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Lara Manuela Guedes de Pinho, Anabela Maria de Sousa Pereira, Cláudia Margarida Correia Balula Chaves
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and satisfaction with social support with the quality of life of schizophrenic patients. METHODOLOGY: This study included a sample of 268 participants. An interview was conducted to obtain sociodemographic and clinical data, supplemented with two assessment tools used to evaluate quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-Abbreviated version - WHOQOL-Bref) and satisfaction with social support (Social Support Satisfaction Scale - SSSS)...
March 8, 2018: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
Louis Sass, Juan P Borda, Luis Madeira, Elizabeth Pienkos, Barnaby Nelson
The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations)...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Nerisa Banaj, Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Valentina Ciullo, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Battaglia, Donatella Pantoli, Giuseppe Ducci, Gianfranco Spalletta
The brain structural correlates of cognitive and psychopathological symptoms within the active phase in severely psychotic schizophrenic inpatients have been rarely investigated. Twenty-eight inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia (SZ), admitted for acute psychotic decompensation, were assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychopathological battery. All patients underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Increased psychotic severity was related to reduced grey matter volumes in the medial portion of the right superior frontal cortex, the superior orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally and to white matter volume reduction in the medial portion of the left superior frontal area...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
J Joseph Gholson, Nicholas A Bedard, S Blake Dowdle, Timothy S Brown, Yubo Gao, John J Callaghan
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is an often overlooked comorbidity in the total joint arthroplasty (TJA) population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of schizophrenia on the outcomes of TJA. METHODS: The nationwide inpatient sample was used to identify a cohort of 505,840 patients having total hip arthroplasty between 2009 and 2012, of which 953 patients (0.2%) had been diagnosed with schizophrenia. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the impact of schizophrenia on short-term medical and surgical complications...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Ania Justo, Alicia Risso, Andrew Moskowitz, Anabel Gonzalez
This article describes the conclusions of an investigation done with 120 Spanish patients: the finding of a new psychopathological profile within a subgroup of patients suffering from schizophrenia. The patients were evaluated through different questionnaires about sociodemographic data, traumatic events, the severity index (both clinical and psychopathological), self-esteem and consciousness of the illness. From the scores obtained on a scale of dissociative experiences, they were classified into two groups: high dissociative symptomatology or HD, and low dissociative symptomatology or LD...
March 7, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Natalia Fantacone, Edgardo Carísimo, Pablo Landi, Eden Del Mar Walsöe, Daniel Fadel
The purpose of this report is to emphasize the necessity to periodically explore internal environment variables, as certain metabolic alterations often go unnoticed during antipsychotic treatment. Early detection of such alterations may prevent catastrophic syndromes. We will also stress the clinical relevance of cognitive perseverations in schizophrenic patients, as these often condition habits of consumption which can alter the internal environment. In this clinical case of a schizophrenic patient, a chain of events led to a catastrophic syndrome: a trivial home accident (fall from own height) developed into a condition characterized by oligoanuria, hypokalemia, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation (125,000 IU / L) and acute renal failure with dialysis requirement...
July 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Michitaka Funayama, Taketo Takata, Akihiro Koreki, Satoyuki Ogino, Masaru Mimura
OBJECTIVE: Although catatonia can occur secondary to a general medical condition, catatonia itself has been known to lead to various medical compolications. Although case reports on the association of catatonia with subsequent medical complications have been documented, no comprehensive large-scale study has been performed. To investigate specific medical complications following catatonia, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of specific medical complications of schizophrenia patients with catatonia...
March 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Chuanjun Zhuo, Patrick Todd Triplett
Importance: Patients with schizophrenia are considered to have many risk factors for the development of cancer. However, the incidence of breast cancer in women with schizophrenia compared with the general population remains uncertain. Objective: To perform an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and the risk of breast cancer. Data Sources: A systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases was conducted using the search terms schizophrenia, schizophrenic, psychosis, combined with breast and cancer, tumor, neoplasm, or carcinoma...
March 7, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Xin Wang, António Pinto-Duarte, M Margarita Behrens, Xianjin Zhou, Terrence J Sejnowski
Reduced expression of Sp4, the murine homolog of human SP4, a risk gene of multiple psychiatric disorders, led to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) hypofunction in mice, producing behavioral phenotypes reminiscent of schizophrenia, including hypersensitivity to ketamine. As accumulating evidence on molecular mechanisms and behavioral phenotypes established Sp4 hypomorphism as a promising animal model, systems-level neural circuit mechanisms of Sp4 hypomorphism, especially network dynamics underlying cognitive functions, remain poorly understood...
2018: PloS One
Gabriel Martos, Miguel de Carvalho
Discrimination surfaces are here introduced as a diagnostic tool for localizing brain regions where discrimination between diseased and nondiseased participants is higher. To estimate discrimination surfaces, we introduce a Mann-Whitney type of statistic for random fields and present large-sample results characterizing its asymptotic behavior. Simulation results demonstrate that our estimator accurately recovers the true surface and corresponding interval of maximal discrimination. The empirical analysis suggests that in the anterior region of the brain, schizophrenic patients tend to present lower local asymmetry scores in comparison with participants in the control group...
March 6, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
Nafiseh Nafisi-Far, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Akram Sadat Tabatabaei Panah, Arezou Sayad, Mohammad Taheri
Schizophrenia has long been considered as a devastating brain disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. The BACE1 gene is one of the most important susceptibility genes for this disorder. However, the changes in BACE1 expression in schizophrenic patients compared with healthy subjects have not been evaluated yet. In this case-control study, we examined BACE1 expression in a group of 50 patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls. The level of BACE1 gene expression was measured using Real-Time PCR...
March 3, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
H Rebhi, R Damak, W Cherif, S Ellini, M Cheour, F Ellouze
OBJECTIVES: The duration of untreated psychosis is defined as the interval between the first psychotic symptoms and the first starting treatment. The duration of untreated psychosis is highly variable but often prolonged and may be influenced by several factors. Some studies suggested that duration of untreated psychosis is associated with poor outcome. The objectives of this study were to assess the duration of untreated psychosis in a Tunisian cohort and its impact on the quality of life and the cognitive functions of schizophrenic patients at 2 years...
February 27, 2018: L'Encéphale
Ozlem Devrim Balaban, Menekse Sila Yazar, Erkan Aydin, Ruken Agachanli, Huseyin Yumrukcal
Context: The concept of posttraumatic growth (PTG) is important to focus on positive outcomes of a challenging process like caregiving. Aims: The aim of the present study is to investigate the factors inclusively considered to be related to PTG in primary caregivers of schizophrenic patients. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted with caregivers of patients with schizophrenia between January 2013 and February 2014 at a mental health hospital...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Yanling Zhou, Guannan Li, Dan Li, Hongmei Cui, Yuping Ning
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. METHODS: Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38)...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Afaque H Khan, Samina Zaidi
We report five cases of treatment-resistant schizophrenia that presented with prominent negative and positive symptoms. They fulfill the criteria of diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). They showed lack of response despite receiving multiple trials of first and second generation psychotropic agents. We decided to give these patients a trial of clozapine to improve their negative and positive symptoms as well as their quality of life...
December 20, 2017: Curēus
O Giotakos
A variety of phenomena might be considered as reflecting impaired insight in psychosis, like failure to recognize signs, symptoms or disease, failure to derive appropriate cognitive representations, despite recognition of the disease, and misattribution of the source or cause of the disease. The unawareness of tardive dyskinesia symptoms in schizophrenic patients points that self-awareness deficits in schizophrenia may be domain specific. Poor insight is an independent phenomenological and a prevalent feature in psychotic disorders in general, and in schizophrenia in particular, but we don't know yet if delusions in schizophrenia are the result of an entirely normal attempt to account for abnormal perceptual experiences or a product of abnormal experience but of normal reasoning...
October 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Michel Cermolacce, Katherine Despax, Raphaëlle Richieri, Jean Naudin
Delusion is usually considered in DSM 5 as a false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality, but the issue of delusion raises crucial concerns, especially that of a possible (or absent) continuity between delusional and normal experiences, and the understanding of delusional experience. In the present study, we first aim to consider delusion from a perspectivist angle, according to the Multiple Reality Theory (MRT). In this model inherited from Alfred Schütz and recently addressed by Gallagher, we are not confronting one reality only, but several (such as the reality of everyday life, of imaginary life, of work, of delusion, etc...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Xiao-Jia Jiang, Fu-Xi Wu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Lei Shi, Jin-Qing Hu, Hai-Zhen Zhu, Bing Xiao, Wei-Cheng Lin, Yu-Guan Wen, De-Wei Shang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of treatment with risperidone and aripiprazole on serum prolactin, testosterone and estradiol levels in female patients with schizophrenia in China. METHODS: In the retrospective study, Data were collected and included prolactin, testosterone and estradiol levels of 30 female patients with risperidone monotherapy. In the prospective study, Another 30 female schizophrenic patients were randomized to receive risperidone or adjunctive aripiprazole for six weeks...
February 26, 2018: Drug Research
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