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Life events

Alejandro Garbino, Derek M Nusbaum, Daniel M Buckland, Anil S Menon, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Andrea Murillo, Nora A Kolter, Anssi Laurila, Germán Orizaola
1.In seasonal environments, modifications in the phenology of life-history events can alter the strength of time-constraints experienced by organisms. Offspring can compensate for a change in timing of hatching by modifying their growth and development trajectories. However, intra- and inter -specific interactions may affect these compensatory responses, in particular if differences in phenology between cohorts lead to significant priority effects (i.e. the competitive advantage that early hatching individuals have over late hatching ones)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
V Bergink, J T Larsen, M H J Hillegers, S K Dahl, H Stevens, P B Mortensen, L Petersen, T Munk-Olsen
Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Meghan M McConnell, Sandra Monteiro, Molly M Pottruff, Alan Neville, Geoff R Norman, Kevin W Eva, Kulamakan Kulasegaram
PURPOSE: Training to become a physician is an emotionally laden experience. Research in cognitive psychology indicates that emotions can influence learning and performance, but the materials used in such research (e.g., word lists) rarely reflect the complexity of material presented in medical school. The present study examined whether emotions influence learning of basic science principles. METHOD: Fifty-five undergraduate psychology students were randomly assigned to write about positive, negative, or neutral life events for nine minutes...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Emuella M Flood, Kelly F Bell, Marie C de la Cruz, France M Ginchereau-Sowell
OBJECTIVE: To identify which treatment attributes are most influential in determining patient preferences for diabetes treatments and explore patient preferences for diabetes drug classes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: U.S. adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes completed an online adaptive conjoint analysis survey. The survey examined 14 attributes, including efficacy, regimen, and risk of common side effects and rare, but serious adverse events. Respondents selected between hypothetical treatments with different attributes...
October 25, 2016: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Nagy A Mekhail, Emad Estemalik, Gerges Azer, Kristina Davis, Stuart J Tepper
BACKGROUND: A recent multicenter study presented 52-week safety and efficacy results from an open-label extension of a randomized, sham-controlled trial for patients with chronic migraine (CM) undergoing peripheral nerve stimulation of the occipital nerves. We present the data from a single center of 20 patients enrolled at the Cleveland Clinic's Pain Management Department. METHODS: In this single center, 20 patients were implanted with a neurostimulation system, randomized to an active or control group for 12 weeks, and received open-label treatment for an additional 40 weeks...
October 25, 2016: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
Zdenka Cicova, Mario Dejung, Tomas Skalicky, Nicole Eisenhuth, Steffen Hanselmann, Brooke Morriswood, Luisa M Figueiredo, Falk Butter, Christian J Janzen
Trypanosomes are masters of adaptation to different host environments during their complex life cycle. Large-scale proteomic approaches provide information on changes at the cellular level, and in a systematic way. However, detailed work on single components is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms on a molecular level. Here, we have performed a detailed characterization of a bloodstream form (BSF) stage-specific putative flagellar host adaptation factor Tb927.11.2400, identified previously in a SILAC-based comparative proteome study...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Aijia Cai, Anja M Boos, Andreas Arkudas, Raymund E Horch
The introduction of neoadjuvant radiotherapy has allowed limb-preserving surgical treatment in patients with extremity soft tissue sarcoma, and the overall prognosis of this approach is similar to that of limb amputation. The benefits of this treatment, however, are often accompanied with a higher risk of major complications and blood vessel damage because of radiation-induced inflammation and necrosis of the vessel wall. In particular, it is associated with the rupture of large vessels like the femoral artery and more severe complications of wounds located in the proximal lower extremity...
October 25, 2016: International Wound Journal
Katinka Karenberg, Hannes Hudalla, David Frommhold
Impaired cellular innate immune defense accounts for susceptibility to sepsis and its high morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Leukocyte recruitment is an integral part of the cellular immune response and follows a well-defined cascade of events from rolling of leukocytes along the endothelium to firm adhesion and finally transmigration which is concerted by a variety of adhesion molecules. Recent analytical advances such as fetal intravital microscopy have granted new insights into ontogenetic regulation and maturation of fetal immune cell recruitment...
December 2016: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
Zuhair Ahmed, Jessie A Elliott, Sinead King, Claire L Donohoe, Narayanasamy Ravi, John V Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Benign anastomotic strictures occur frequently after esophagectomy, and impact on postoperative recovery, nutritional status, and quality of life. This large cohort study explored the incidence of stricture after transthoracic (2- and 3-stage) and transhiatal resections with uniform single-layer sutured anastomotic technique, and aimed to identify independent risk factors. METHODS: Patients undergoing esophagectomy with gastric conduit reconstruction between February 2001 and October 2014 were studied prospectively...
October 24, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Marshall B Jones
BACKGROUND: In the first decade of this century players in the National Football League, the NFL community, fans, even the public at large, became aware that multiple concussions, heretofore considered inconsequential, could have devastating consequences later in life. RESULTS: Since 1978, each one of the 32 teams in the NFL plays 16 games in the regular season. In the 25 years from 1978 to 2004 home advantage in the regular season tended to increase with Game Number (1-16)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Sean Esteban McCabe, James A Cranford, Carol J Boyd
This study examined stressful life events and other predictors associated with remission from DSM-IV drug dependence involving cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, non-heroin opioids, sedatives, stimulants, tranquilizers, or other drugs. Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were used to examine the prevalence and predictors of past-year remission status. Among U.S. adults with previous (i.e., prior-to-past-year) drug dependence (n=921) at baseline (wave 1), the prevalence of past-year remission status at wave 1 was: abstinence (60...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Holger Cramer, Meral Sushila Thoms, Dennis Anheyer, Romy Lauche, Gustav Dobos
BACKGROUND: Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga on waist circumference and other anthropometric and self-reported variables in women with abdominal obesity. METHODS: 60 women with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 88 cm; body-mass index [BMI] ≥ 25) were randomly allocated in a 2:1 ratio to either a 12-week yoga intervention (n = 40) or a waiting list (n = 20)...
September 30, 2016: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Andrzej Brodziak, Alicja Różyk-Myrta, Agnieszka Wolińska
BACKGROUND: The authors postulate that the recent intensification of the nationalist and xenophobic attitude in Poland and other Eastern European countries is detrimental to public mental health. The xenophobic attitude is accompanied by a higher incidence of anxiety and depression, disputes due to the polarization of opinions, a sense of embarrassment and a sense of contradictions with so-called Christian values, unfavorable demographic predictions and reduced life satisfaction. DISCUSSION: The authors attempt to describe the sequence of adverse events that led to the intensification of xenophobia and characterize the current state of public mental health in European countries...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Thanos Karatzias, Mark Shevlin, Claire Fyvie, Philip Hyland, Erifili Efthymiadou, Danielle Wilson, Neil Roberts, Jonathan I Bisson, Chris R Brewin, Marylene Cloitre
Among the conditions following exposure to traumatic life events proposed by ICD-11 are Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Complex PTSD (CPTSD). The primary aim of this study was to provide an assessment of the reliability and validity of a newly developed self-report measure of ICD-11 PTSD and CPTSD: the ICD-11 Trauma Questionnaire (ICD-TQ). Participants in this study were a sample of individuals who were referred for psychological therapy to a National Health Service (NHS) trauma centre in Scotland (N=193)...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Paul R Harmatz, Eugen Mengel, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Nicole Muschol, Christian J Hendriksz, Barbara K Burton, Elisabeth Jameson, Kenneth I Berger, Andrea Jester, Marsha Treadwell, Zlatko Sisic, Celeste Decker
Efficacy and safety of elosulfase alfa enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) were assessed in an open-label, phase 2, multi-national study in Morquio A patients aged ≥5 years unable to walk ≥30 meters in the 6-min walk test. Patients received elosulfase alfa 2.0 mg/kg/week intravenously for 48 weeks. Efficacy measures were functional dexterity, pinch/grip strength, mobility in a modified timed 25-foot walk, pain, quality of life, respiratory function, and urine keratan sulfate (KS). Safety/tolerability was also assessed...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Y S Choi, E J Lee
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Panic disorder patients display various panic-related physical symptoms and catastrophic misinterpretation of bodily sensations, which lower their quality of life by interfering with daily activities. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a useful strategy for panic disorder patients to manage symptoms associated with inaccurate cognitive interpretation of situations resulting from the patient's cognitive vulnerability. In South Korea, however, despite the increasing prevalence of panic disorder, CBT is not a common element of nursing care plans for panic disorder patients...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
E M M Hoytema van Konijnenburg, J H van der Lee, A H Teeuw, R Lindeboom, S N Brilleslijper-Kater, T Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, J B van Goudoever, R J L Lindauer
BACKGROUND: High levels of maltreatment are found in children who are identified because their parents visit the emergency department due to partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt. However, it is unknown if these children experience psychosocial problems. This study aims to assess their levels of post-traumatic stress, anxiety, depression, behavioural problems and health-related quality of life. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six hospitals...
October 23, 2016: Child: Care, Health and Development
Pierre Santucci, Feriel Bouzid, Nabil Smichi, Isabelle Poncin, Laurent Kremer, Chantal De Chastellier, Michel Drancourt, Stéphane Canaan
Despite a slight decline since 2014, tuberculosis (TB) remains the major deadly infectious disease worldwide with about 1.5 million deaths each year and with about one-third of the population being latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of TB. During primo-infection, the recruitment of immune cells leads to the formation of highly organized granulomas. Among the different cells, one outstanding subpopulation is the foamy macrophage (FM), characterized by the abundance of triacylglycerol-rich lipid bodies (LB)...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
John Slattery, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Recent studies have highlighted the fact that the enteric microbiome, the trillions of microbes that inhabit the human digestive tract, has a significant effect on health and disease. Methods for manipulating the enteric microbiome, particularly through probiotics and microbial ecosystem transplantation, have undergone some study in clinical trials. We review some of the evidence for microbiome alteration in relation to childhood disease and discuss the clinical trials that have examined the manipulation of the microbiome in an effort to prevent or treat childhood disease with a primary focus on probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics (ie, probiotics + prebiotics)...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
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