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Health protection

Nian Hong, An Liu, Panfeng Zhu, Xu Zhao, Yuntao Guan, Mengting Yang, Hongyang Wang
Benzene series compounds (BTEX) are toxic pollutants primarily generated by traffic activities in an urban environment. BTEX pollutants can be deposited (build-up) on urban road surfaces during dry periods and then washed-off into stormwater runoff. Since BTEX pollutants can pose high human health risks, they can undermine stormwater reuse safety after they enter stormwater runoff. In this study, the BTEX pollutants build-up loads on urban road surfaces were investigated in Shenzhen, China. An artificial neural network (ANN) approach and two conventional regression modelling approaches were compared in terms of estimating BTEX build-up loads based on land use related parameters...
August 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hajer Dahmani, Kaouthar Louati, Adel Hajri, Senda Bahri, Fathi Safta
Several studies have highlighted that nutritional supplements may contain undeclared anabolic steroids that are banned by the International Olympic Committee/World Anti-Doping Agency. Any kind of abuse with these drugs is extremely dangerous because of their side effects. Thus, the control of food additives in order to protect the best consumer health and to limit fraudulent practices in the field of sports is essential. This paper describes a simple and effective qualitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to detect anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): androsterone, nandrolene, dehydroepiandrosterone, 5ɑ-androstane-3β, 17β-diol, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, methenolone acetate, methandienone, boldenone and fluoxymesterone, in food supplements...
August 14, 2018: Steroids
Eder Gatti Fernandes, Camila Cristina Martini Rodrigues, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Patrícia Coelho De Soárez, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh Novaes
The reemergence of pertussis in the last two decades led to the introduction of adolescents and adults immunization strategies of tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccines (Tdap) in several countries. The health authorities must consider economic aspects when deciding to recommend and fund new programs. Here we present a systematic review of worldwide full economic evaluations of pertussis vaccination targeting adolescents or adults published from 2000. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, CRD, and Lilacs databases...
August 17, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Istvan Sziller
Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent pregnancy-induced disorders leading to increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Besides elevated health care costs at the time of delivery, development of subsequent cardiovascular and metabolic diseases later in life might further increase medical expenditure This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 17, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ahmed S I Hamed, Andrew C Miller
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) colitis is an opportunistic infection that occurs in individuals whose normal gut microbiota has been disrupted. Antibiotics can disturb the normal intestinal microflora, thereby reducing pathogen resistance to the gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacillus. When a person takes antibiotics, good germs that protect against infection are destroyed for several months.1 During this time, patients can get sick from C. difficile, a gram-positive anaerobic spore-forming bacillus picked up from contaminated surfaces or spread from a health care provider's hands...
August 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
T Saetrang, I T Bjørk, H Capjon, M Rasmussen
AIM: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an x-linked myopathy affecting one in 3,600 - 6,000 live male births. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into how parents experience caring for boys with DMD. METHODS: Using a qualitative design, parents in 12 families with boys with DMD, whereof two pairs of siblings, were interviewed in 2014 and 2015. Participants were parents of boys followed at Oslo University Hospital or other hospitals in the South-Eastern health region of Norway...
August 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
J Okely, C Mason, A Collier, N Dunnachie, V Swanson
AIMS: Research regarding the determinants of concordance with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treatment is limited. Here, we test whether the psychosocial changes outlined in the teachable moments model, as proposed by McBride et al. (McBride CM, Emmons KM, Lipkus IM. Understanding the potential of teachable moments: the case of smoking cessation. Health Educ Res 2003; 18: 156-170) are associated with following GDM treatment recommendations. METHODS: Fifty-nine women completed a baseline questionnaire (1 week after GDM diagnosis) in which they reported risk perception, social support, emotional response, the importance of their maternal identity and self-efficacy...
August 17, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Jessica Szu-Chia Chen, Anes Yang, Dédée F Murrell
BACKGROUND: Osteopenia and osteoporosis are one of the many comorbidities in patients with Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB). Current literature on the prevalence of osteoporosis in EB is scarce. OBJECTIVE: This review will analyse the current literature in the field of patients with compromised bone health in EB and any articles on the prevalence of such diseases in EB groups. METHODS: A systematic search for articles related to bone health and epidermolysis bullosa (EB) (1946-2017) was performed on seven databases: MEDLINE, Embase and EBM, PubMed, ProQuest, Scopus and Web of Science...
August 17, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
E R Salazar, H G Richter, C Spichiger, N Mendez, D Halabi, K Vergara, I P Alonso, F A Corvalán, C Azpeleta, M Seron-Ferre, C Torres-Farfan
KEY POINTS: Light at night is essential to a 24/7 society, but it has negative consequences on health. Basically, light at night induces an alteration of our biological clocks, known as chronodisruption also during pregnancy. Here we explored the developmental impact of gestational chronodisruption (chronic photoperiod shift -CPS-) on adult and fetal adrenal biorhythms and function. We found that gestational chronodisruption altered fetal and adult adrenal function, at the molecular, morphological, and physiological levels...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Lior Hirschfeld-Dicker, Roy David Samuel, Elinor Tiram Vakrat, Gal Dubnov-Raz
AIM: In order to improve weight-related discussion with patients and minimize their discomfort, the terminology used by medical staff should be carefully chosen. The study aim was to identify the most motivating weight-related terminology to use with children with obesity. METHODS: Focus groups were used to generate a list of 12 weight-related terms in Hebrew, sent by a questionnaire to parents of children and adolescents with obesity. Terms were graded according to how desirable, stigmatizing, blaming or motivating they were perceived...
August 17, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Rachel Sommer, Carsten Hampel-Kalthoff, Brigitte Kalthoff, Christopher Neht, Erwin Scherfer, Manfred Winkler, Christine Blome
The purpose of this study was to examine the self- and proxy-report agreement on the Wound-QoL questionnaire to assess health-related quality of life in patients with chronic wounds. Patients and their proxies (in this case relatives) were recruited via different nursing services in Germany and asked to complete the Wound-QoL. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for each Wound-QoL scale and the total score, and weighted Cohen's Kappa coefficients for individual items. Proxies tended to report lower health-related quality of life in the Wound-QoL than their relatives with chronic wounds...
August 17, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Jean-Louis Koulidiati, M De Allegri, A Souares, S Ouedraogo, H Hien, P J Robyn, S Brenner
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with both crude and effective health service coverage of under-fives in rural Burkina Faso. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 494 first-line health facilities, 7,347 households and 12,497 under-fives were surveyed. Two sequential logistic random effects models were conducted to assess factors associated with crude and effective coverage. RESULTS: Of 614 children under five with a reported illness episode, 427 (69...
August 17, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Olivia Marie Jacob, Ravneet Kaur
Steinhardt LC, Jean YS, Impoinvil D, Mace KE, Wiegand R, Huber CS, Alexandre JSF, Frederick J, Nkurunziza E, Jean S, Wheeler B, Dotson E, Slutsker L, Kachur SP, Barnwell JW, Lemoine JF, Chang MA. (Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; Programme National de la Contrôle de la Malaria, Ministère de la Santé Publique et de la Population, Port-au-Prince; Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Port-au-Prince; and Population Services International, Port-au-Prince, Haiti...
November 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Mousab Yousef Al-Ayed, Mutasem Ababneh, Asirvatham Alwin Robert, Ahmed Salman, Abdulghani Al Saeed, Mohamed Abdulaziz Al Dawish
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Considering that diabetic foot ulceration is one of the major health issues globally, we aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with foot ulcers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 81 T2DM patients (age range: 40-80 years) registered at the Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between April and September 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study after purposive selection and assigning of patient numbers...
August 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Meng Jin, Jinmin Peng, Huimin Zhang, Bo Lu, Yi Lii, Dong Wu, Jiaming Qian, Hong Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute triglyceride (TG) lowering therapy is crucial in the early treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)-induced pancreatitis. Data concerning continuous intravenous infusion of insulin and heparin therapy (IHT) as an equivalent option to plasma exchange (PE) in HTG-induced pancreatitis are limited. We performed this study to compare the IHT and PE abilities to lower TG levels in the acute phase of HTG-induced pancreatitis. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Yoo Min Han, Su Jin Chung, Ji Min Choi, Changhyun Lee, Joo Sung Kim
AIM: According to the ABC system, the risk of gastric cancer (GC) is highest in group D (H. Pylori-negative and pepsinogen level-positive). The aim of this study is to assess the clinical characteristics and long-term outcome of group D. METHODS: Group D patients were divided into two groups; the limited endoscopic atrophic gastritis (EAG) group with EAG confined to antrum and angle (C1 and C2) and the advanced EAG group with body-involved EAG (C3 to O3). We compared progression of precursor lesions and occurrence of gastric neoplasms between the groups...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Edward I Westerband, Andrea L Hicks
Globally, thousands of tons of food are lost each year around the world due to spoilage and degraded quality. This is a current critical issue that must be addressed to ensure adequate food supply for the growing world population, with the use of technology and regulatory practices as one avenue to a solution. One considered approach is the reduction of the microorganism population on the surface of food products to delay spoilage through the use of antimicrobials. One current method is the use of the antimicrobial properties of nano-scale silver (nAg) particles in order to prolong the freshness of stored food by reducing the bacteria present...
August 17, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
John Landers, Ebony Liu, José Estevez, Tim Henderson, Jamie E Craig
IMPORTANCE: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is highly prevalent among Indigenous Australians and contributes greatly to premature death. The association of diabetic retinopathy (DR) with early mortality however, has not previously been reported among Indigenous Australians. BACKGROUND: To investigate associations between 10 year mortality and the presence of DR among Indigenous Australians living in central Australia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study...
August 16, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Edna Bosire, Emily Mendenhall, Gregory Barnabas Omondi, David Ndetei
This article investigates how international donor policies cultivate a form of biological sub-citizenship for those with diabetes in Kenya. We interviewed 100 patients at a public hospital clinic in Nairobi, half with a diabetes diagnosis. We focus on three vignettes that illustrate how our study participants differentially perceived and experienced living with and seeking treatment and care for diabetes compared to other conditions, with a special focus on HIV. We argue that biological sub-citizenship, where those with HIV have consistent and comprehensive free medical care and those with diabetes must pay out-of-pocket for testing and treatment, impedes diabetes testing and treatment...
August 16, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
Mia M Gaudet, Emily L Deubler, Rachel S Kelly, W Ryan Diver, Lauren R Teras, James M Hodge, Keith E Levine, Laura G Haines, Thomas Lundh, Per Lenner, Domenico Palli, Paolo Vineis, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Susan M Gapstur, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos
Cadmium and lead have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. However, their associations with breast cancer risk are unknown despite their persistence in the environment and ubiquitous human exposure. We examined associations of circulating levels of cadmium and lead with breast cancer risk in three case-control studies nested within the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) LifeLink Cohort, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - Italy (EPIC-Italy), and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (NSHDS) cohorts...
August 17, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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