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Critical Infection

Xufeng Tao, Lianhong Yin, Lina Xu, Jinyong Peng
Currently, the numbers of patients with cancer, fibrosis, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, stroke and osteoporosis are increasing fast and fast. It's critical necessary to discovery lead compounds for new drug development. Dioscin, one active compound in some medicinal plants, has anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, hypolipidemic, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-allergic effects. In recent years, dioscin has reached more and more attention with its potent effects to treat liver, kidney, brain, stomach and intestine damages, and metabolic diseases including diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity, hyperuricemia as well as its anti-cancer activities through adjusting multiple targets and multiple signals...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Paula A Alvares, Mariana V Arnoni, Cely B da Silva, Marco Aurélio P Sáfadi, Marcelo J Mimica
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Vickie R Driver, Lisa J Gould, Peggy Dotson, Latricia L Allen, Marissa J Carter, Laura L Bolton
Patients with wounds bear significant clinical, personal, and economic burdens yet complete wound healing is the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recognized primary clinical trial endpoint. The overall goal of this project is to work with FDA to expand the list of acceptable primary endpoints, recognizing that new and innovative treatments, devices and drugs may not have complete healing as the focus. Part 1 of the project surveyed 628 wound care experts who identified and content-validated 15 endpoints most relevant to clinical practice and benefitting patients' lives as primary outcomes in clinical trials...
October 13, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Takami Sho, JianXiong Xu
Inflammation, as a common immune response to various infections or injuries, can cause many dangerous and complicated diseases. Inflammasome is a protein complex playing a vital role in an inflammation process, and the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been the most-widely studied one. Recent evidences suggest the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-NLRP3 signaling pathway be a possible NLRP3 inflammasome regulation model. Numerous recent pre-clinical reports indicate that application of antioxidants could scavenge excessive ROS and attenuate inflammatory responses through suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
October 13, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
K Rivet Amico, Jessica Miller, Christopher Balthazar, Pedro Alonso Serrano, Jennifer Brothers, Sarah Zollweg, Sybil Hosek
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the prevention of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men is a critical part of the HIV prevention landscape in the US. Given the unique challenges and resources of young MSM negotiating safer sex practices, including PrEP, counseling and supportive discussions to optimize both PrEP use and sexual health protection more generally may facilitate reaching HIV prevention goals. Within the context of a large, open-label PrEP study (ATN110/113), support for sexual health promotion and PrEP use was provided through use of integrated Next Step Counseling (iNSC) as part of study visits...
October 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jordan A Torok, Patrick Oh, Katherine D Castle, Michael Reinsvold, Yan Ma, Lixia Luo, Chang-Lung Lee, David G Kirsch
Stereotactic body radiation therapy is utilized to treat lung cancer. The mechanism of tumor response to high dose RT (HDRT) is controversial, with competing hypotheses of increased direct tumor cell killing vs indirect effects on stroma including endothelial cells. Here we used dual recombinase technology in a primary murine lung cancer model to test whether tumor cells or endothelial cells are critical HDRT targets. Lenti-Cre deleted one or two copies of Atm (KPAFL/+ or KPAFL/FL), whereas adeno-FlpO infected mice expressed Cre in endothelial cells to delete one or both copies of Atm (KPVAFL/+ or KPVAFL/FL) to modify tumor cell or endothelial cell radiosensitivity, respectively...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Research
Guozhang Zou, Martina Kosikova, Su-Ryun Kim, Shweta Kotian, Wells W Wu, Rongfong Shen, David N Powers, Cyrus Agarabi, Hang Xie, Tongzhong Ju
Influenza viruses cause contagious respiratory infections resulting in significant economic burdens to communities. Production of influenza-specific immunoglobulins, specifically IgGs, is one of the major protective immune mechanisms against influenza viruses. In humans, N-glycosylation of IgGs plays a critical role in antigen binding and effector functions. The ferret is the most commonly used animal model for studying influenza pathogenesis, virus transmission, and vaccine development, but its IgG structure and functions remain largely undefined...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qiong Zhang, Xu Han, Jinfeng Chen, Xiaomei Xie, Jiafeng Xu, Yang Zhao, Jie Shen, Lin Hu, Pinglong Xu, Hai Song, Long Zhang, Bin Zhao, Ying-Jie Wang, Zongping Xia
A proper inflammatory response is critical to the restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury or infection, but how such a response is modulated by the physical properties of the cellular and tissue microenvironment is not fully understood. Here, using H358, HeLa and HEK293T cells, we report that cell density can modulate inflammatory responses through the Hippo signaling pathway. We found that NF-κβ activation through the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is not affected by cell density...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Xue Shen, Xiaodi Niu, Gen Li, Jianfeng Wang, Xuming Deng
Streptococcus suis (S.suis), an important zoonotic pathogen, has caused considerable economic losses in swine industry and severe public health issues worldwide. It is urgent to develop novel effective strategy for prevention and therapy of S.suis Here, amentoflavone, a natural biflavonoid compound isolated from Chinese herbs that has negligible anti- S.suis activity, was identified to be a potent antagonist of suilysin (SLY)-mediated hemolysis without interfering with expression of SLY. Amentoflavone effectively inhibited SLY oligomerization, which is critical for its pore-forming activity...
October 12, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Xiang Ao, Yong Zhong, Xiaohe Yu, Mark Marshall, Tao Feng, Jianping Ning, Qiaoling Zhou
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill neonates, and peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be a lifesaving option. In China, however, much of the equipment for PD in neonates is not available. We describe results with a novel system for PD, which has been developed locally to improve access to therapy and care for critically ill neonates requiring PD in China. METHODS: The system comprises a 14-gauge single-lumen central venous catheter serving as a PD catheter, inserted by Seldinger technique, with an adapted twin bag PD system...
October 12, 2018: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Ying Li, Chao Zhang, Luwei Qin, Dong Li, Guangyuan Zhou, Dejian Dang, Shuaiyin Chen, Tiantian Sun, Rongguang Zhang, Weidong Wu, Yuanlin Xi, Yuefei Jin, Guangcai Duan
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the main pathogen of severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recognized as pivotal factors during the pathogenesis of viral infection. However, the critical functions of lncRNAs in EV71⁻host interactions have not been characterized. Here, for the first time, we performed global transcriptome analysis of lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in EV71-infected human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and skeletal muscle of mice using second-generation sequencing...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Jialing Shi, Liying Wei, Rongzhi Huang, Liang Liao
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The increased mortality rate and other poor prognosis make malnutrition a serious issue for adult critically ill patients in intensive care unit care. This study was to compare outcomes between combined parenteral and enteral nutrition and enteral nutrition alone for adult critically ill patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The PubMed (June 30, 2018), EMBASE (June 30, 2018), and Cochrane library databases (June 30, 2018) were searched systematically...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jean-Ralph Zahar, Stijn Blot, Patrice Nordmann, Romain Martischang, Jean-François Timsit, Stephan Harbarth, François Barbier
The rising burden of intensive-care unit (ICU)-acquired infections due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) strengthens the requirement for efficient prevention strategies. The detection of intestinal carriage of ESBL-E through active surveillance cultures (ASC) and the implementation of contact precautions (CP) in carriers are currently advocated in most high-income countries to prevent cross-transmission and subsequent ESBL-E infections in critically ill patients. Yet, recent studies have challenged the benefit of ASC and CP to control the spread of ESBL-E in ICUs with high compliance to standard hygiene precautions and no on-going outbreak of ESBL-producing K...
October 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dipendra Gautam, Bryan Johnson, Michelle Mac, Cary A Moody
The life cycle of HPV is tied to the differentiation status of its host cell, with productive replication, late gene expression and virion production restricted to the uppermost layers of the stratified epithelium. HPV DNA is histone-associated, exhibiting a chromatin structure similar to that of the host chromosome. Although HPV chromatin is subject to histone post-translational modifications, how the viral life cycle is epigenetically regulated is not well understood. SETD2 is a histone methyltransferase that places the trimethyl mark on H3K36 (H3K36me3), a mark of active transcription...
October 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Xinjuan Wu, Zhen Li, Jing Cao, Jing Jiao, Yingli Wang, Ge Liu, Ying Liu, Fangfang Li, Baoyun Song, Jingfen Jin, Yilan Liu, Xianxiu Wen, Shouzhen Cheng, Xia Wan
PURPOSE: To describe the association between major complications of immobility (pressure ulcer, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis and urinary tract infection) during hospitalization and the patients' health-related quality of life after discharge. METHODS: The data were obtained from a multi-center study conducted in 2015. Complications of immobility during hospitalization was measured by case report form and quality of life after discharge was measured using the EQ-5D scale by telephone interview...
2018: PloS One
Ashley K Boyle, Sara F Rinaldi, Adriano G Rossi, Philippa T K Saunders, Jane E Norman
Preterm birth (PTB), the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, urgently requires novel therapeutic agents. Spontaneous PTB, resulting from preterm labor, is commonly caused by intrauterine infection/inflammation. Statins are well-established, cholesterol-lowering drugs that can reduce inflammation and inhibit vascular smooth muscle contraction. We show that simvastatin reduced the incidence of PTB in a validated intrauterine LPS-induced PTB mouse model, decreased uterine proinflammatory mRNA concentrations (IL-6, Cxcl1, and Ccl2), and reduced serum IL-6 concentration...
October 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Neelam Sultan, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Irfan Ali, Muhammad Asif, Zunaira Umar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Zika virus belongs to family of viruses 'Flaviviridae' and spreads mostly by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes. The resulting infection is known as Zika fever. It is usually asymptomatic or often causes mild symptoms, which are very similar to dengue fever. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is also responsible for dengue and chikungunya viruses. Zika virus can spread by crossing the placental barrier from a pregnant mother to a fetus, which can result in microcephaly, severe brain malformations including Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), and other birth defects...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Tong Jia, Rui-Hong Wang, Bao-Feng Chai
Copper mining caused severe damage to the ecological environment of mining areas. The combination of microbe and plant remediation has an application potential in improving the absorption and transformation efficiency of heavy metals. The phyllosphere is the largest biointerface on the planet, and bacteria are the dominant microbial inhabitants of the phyllosphere, believed to be critical to plant growth and health. This study investigated the phyllospheric and soil bacteria communities using high-throughput sequencing, and endophyte infection statuses of four natural grasses by toluidine blue heparin assay...
October 11, 2018: Current Microbiology
Guizhen Wang, Yawen Gao, Hongsu Wang, Jianfeng Wang, Xiaodi Niu
Sortase B (SrtB) is a vital virulence factor that plays a critical role in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections, indicating that it could be a latent target for S. aureus infections. In this study, phloretin, a natural compound that primarily exists in the pericarp and velamen of apples and pears, shows little anti-S. aureus activity, but significantly inhibited SrtB activity in vitro. The results of lactate dehydrogenase release and live/dead cell assays suggested that phloretin reduced human alveolar epithelial cell damage caused by S...
October 11, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Xuping Xie, Dieudonné B Kum, Hongjie Xia, Huanle Luo, Chao Shan, Jing Zou, Antonio E Muruato, Daniele B A Medeiros, Bruno T D Nunes, Kai Dallmeier, Shannan L Rossi, Scott C Weaver, Johan Neyts, Tian Wang, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Pei-Yong Shi
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of the mother during pregnancy causes devastating Zika congenital syndrome in the offspring. A ZIKV vaccine with optimal safety and immunogenicity for use in pregnant women is critically needed. Toward this goal, we have developed a single-dose live-attenuated vaccine candidate that infects cells with controlled, limited infection rounds. The vaccine contains a 9-amino-acid deletion in the viral capsid protein and replicates to titers of > 106 focus-forming units (FFU)/mL in cells expressing the full-length capsid protein...
October 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
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