin R Halleran, Amanda J Onwuka, Amy E Lawrence, Beth C Fischer, Katherine J Deans, Peter C Minneci
BACKGROUND: Laser hair depilation has shown promise in small series of patients with pilonidal sinus disease. The purpose of this study was to review the published literature on laser hair depilation in pilonidal disease to determine its effect on disease recurrence. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched to identify all studies published through December 1, 2017 that examined the role of laser hair depilation in the treatment of pilonidal sinus disease...
August 10, 2018: Surgical Infections
Anne Sophie Fischer, Niels Marcussen, Maria Rasmussen, Else Randers
Dent's disease is characterized by manifestations of proximal tubule dysfunction including hypercalciuria, kidney stones, proteinuria, rickets and progressively declining kidney function. The diagnosis is based on the presence of low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria and at least one of the following: nephrocalcinosis, kidney stones, haematuria, hypophosphataemia or renal insufficiency. Dent's disease is a hereditary condition that is caused by variants in the CLCN5 gene or the OCRL1 gene and affects only males...
August 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
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