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Health protection

Céline Laurencé, Narimane Zeghbib, Michael Rivard, Sonia Lehri-Boufala, Isabelle Lachaise, Caroline Barau, Philippe Le Corvoisier, Thierry Martens, Laure Garrigue-Antar, Christophe Morin
Pharmaceuticals and their by-products are increasingly a matter of concern, because of their unknown impacts on human health and ecosystems. The lack of information on these transformation products, which toxicity may exceed that of their parent molecules, makes their detection and toxicological evaluation impossible. Recently we characterized the Pyridinium of furosemide (PoF), a new transformation product of furosemide, the most widely used diuretic and an emerging pollutant. Here, we reveal PoF toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells leading to alpha-synuclein accumulation, reactive oxygen species generation, and apoptosis...
December 8, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Jacques Bouget, Frédéric Balusson, Lucie-Marie Scailteux, Maxime Maignan, Pierre-Marie Roy, Erwan L'her, Laure Pavageau, Emmanuel Nowak
Bleeding represents the most recognised and feared complications of antithrombotic drugs including oral anticoagulants. Previous studies showed inconsistent results on the safety profile. Among explanations, bleeding definition could vary and classification bias exist related to the lack of medical evaluation. To quantify the risk of major haemorrhagic event and event-free survival associated with antithrombotic drugs (Vitamin K Antagonist [VKA], non-VKA anticoagulant [NOAC], antiplatelet agent, parenteral anticoagulant) in 2012-2015, we linked the French nationwide Health Insurance database (SNIIRAM) with a local "emergency database" (clinical and biological data collected in clinical records)...
December 10, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
Aderonke A Akinkugbe, Oswaldo Moreno, Tegwyn H Brickhouse
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiologic studies of risk and protective factors for poor oral health have mostly been among children and adults, seldom focusing on adolescents. The aims of this study were to examine whether serum cotinine, a marker of tobacco exposure, and serum vitamin D are independently associated with dental caries experience among adolescents. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 2579 adolescent participants in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey were analysed...
December 10, 2018: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Ann Pettit, Andrew Mcvicar, Pamela Knight-Davidson, Adelle Shaw-Flach
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of a curriculum based on the Compassionate Mind Model designed to facilitate the expression of compassion in Specialist Community Public Health Nurses. BACKGROUND: The Compassionate Mind Model identifies that fear of compassion creates a barrier to the flow of compassion. There is some evidence linking self-compassion to compassionate care but no previous research has explored this potential with post registration specialist community public health nursing students...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Nguyet Thi Nguyen, Clint Douglas, Ann Bonner
AIMS: To examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention compared with usual care in adults with chronic kidney disease on self-management, knowledge, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life and blood pressure. DESIGN: A parallel group randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Patients aged ≥ 18 years with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 were recruited between November 2015 - June 2016. Participants were randomly allocated into either the intervention (N = 68) or control group (N = 67)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Taylor Nally, Ann Taket, Melissa Graham
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Numerous resources exist to support workplaces to undertake gender equality work, however, it is often unclear which existing resources are being utilised by Australian workplaces. One group that can provide insight into the use of existing resources is the professionals who have undertaken gender equality work in their organisation. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to identify informants with experience undertaking gender equality work. A sample of 12 informants was recruited from five employment sectors: five informants from the women's health sector; two from other organisations in the health sector; three from local government; and one each from manufacturing and education...
December 8, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Alison Stuebe
In this issue, Velle-Forbord et al test the hypothesis that breastfeeding does not improve maternal health per se, but rather, longer breastfeeding is a marker of better maternal health before pregnancy. The authors leverage the HUNT longitudinal cohort study, a registry in Nord-Trøndelag county, Norway, a country where there is broad institutional support for breastfeeding, including free prenatal care, free breastfeeding counseling, and one year of paid maternity leave. Breastfeeding rates are high: In the HUNT cohort sample births from 1987 to 2008, 85% of women breastfed for more than 3 months; in 2015 in the US, 82% of all women breastfed...
December 11, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Giselle Ann D Fontamillas, Si Won Kim, Hoy-Ung Kim, Sung-Jo Kim, Jong Geun Kim, Tae Sub Park, Byung-Chul Park
BACKGROUND: The livestock industry requires high-quality products as well as improved productivity. There have been many studies regarding the utilization of feed additives to increase productivity, enhance immune functions, and prevent infectious diseases in livestock. Biofunctional feed additives would be beneficial not only for animal health, but also for consumers. In this study, we utilized root and byproduct (stem and leaf) powders of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN, Korean Danggui) as feed additives and examined the deposition of biofunctional compounds, such as decursin and decursinol angelate, into egg white and yolk...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Tania Chacón-Ordóñez, Reinhold Carle, Ralf Schweiggert
The frequent consumption of carotenoid-rich foods has been associated with numerous health benefits such as the supply of provitamin A. In order to exert these health benefits, carotenoids need to be efficiently liberated from the food matrix, micellized in the small intestine, taken up by the enterocytes, and absorbed to the human blood stream. Enormous efforts have been made to better understand these processes. Since human studies are costly, labor-intense, and time-consuming, the evaluation of carotenoid liberation and micellization at laboratory scale using simulated in vitro-digestion models has proven to be an important tool to obtain preliminary results prior to conducting human studies...
December 7, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Anna Schneider, Marieke Bak, Catherine Mahoney, Louise Hoyle, Muireann Kelly, Iain M Atherton, Richard G Kyle
AIMS: To estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours among nurses in Scotland relative to other healthcare workers and those in non-healthcare occupations. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional data, reported following STROBE guidelines. METHODS: Five rounds (2008-2012) of the Scottish Health Survey were aggregated to estimate the prevalence and co-occurrence of health-related behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, fruit/vegetable intake)...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Saúl Reyes, Gavin Giovannoni, Alison Thomson
Social capital (SC) is a broad term that encompasses the many resources derived from social connections. The contemporary study of SC in public health has deep roots in the related fields of sociology, economics, and politics. Its multidisciplinary nature and the varying potential ways it could affect individuals have resulted in different but overlapping models to approach SC in the health field. There are currently no standardized measures of SC, and even more challenging its impact on health outcomes seems to vary according to the level of analysis...
December 8, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Tiffany Y Kim, Douglas C Bauer, Brian L McNabb, Anne L Schafer, Felicia Cosman, Dennis M Black, Richard Eastell
An ASBMR task force recommends a drug holiday for certain women treated for ≥5 years with oral alendronate or ≥3 years with intravenous zoledronic acid, with reassessment 2-3 years later. It is not known whether changes in BMD or bone turnover markers differ after oral or intravenous therapy. Our goal was to compare changes in BMD and procollagen type I N propeptide, PINP, after oral or intravenous bisphosphonate use. In the Fracture Intervention Trial Long-term Extension (FLEX), women who received a mean 5 years of alendronate were randomized to placebo or continued treatment...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Animesh Pardanani
OVERVIEW: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in extra-cutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC CD25 expression, and presence of KITD816V mutation. RISK STRATIFICATION: Establishing SM subtype as per the World Health Organization classification system is an important first step...
December 8, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Michela Isola, Jörgen Ekström, Raffaella Isola, Francesco Loy
Several beneficial effects on oral health are ascribed to melatonin. Due to its lipophilic nature, non-protein-bound circulating melatonin is usually thought to enter the saliva by passive diffusion through salivary acinar gland cells. Recently, however, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), melatonin was found in acinar secretory granules of human salivary glands. To test the hypothesis that granular located melatonin is actively discharged into the saliva by exocytosis, i.e. contrary to the general belief, the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoprenaline, which causes the degranulation of acinar parotid serous cells, was administered to anaesthetised rats...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Nkolika J Mmako, Teresa Capetola, Claire Henderson-Wilson
AIM: In addition to food, physical activity, mental health and environmental benefits, community gardens (CGs) provide opportunities for social inclusion and increased social capital. These are particularly important to the socially isolated residents of Social Housing Developments (SHD). This scoping study explored the feasibility of a CG program for tenants of social housing development in inner eastern Melbourne by assessing their interest in, and requirements for, inclusively designed CGs...
December 7, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Yanfen Zhang, Ruocen Bai, Chong Liu, Chunyan Ma, Xin Chen, Jun Yang, Dandan Sun
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has become the third major chronic non-communicable disease affecting global public health, following cancer and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Although previous studies have found a correlation between microRNA (miRNA) and the development of DM, thus far, most reviews have focused on the studies describing the changes in miRNA expression profiles and the mechanisms by which miRNAs-induce DM. However, reviews summarizing the effect of miRNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the developmental stages of DM and its complications are still needed...
December 7, 2018: Clinical Genetics
Teng-Li Lin, Chun-Ying Wu, Yun-Ting Chang, Chao-Keui Juan, Chi-Chiang Chen, Shi-Hang Yu, Yi-Ju Chen
BACKGROUND: Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy is a widely used treatment for various dermatoses. The risk of skin cancer following long term NB-UVB phototherapy has rarely been explored in skin phototypes III-V. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide matched cohort study and identified a total of 22,891 psoriasis patients starting NB-UVB phototherapy from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database during the period 2000-2013. Cumulative incidences of skin cancers were compared between subjects receiving less than 90 UVB treatments (S-cohort, N=13,260) and age- as well as propensity score-matched subjects receiving more than or equal to 90 UVB treatments (L-cohort, N=3,315)...
December 10, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Carolyn J Crandall, Joseph Larson, JoAnn E Manson, Jane A Cauley, Andrea LaCroix, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Mridul Datta, Maryam Sattari, John T Schousboe, William D Leslie, Kristine E Ensrud
The optimal approach to osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women is unclear. We compared 1) the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and Osteoporosis Canada osteoporosis screening strategies; and 2) the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) and Canadian treatment strategies. We used data from the prospective Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials of women aged 50-79 years at baseline (n = 117,707 followed for self-reported fractures; n = 8,134 in bone mineral density [BMD] subset)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Boaz Shay, Orly Ben Ami, Dana Levy Ianculovici, Avraham Zini, Clariel Ianculovici, Galit Almoznino
BACKGROUND: Researchers demonstrated a correlation between nutrition and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL). Little is known about the correlation between disorders of nutrition (DON) and Oral HRQoL (OHRQoL). OBJECTIVES: 1) to measure OHRQoL in DON patients compared to patients attending nutritional counseling for other reasons (e.g. systemic diseases or general dietary counseling) (NCOR) and to healthy controls attending routine dental screenings.(2) analyze associations between OHRQoL and demographics, health-related behaviors and nutritional practices...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
Julia Thumfart, Dirk Bethe, Sarah Wagner, Wolfgang Pommer, Cornelia Rheinländer, Dominik Müller
AIM: Children and adolescents with end stage renal disease face a high morbidity and mortality. Palliative care provides a multidisciplinary approach to reduce disease burden and improve quality of life. This study evaluated concepts and current structures of palliative care from the perspective of a multidisciplinary paediatric nephrology team including physicians, nurses and psychosocial health professionals. METHODS: Evaluation was done by an online survey sent to the members of the German Society of Nephrology and to the nurse managers of German paediatric dialysis centres between April 9th 2018 and May 31th 2018...
December 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
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