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Critical Infection

Steven M Brunwasser, George M Slavich, Dawn C Newcomb, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kedir N Turi, Cosby Stone, Larry J Anderson, Tina V Hartert
BACKGROUND: Prenatal life stress exposure is linked to dysregulated immune function and chronic inflammatory disease in offspring, but we know little about its effects on infant immune response during viral infection. METHOD: To address this issue, we examined associations between prenatal life stress exposure and infant upper-airway inflammatory markers during acute respiratory infection (ARI) using data from a prospective, population-based birth-cohort study (N=180)...
December 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Reaz Uddin, Fareha Masood, Syed Sikander Azam, Abdul Wadood
Acinetobacter baumannii, the gram-negative bacteria emerged as an extremely critical pathogen causing nosocomial and different kinds of infections. A. baumannii exhibit resistivity towards various classes of antibiotics that shows that there is a dire need to search more drug targets by exploiting the full genome of the bacteria. In doing so, a strategy is made with the combination of computational biology, pathogen informatics and cheminformatics. Comparative genomics analysis, modeling and docking studies have been performed for the prediction of non-host essential genes and novel drug candidates against A...
December 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ramona Nicolau-Raducu, Thiago Beduschi, Rodrigo Vianna, Christian Diez, Mahmoud Sleem, Singh Bhavnha, Georgia Vasileiou, Yehuda Raveh
Detrimental consequences of hypofibrinolysis, also known as fibrinolytic shutdown (FS), have recently arisen, and its significance in liver transplantation remains unknown. To fill this gap, this retrospective study included 166 adults who received transplants between 2016 and 2018 for whom baseline thromboelastography was available. Based on percent (%) clot lysis 30 minutes after maximal amplitude, patients were stratified into 3 fibrinolysis phenotypes: FS, physiologic fibrinolysis, and hyperfibrinolysis...
December 7, 2018: Liver Transplantation
María D Ballesteros Pomar, Elena González Arnaiz
Set of resident microorganisms in our body that are responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of health is named microbiota. The microbiota´s role is protective, trophic and metabolic. Different groups of microbiota intestinal name enterotypes, each one of them are in relation to specific dietary habits. The absence of enteral stimulation affects both epithelial and GALT and the development of the microbiota. This situation modifies the immune system´s interaction, with a less competitive exclusion of more pathogenic bacteria, which can promote infections...
April 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
E Bouza, J Cobo, B Almirante
OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile infections have a high recurrence rate, which can complicate the prognosis of affected patients. It is therefore important to establish an early detection and an appropriate therapeutic strategy. The objective of this manuscript was to gather the opinion of an expert group about the predictive factors of poor progression, as well as when to use fidaxomicin in different groups of high-risk patients. METHODS: A scientific committee of three experts in infectious diseases reviewed the most recent literature on the management of C...
December 13, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Stephanie Fischinger, Carolyn M Boudreau, Audrey L Butler, Hendrik Streeck, Galit Alter
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Shahram Paydar, Nader Moein-Vaziri, Maryam Dehghankhalili, Hossein Abdolrahimzaeh, Shahram Bolandparvaz, Hamid Reza Abbasi
Purpose The aim of the current study was to report the surgical outcome and complications of jejunostomy with enteroenterostomy for enteral nutrition (EN) in critically ill trauma patients with prolonged nasogastric (NG) nutrition. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out in a level I trauma center in Shiraz, southern Iran during a one-year period from 2016 to 2017. We included a total number of 30 patients with severe trauma admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with more than three months NG nutrition and bowel atrophy...
October 9, 2018: Curēus
Laura Carro
Antibiotics are potent pharmacological weapons against bacterial infections; however, the growing antibiotic resistance of microorganisms is compromising the efficacy of the currently available pharmacotherapies. Even though antimicrobial resistance is not a new problem, antibiotic development has failed to match the growth of resistant pathogens and hence, it is highly critical to discover new anti-infective drugs with novel mechanisms of action which will help reducing the burden of multidrug-resistant microorganisms...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xuelian Wang, Xiumin Huang, Youzhong Zhang
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the first viruses to have been acknowledged to prompt carcinogenesis, and they are linked with cancers of the uterine cervix, anogenital tumors, and head and neck malignancies. This paper examines the structure and primary genomic attributes of HPV and highlights the clinical participation of the primary HPV serotypes, focusing on the roles that HPV-16 and 18 play in carcinogenesis. The mechanisms that take place in the progression of cervical neoplasia are described. The oncogenic proteins E6 and E7 disrupt control of the cell cycle by their communication with p53 and retinoblastoma protein...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Caitlin A Brennan, Wendy S Garrett
Fusobacterium nucleatum has long been found to cause opportunistic infections and has recently been implicated in colorectal cancer; however, it is a common member of the oral microbiota and can have a symbiotic relationship with its hosts. To address this dissonance, we explore the diversity and niches of fusobacteria and reconsider historic fusobacterial taxonomy in the context of current technology. We also undertake a critical reappraisal of fusobacteria with a focus on F. nucleatum as a mutualist, infectious agent and oncogenic microorganism...
December 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
Joyce Wamoyi, Ana Maria Buller, Daniel Nyato, Nambusi Kyegombe, Rebecca Meiksin, Lori Heise
BACKGROUND: Age-disparate sex is associated with increased HIV risk among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little has been done to understand the dynamics of such relationships from the perspectives of either AGYW or older men, and the communities in which these relationships are embedded. This article explores the motivations and perceived benefits of such relationships for AGYW and older men, plus the social and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) consequences...
December 13, 2018: Reproductive Health
María D Ballesteros Pomar, Elena González Arnaiz
Set of resident microorganisms in our body that are responsible for the absorption of nutrients and the maintenance of health is named microbiota. The microbiota´s role is protective, trophic and metabolic. Different groups of microbiota intestinal name enterotypes, each one of them are in relation to specific dietary habits. The absence of enteral stimulation affects both epithelial and GALT and the development of the microbiota. This situation modifies the immune system´s interaction, with a less competitive exclusion of more pathogenic bacteria, which can promote infections...
April 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Wei Zhang, Feng Zhao, Lihui Jiang, Cun Chen, Lintao Wu, Zhibin Liu
Plants constantly suffer from simultaneous infection by multiple pathogens, which can be divided into biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic pathogens, according to their lifestyles. Many studies have contributed to improving our knowledge of how plants can defend against pathogens, involving different layers of defense mechanisms. In this sense, the review discusses: (1) the functions of PAMP (pathogen-associated molecular pattern)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI), (2) evidence highlighting the functions of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling pathways downstream of PTI and ETI, and (3) other defense aspects, including many novel small molecules that are involved in defense and phenomena, including systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and priming...
December 7, 2018: Cells
Jianhua Hu, Xiaoli Zhang, Jueqing Gu, Meifang Yang, Xuan Zhang, Hong Zhao, Li Lanjuan
BACKGROUND: Staging of liver fibrosis is critical in guiding the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus. Many efforts have been made toward the research of noninvasive techniques, mostly focusing on hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive [HBeAg(+)] CHB patients, whereas HBeAg(+) and HBeA-negative [HBeAg(-)] represent different stages of hepatitis B virus infection. Thus, in this study, we aimed to search for routinely available clinical noninvasive liver fibrosis markers and separately analysed the markers in HBeAg(+) and HBeAg(-) CHB patients...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Jivianne T Lee, Christine M Kim, Vijay Ramakrishnan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbiome refers to the genetic potential of resident microorganisms that inhabit a given niche. The exact role of the microbiome and its relation to chronic disease processes remains largely unknown, although various associations have been observed. We reviewed current literature investigating the microbiome of the upper airway by subsite (nasal cavity, sinus cavities, nasopharynx, and larynx) and its relation to chronic inflammatory disease processes. RECENT FINDINGS: The disruption of indigenous microbiota at a specific subsite may lead to pathogen overgrowth and increased susceptibility to infection...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Fernanda Modesto Tolentino, Maria Fernanda Campagnari Bueno, Gabriela Rodrigues Franscisco, Diego Diniz de Paula Barcelos, Suzana Margareth Lobo, Francieli Maira Moreira Batista Tomaz, Natal Santos da Silva, Leonardo Neves de Andrade, Tiago Casella, Ana Lucia da Costa Darini, Milena Polotto, Doroti de Oliveira Garcia, Mara Correa Lelles Nogueira
The dissemination of multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to international high-risk clones poses a major health care threat. In this study, 48 nonduplicated, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from 2011 to 2014 in a tertiary hospital were investigated. The blaKPC-2 gene was the only determinant for carbapenem resistance. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was the main determinant for the production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), whereas aph(3')-Ia and qnrB were the most common genes associated with resistance to aminoglycosides and quinolones, respectively...
December 13, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Megan S McHenry, Eren Oyungu, Carole I McAteer, Ananda R Ombitsa, Erika R Cheng, Samuel O Ayaya, Rachel C Vreeman
Objective . To understand the perspectives of clinical providers and caregivers regarding early childhood development (ECD) in children born to HIV-infected mothers in Kenya. Methods . This was a qualitative study of provider and caregiver perspectives on ECD at 5 Kenyan HIV clinics, using semistructured interviews and focus group discussions. Constant comparison and triangulation methods were employed to elucidate the concepts of ECD. Results . Twenty-five providers and 67 caregivers participated. While providers understood ECD in terms of milestones, caregivers strongly equated ECD with physical growth...
2018: Global Pediatric Health
Manibarsha Goswami, Adeline Espinasse, Erin E Carlson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have reached a "critical" threat status making novel therapeutic approaches required. Inhibiting key signaling enzymes known as the histidine kinases (HKs), which are heavily involved with its pathogenicity, has been postulated to be an effective new strategy for treatment. Herein, we demonstrate the potential of this approach with benzothiazole-based HK inhibitors that perturb multiple virulence pathways in the burn wound P. aeruginosa isolate, PA14. Specifically, our compounds significantly reduce the level of toxic metabolites generated by this organism that are involved in quorum-sensing and redox-balancing mechanisms...
October 7, 2018: Chemical Science
Fereshteh Ezadi, Abdollah Ardebili, Reza Mirnejad
Polymyxins, including polymyxin B and polymyxin E (colistin) are being increasingly used to treat patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infections. This necessitates laboratories to employ an accurate and reliable method for the routine performance of polymyxin susceptibility testing. A number of reasons have accounted for difficulties with susceptibility testing for the polymyxins, including their multicomponent composition, poor diffusion in the agar medium, adsorption to microtitre plates, the lack of reliable susceptibility test, the lack of specific breakpoint from professional organizations, the synergistic effect of polysorbate-80, and development of heteroresistance...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Bernadett Papp, Naeem Motlagh, Richard J Smindak, Seung Jin Jang, Aria Sharma, Juan D Alonso, Zsolt Toth
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human oncogenic virus, which maintains the persistent infection of the host by intermittently reactivating from latently infected cells to produce viral progenies. While it is established that the viral transcription factor RTA is required for the induction of lytic viral genes for KSHV lytic reactivation, it is still unknown to what extent RTA alters the host transcriptome to promote KSHV lytic cycle and viral pathogenesis. To address this question, we performed a comprehensive time course transcriptome analysis during KSHV reactivation in B-cell lymphoma cells and determined RTA-binding sites on both the viral and host genomes, which resulted in the identification of the core RTA-induced host genes (core RIGs)...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
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