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Timothy R Fennell, Scott L Watson, Suraj Dhungana, Rodney W Snyder
4-Methylimidazole (4-MeI) is a widely used chemical, also identified as a by-product of heating foods. In cancer bioassays, 4-MeI induced lung tumors in mice, but not in rats. To establish if metabolic differences could explain species difference in carcinogenicity, this study investigated metabolism of 4-MeI in rat and mouse lung and liver microsomes and S-9 fractions, and in vivo in rats and mice. No metabolites were detected in rat or mouse lung and liver microsomes, or lung S-9 fractions. Male and female F-344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered 50 and 150 mg/kg [14 C] 4-MeI by gavage...
October 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Michael Schumann, Miroslav Malešević, Erik Hinze, Sebastian Mathea, Marat Meleshin, Mike Schutkowski, Wolfgang Hähnel, Cordelia Schiene-Fischer
Human Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase with a unique preference for phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro substrate motifs. Here we report that MCM3 (minichromosome maintenance complex component 3), is a novel target of Pin1. MCM3 interacts directly with the WW domain of Pin1. Proline-directed phosphorylation of MCM3 at S112 and T722 are crucial for the interaction with Pin1. MCM3 as a subunit of the minichromosome maintenance heterocomplex MCM2-7 is part of the pre-replication complex responsible for replication licensing, and is implicated in the formation of the replicative helicase during progression of replication...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Molecular Biology
Yan Fan, Ping Chen, Muhammad U Raza, Attila Szebeni, Katalin Szebeni, Gregory A Ordway, Craig A Stockmeier, Meng-Yang Zhu
Phox2a and Phox2b are two homeodomain transcription factors playing a pivotal role in the development of noradrenergic neurons during the embryonic period. However, their expression and function in adulthood remain to be elucidated. Using human postmortem brain tissues, rat stress models and cultured cells, this study aimed to examine the alteration of Phox2a and Phox2b expression. The results show that Phox2a and Phox2b are normally expressed in the human locus coeruleus (LC) in adulthood. Furthermore, the levels of Phox2a protein and mRNA and protein levels of Phox2b were significantly elevated in the LC of brain donors that suffered from the major depressive disorder, as compared to age-matched and psychiatrically normal control donors...
October 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Eugenio F Fornasiero, Sunit Mandad, Hanna Wildhagen, Mihai Alevra, Burkhard Rammner, Sarva Keihani, Felipe Opazo, Inga Urban, Till Ischebeck, M Sadman Sakib, Maryam K Fard, Koray Kirli, Tonatiuh Pena Centeno, Ramon O Vidal, Raza-Ur Rahman, Eva Benito, André Fischer, Sven Dennerlein, Peter Rehling, Ivo Feussner, Stefan Bonn, Mikael Simons, Henning Urlaub, Silvio O Rizzoli
The turnover of brain proteins is critical for organism survival, and its perturbations are linked to pathology. Nevertheless, protein lifetimes have been difficult to obtain in vivo. They are readily measured in vitro by feeding cells with isotopically labeled amino acids, followed by mass spectrometry analyses. In vivo proteins are generated from at least two sources: labeled amino acids from the diet, and non-labeled amino acids from the degradation of pre-existing proteins. This renders measurements difficult...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Todd C Soesbe, Matthew A Lewis, Khaled Nasr, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Robert E Lenkinski
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast...
October 9, 2018: Academic Radiology
Vicki Thomson, Andrew Wiewel, Aldo Chinen, Ibnu Maryanto, M H Sinaga, Ric How, Ken Aplin, Hitoshi Suzuki
The murid rodent genus Rattus Fischer 1803 contains several species that are responsible for massive loss of crops and food, extinction of other species and the spread of zoonotic diseases to humans, as well as a laboratory species used to answer important questions in physiology, immunology, pharmacology, toxicology, nutrition, behaviour and learning. Despite the well-known significant impacts of Rattus, a definitive evolutionary based systematic framework for the genus is not yet available. The past 75 years have seen more dramatic changes in membership of Rattus than in almost any other genus of mammals...
August 15, 2018: Zootaxa
Jiachen Zhu, Cornelis Van Achterberg, Xue-Xin Chen
Four new species of Hylcalosia Fischer are described and illustrated from China, i.e., H. carinata sp. nov., H. melasaraia sp. nov., H. poricrenulata sp. nov., and H. verticalis sp. nov. Hylcalosia sutchanica Belokobylskij, 1992, is a new record for China. A key to the known species of Hylcalosia Fischer is provided.
August 29, 2018: Zootaxa
Sarp Kaya, Dragan Chobanov, Klaus-Gerhard Heller, ÖzgÜl YahyaoĞlu
Poecilimon Fischer (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) consists of about 130 species and a functional taxonomy of the genus requires arranging species into phylogenetic groups. However, this is a task that requires detailed empirical testing. This paper documents data on Poecilimon species with an inflated pronotum. The Poecilimon (Poecilimon) inflatus group is a lineage ranging along a narrow zone in the south-west corner of Anatolia and in Crete plus some other Aegean islands. By producing data of morphology and calling songs of males and responding songs of females the composition and intra-group diversity of P...
August 29, 2018: Zootaxa
J Robert Macey, James A Ii Schulte, Natalia B Ananjeva, Erik T van Dyke, Yuezhao Wang, Nikolai Orlov, Soheila Shafiei, Michael D Robinson, Tatjana Dujsebayeva, Gabriel S Freund, Clayton M Fischer, David Liu, Theodore J Papenfuss
Phylogenetic relationships of the agamid lizard genus Phrynocephalus are described in the context of plate tectonics. A near comprehensive taxon sampling reports three data sets: (1) mitochondrial DNA from ND1 to COI (3' end of ND1, tRNAGln, tRNAIle, tRNAMet, ND2, tRNATrp, tRNAAla, tRNAAsn, tRNACys, tRNATyr, and the 5' end of COI) with 1761 aligned positional sites (1595 included, 839 informative), (2) nuclear RAG-1 DNA with 2760 aligned positional sites (342 informative), and (3) 25 informative allozyme loci with 213 alleles (107 informative when coded as presence/absence)...
September 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Junli Yao, Cornelis Van Achterberg, Michael J Sharkey, Jiahua Chen
Separatatus Chen Wu, 1994, is reported for the first time from Thailand and one new species is described and illustrated: Separatatus xuexincheni n. sp. In addition, one species is newly recorded from Thailand (S. parallelus Zhu et al., 2017) and we transfer one species from Phasmidiasta to Separatatus: S. malaysiae (Fischer, 2006) n. comb. A key to species of the genus Separatatus is presented.
June 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Junli Yao, Cornelis van Achterberg, Michael J Sharkey, Eric G Chapman, Jiahua Chen
Neurolarthra Fischer, 1976, is a small braconid genus with two described species. The genus is revised using morphological characters and a phylogenetic analysis of COI sequence data; GenBank accession numbers of seven COI sequences from two species are included. A new species from Thailand is described and illustrated: N. karensharkeyae Yao n. sp. Neurolarthra Fischer and N. procera are reported for the first time from Thailand. A key to species of the genus Neurolarthra is presented.
June 22, 2018: Zootaxa
Anibal Basile-Filho, Alessandra Fabiane Lago, Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti, Edson Antonio Nicolini, Roosevelt Santos Nunes, Silas Lucena de Lima, João Paulo Uvera Ferreira, Marcus Antonio Feres
Guidelines for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) management and several grading systems or prognostic indices have been used not only to improve the quality of care but to predict also the outcome of these patients. Among them, the gold standards Fisher radiological grading scale, Hunt-Hess and the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) are the most employed. The objective of this study is to compare the predictive values of simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) 3, sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in the outcome of patients with aneurysmal SAH...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Harry Sokol, Nizar Mahlaoui, Claire Aguilar, Perrine Bach, Olivier Join-Lambert, Aurélie Garraffo, Philippe Seksik, François Danion, Sarah Jegou, Marjolene Straube, Christelle Lenoir, Bénédicte Neven, Despina Moshous, Stéphane Blanche, Bénédicte Pigneur, Olivier Goulet, Frank Ruemmele, Felipe Suarez, Laurent Beaugerie, Stéphanie Pannier, Françoise Mazingue, Olivier Lortholary, Lionel Galicier, Capucine Picard, Geneviève de Saint Basile, Sylvain Latour, Alain Fischer
The gut microbiota plays a key role in host physiology and is an actor in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Patients with primary immunodeficiency causing intestinal inflammation have disease-specific dysbiosis.
October 9, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Samuel Shaki, Martin H Fischer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Juliane Fischer, Sebastian Y Müller, Tina Netzker, Nils Jäger, Agnieszka Gacek-Matthews, Kirstin Scherlach, Maria C Stroe, María García-Altares, Francesco Pezzini, Hanno Schoeler, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Mario Kc Krespach, Ekaterina Shelest, Volker Schroeckh, Vito Valiante, Thorsten Heinzel, Christian Hertweck, Joseph Strauss, Axel A Brakhage
The eukaryotic epigenetic machinery can be modified by bacteria to reprogram the response of eukaryotes during their interaction with microorganisms. We discovered that the bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus triggered increased chromatin acetylation and thus activation of the silent secondary metabolism ors gene cluster in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans . Using this model we aim at understanding mechanisms of microbial communication based on bacteria-triggered chromatin modification. By genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis of acetylated histone H3 we uncovered the unique chromatin landscape in A...
October 12, 2018: ELife
Sean A Fischer, Brett I Dunlap, Daniel Gunlycke
The aqueous proton displays an anomalously large diffusion coefficient that is up to 7 times that of similarly sized cations. There is general consensus that the proton achieves its high diffusion through the Grotthuss mechanism, whereby protons hop from one molecule to the next. A main assumption concerning the extraction of the timescale of the Grotthuss mechanism from experimental results has been that, on average, there is an equal probability for the proton to hop to any of its neighboring water molecules...
September 21, 2018: Chemical Science
M Dominik Fischer, G Alex Ochakovski, Benjamin Beier, Immanuel P Seitz, Yousof Vaheb, Constanze Kortuem, Felix F L Reichel, Laura Kuehlewein, Nadine A Kahle, Tobias Peters, Aniz Girach, Eberhart Zrenner, Marius Ueffing, Robert E MacLaren, KarlUlrich Bartz-Schmidt, Barbara Wilhelm
PURPOSE: Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare inherited retinal degeneration resulting from mutation of the CHM gene, which results in absence of functional Rab escort protein 1 (REP1). We evaluated retinal gene therapy with an adeno-associated virus vector that used to deliver a functional version of the CHM gene (AAV2-REP1). METHODS: THOR (NCT02671539) is a Phase 2, open-label, single-center, randomized study. Six male patients (51-60 years) with CHM received AAV2-REP1, by a single 0...
October 9, 2018: Retina
Delphine Rousseau-Ralliard, Anne Couturier-Tarrade, René Thieme, Roselyne Brat, Audrey Rolland, Pascal Boileau, Marie-Christine Aubrière, Nathalie Daniel, Michèle Dahirel, Emilie Derisoud, Natalie Fournier, Maria Schindler, Véronique Duranthon, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer
Tight metabolic control of type-1 diabetes is essential during gestation, but it could be crucial during the periconception period. Feto-placental consequences of maternal type-1 diabetes around the time of conception need to be explored. Using a rabbit model, type-1 diabetes was induced by alloxan 7 days before mating. Glycemia was maintained at 15-20 mmol/L with exogenous insulin injections to prevent ketoacidosis. At 4 days post-conception (dpc), embryos were collected from diabetic (D) or normoglycemic control (C) dams, respectively, and transferred into non-diabetic recipients...
October 8, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Marius Bauer, Lutz Tauhardt, Hanneke M L Lambermont-Thijs, Kristian Kempe, Richard Hoogenboom, Ulrich S Schubert, D Fischer
To gain a more profound insight into the impact of the number and the density of protonable amines on the performance of polycations as non-viral vectors, a series of linear poly(ethylene imine)s (LPEIs) with different numbers of ethylene imine (EI) units was compared to partially hydrolyzed (21 to 86%, 20 kDa) poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s (PHPEtOxs) with a corresponding numbers of EI units but with varying densities. PHPEtOx polyplexes demonstrated lower transfection efficiencies than the corresponding LPEIs although having the same number of EI units as LPEI, exhibiting smaller or comparable polyplex diameters, similar zeta potentials and similar or even preferred cyto- and hemocompatibility profiles...
October 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Kohei Shimamura, Fuyuki Shimojo, Aiichiro Nakano, Shigenori Tanaka
Recent experiments concerning prebiotic materials syntheses suggest that the iron-bearing meteorite impacts on ocean during Late Heavy Bombardment provided abundant organic compounds associated with biomolecules such as amino acids and nucleobases. However, the molecular mechanism of a series of chemical reactions to produce such compounds is not well understood. In this study, we simulate the shock compression state of a meteorite impact for a model system composed of CO2 , H2 O, and metallic iron slab by ab initio molecular dynamics combined with multiscale shock technique, and clarify possible elementary reaction processes up to production of organic compounds...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Chemistry
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