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Critical Infection

Gensheng Zhang, Kai Zhang, Wei Cui, Yucai Hong, Zhongheng Zhang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of enteral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 23 trials containing 6478 patients met our inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION: A systematical literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials in electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO and Cochrane Library...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Carla S Medeiros, Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Steven E Wilson
Purpose: The purpose of this review was to provide detailed insights into the pathophysiology of myofibroblast-mediated fibrosis (scarring or late haze) after corneal injury, surgery, or infection. Method: Literature review. Results: The epithelium and epithelial basement membrane (EBM) and/or endothelium and Descemet's basement membrane (BM) are commonly disrupted after corneal injuries, surgeries, and infections. Regeneration of these critical regulatory structures relies on the coordinated production of BM components, including laminins, nidogens, perlecan, and collagen type IV by epithelial, endothelial, and keratocyte cells...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Agustina Bernal-Vicente, Daniel Cantabella, José Antonio Hernández, Pedro Diaz-Vivancos
In a previous work, we observed that mandelonitrile (MD), which controls cyanogenic glycoside turnover, is involved in salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis in peach plants. In order to gain knowledge about the possible roles of this SA biosynthetic pathway, this current study looks at the effect of MD and phenylalanine (MD precursor) treatments on peach plant performance from an agronomic point of view. Abiotic (2g/L NaCl) and biotic (Plum pox virus) stresses were assayed. We recorded the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: quantum yield of photochemical energy conversion in PSII [Y(II)], photochemical quenching (qP) and the quantum yield of regulated non-photochemical energy loss in PSII and its coefficient [Y(NPQ) and qN]...
August 10, 2018: Plant Biology
Seagal Teitz-Tennenbaum, Steven P Viglianti, Jonathan A Roussey, Stuart M Levitz, Michal A Olszewski, John J Osterholzer
The substantial morbidity and mortality caused by invasive fungal pathogens, including Cryptococcus neoformans , necessitates increased understanding of protective immune responses against these infections. Our previous work using murine models of cryptococcal lung infection demonstrated that dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate critical transitions from innate to adaptive immunity and that IL-10 signaling blockade improves fungal clearance. To further understand interrelationships among IL-10 production, fungal clearance, and the effect of IL-10 on lung DCs, we performed a comparative temporal analysis of cryptococcal lung infection in wild type C57BL/6J mice (designated IL-10+/+ ) and IL-10-/- mice inoculated intratracheally with C...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Benjamin D Kulwicki, Kasey L Brandt, Lauren M Wolf, Andrew J Weise, Lisa E Dumkow
PURPOSE: It is critical to engage ED providers in antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP). Emergency medicine pharmacists (EMPs) play an important role in ASP by working with providers to choose empiric antimicrobials. This study aimed to determine the impact of an EMP on appropriate empiric antibiotic prescribing for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and intra-abdominal infections (CA-IAI). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted evaluating adult patients admitted with CAP or CA-IAI...
July 29, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Jianping Shi, Shuixiu Li, Aili Gao, Kunju Zhu, Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Tetrandrine (TET), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Stephaniae tetrandrae, has a long history in Chinese clinical applications as an anti-inflammatory or anti-arrhythmic agent in the treatment of diverse diseases. In our previous study, TET exhibited the synergisitic action on azoles against pathogenic fungi. PURPOSE: In the current study, we examined whether TET can enhance the antifungal activity of FLC against disseminated candidiasis in mice...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Hong-Su Park, Guanqun Liu, Qiang Liu, Yan Zhou
Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays a pivotal role in modulating lung inflammation in response to the influenza A virus infection. We previously showed that the swine influenza virus (SIV) infection induced NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1β production in primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), and we were interested in examining the upstream signaling events that are involved in this process. Here, we report that the SIV-infection led to dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) phosphorylation at serine 579 and mitochondrial fission in PAMs...
August 9, 2018: Viruses
Nguyen K Tran, Neal D Goldstein, Seth L Welles
Background: Valid measurement of determinants of HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) is critical for intervention planning and resource allocation. However, sexual minority research concerning HIV risk often relies on proxy exposures of sexual behaviors such as sexual orientation and partner gender. Inferring high risk sexual behaviors (i.e., condomless anal intercourse) from these proxies inaccurately captures HIV risk, but few studies have attempted to correct for this bias. Methods: We performed a systematic review of methodological practices for estimating risk of HIV infection among MSM...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ankit Kumar, Priyanshu Srivastava, Pdnn Sirisena, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Ramesh Kumar, Jatin Shrinet, Sujatha Sunil
Mosquitoes live under the endless threat of infections from different kinds of pathogens such as bacteria, parasites, and viruses. The mosquito defends itself by employing both physical and physiological barriers that resist the entry of the pathogen and the subsequent establishment of the pathogen within the mosquito. However, if the pathogen does gain entry into the insect, the insect mounts a vigorous innate cellular and humoral immune response against the pathogen, thereby limiting the pathogen's propagation to nonpathogenic levels...
August 8, 2018: Insects
Fei Yuan, Zeng-Qiang Gao, Vladimir Majerciak, Lei Bai, Meng-Lu Hu, Xiao-Xi Lin, Zhi-Ming Zheng, Yu-Hui Dong, Ke Lan
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a γ-herpesvirus closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. Open reading frame 57 (ORF57), a viral early protein of KSHV promotes splicing, stability and translation of viral mRNA and is essential for viral lytic replication. Previous studies demonstrated that dimerization of ORF57 stabilizes the protein, which is critical for its function. However, the detailed structural basis of dimerization was not elucidated...
August 10, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Xiujuan Zhang, Xiaohui Ding, Yuanmei Zhu, Huihui Chong, Sheng Cui, Jinsheng He, Xinquan Wang, Yuxian He
OBJECTIVE: The peptide drug T20 (enfuvirtide), derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat region of HIV-1 gp41, is the only membrane fusion inhibitor available for treatment of viral infection; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive and its structural basis is lacking. DESIGN: We focused on determining the crystal structure of T20 in complex with N39, a target mimic peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat region of gp41. Based on the structural information, the mechanisms of action of T20 and its resistance were further characterized...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
Lauren Brin Hermans, Bridget E Shields, Catharine B Garland, Beverly Aagaard-Kienitz, David Wargowski, Carrie Kovarik, Lisa M Arkin
Most infantile hemangiomas (IHs), the most common vascular tumors of childhood, evolve without complications; however 10% to 12% require specialty referral for treatment. To emphasize the complications of late referral, we present a case of necrotizing infection within a segmental IH leading to sepsis. Early evaluation by a pediatric dermatologist could have prevented this life-threatening and disfiguring complication. We discuss how teledermatology would enable rapid triage of such critical cases in underserved areas, increasing access to high-value care and optimizing outcomes for our most vulnerable patients...
August 10, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Lealah Pollock, Judy Levison
Women in the United States and especially women of color continue to acquire human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. During reproductive health visits, health care providers are ideally positioned to assess HIV risk and offer HIV prevention strategies, including preexposure prophylaxis (also known as "PrEP"), a once-daily fixed-dose combination of emtricitabine with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use to prevent HIV acquisition in persons at risk...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mari Takashima, Jessica Schults, Gabor Mihala, Amanda Corley, Amanda Ullman
OBJECTIVES: To examine the proportion and rate of central venous access device failure and complications across central venous access device types in adult intensive care. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was undertaken in the electronic databases Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase, U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (MEDLINE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) in September 2017...
August 7, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Christina H Wei, Felicita E Baratelli, Guang-Qian Xiao, Michael N Koss, Wafaa Elatre
BACKGROUND: Distinction of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) from other chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonitides, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) and connective tissue diseases, is critical due to varied biological and clinical outcomes. However, their histologic overlaps often pose diagnostic challenges. A recent study suggested an association of herpesvirus saimiri infection with IPF. Productive viral infection is associated with coexpression of pirated mammalian protein cyclin D1, shown to be overexpressed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the regenerating alveolar epithelium in IPF but not in normal lungs...
August 8, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Minji Son, Yoon Seon Park, Min Ho Jung, Jin Han Kang, Ui Yoon Choi
OBJECTIVES: In South Korea, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening is a critical strategy associated with efforts to reduce the incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Currently, only children with a known history of TB contact are considered as pediatric high-risk groups for LTBI, and consequently, LTBI screening is only provided to these children. However, to reduce the incidence of TB, the high-risk groups that undergo LTBI screening should be expanded. This study aimed to assess the risk factors for LTBI among children living in South Korea with no known history of TB contact for the identification of additional high-risk groups...
August 10, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Rachel C Heenan, Thomas Volkman, Simon Stokes, Shidan Tosif, Hamish Graham, Andrea Smith, David Tran, Georgia Paxton
AIM: To examine refugee health assessments in Syrian and Iraqi children in the context of changes to offshore immigration screening, updated Australian refugee health guidelines and the primary care refugee health model in Victoria. METHODS: This is a retrospective audit of Syrian and Iraqi children aged 0-17 years attending a specialist immigrant health service from January 2015 to September 2017. RESULTS: We saw 128 children (7 months-16 years, 64...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Coraline Canivet, Chantal Rhéaume, Manon Lebel, Jocelyne Piret, Jean Gosselin, Guy Boivin
The impact of a deficiency in interferon regulatory factor (IRF)3 and IRF7 was evaluated in an herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) model. Compared to wild type (WT), the mortality rates of infected IRF3-/- and IRF7-/- mice were higher and associated with increased brain viral titers. At a critical time post-infection, IRF7-/- mice exhibited a deficit in IFN-β production. At a later time point, levels of type I IFNs and cytokines were increased in brains of both deficient mice compared to WT. Our results suggest that IRF3, and especially IRF7, are important for an effective control of inflammatory responses during HSE...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Amy S Northover, Aileen D Elliot, Sarah Keatley, Ziyuan Lim, Adriana Botero, Amanda Ash, Alan J Lymbery, Adrian F Wayne, Stephanie S Godfrey, R C Andrew Thompson
During monitoring of critically endangered woylie ( Bettongia penicillata ) populations within the south-west of Western Australia, an adult female woylie was euthanased after being found in extremely poor body condition with diffuse alopecia, debilitating skin lesions and severe ectoparasite infestation. Trypanosoma copemani G2 and Sarcocystis sp. were detected molecularly within tissue samples collected post-mortem. Potorostrongylus woyliei and Paraustrostrongylus sp. nematodes were present within the stomach and small intestine, respectively...
December 2018: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
G W Fuller, J N Rao
Descending mediastinitis is a rare, life-threatening condition caused by contiguous spread of oropharyngeal or cervical infection into the mediastinum. Infectious mononucleosis generally results in a self-limited illness characterized by fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy. We present an exceptional case of an 18-year-old with infectious mononucleosis complicated by progressive bacterial superinfection and fulminant descending mediastinitis. After resuscitation, broad spectrum antibiotics, critical care support and definitive surgical management, they made a full recovery...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
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