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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516809/prevention-and-treatment-of-opioid-misuse-and-addiction-a-review
#1
Nora D Volkow, Emily B Jones, Emily B Einstein, Eric M Wargo
Importance: More than 42 000 Americans died of opioid overdoses in 2016, and the fatalities continue to increase. This review analyzes the factors that triggered the opioid crisis and its further evolution, along with the interventions to manage and prevent opioid use disorder (OUD), which are fundamental for curtailing the opioid crisis. Observations: Opioid drugs are among the most powerful analgesics but also among the most addictive. The current opioid crisis, initially triggered by overprescription of opioid analgesics, which facilitated their diversion and misuse, has now expanded to heroin and illicit synthetic opioids (fentanyl and its analogues), the potency of which further increases their addictiveness and lethality...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514822/recognition-of-and-attitudes-towards-people-with-depression-and-psychosis-with-without-alcohol-and-other-drug-problems-results-from-a-national-survey-of-australian-paramedics
#2
Terence V McCann, Michael Savic, Nyssa Ferguson, Alison Cheetham, Katrina Witt, Kate Emond, Emma Bosley, Karen Smith, Louise Roberts, Dan I Lubman
OBJECTIVE: Continuing stigma towards mental health problems means that many individuals-especially men-will first present in crisis, with emergency services often the first point of call. Given this situation, the aims of this paper were to assess paramedics' ability to recognise, and their attitudes towards, males with clinically defined depression and psychosis with and without comorbid alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional national online survey of 1230 paramedics throughout Australia...
December 4, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509737/referral-of-patients-to-plastic-surgeons-following-self-harm-opportunities-for-suicide-prevention
#3
E Concannon, S Carr, A Doherty, S J McInerney, J Birrane, L Kearney, A J Hussey, S M Potter, J L Kelly, N M McInerney
Self-harm is a common source of referral to plastic and hand surgery services. Appropriate management of these patients is complex and includes the need for close liaison with mental health services. Self-harm is the single biggest risk factor for completed suicide, thereby increasing the risk by a factor of 66.1 This study aimed to analyse the clinical pathway and demographics of patients referred to plastic surgeons following self-harm. This 6-year retrospective series included patients referred to plastic surgeons following self-harm within the Galway University Hospital group...
November 13, 2018: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508684/mediators-of-childhood-trauma-and-suicidality-in-a-cohort-of-socio-economically-deprived-scottish-men
#4
Charlotte Lemaigre, Emily P Taylor
BACKGROUND: There is little research investigating the relationship between childhood abuse, including neglect, and suicidality in adult men, despite epidemiological data suggesting that they are most at risk for suicide. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and suicidality, and the possible mediating roles of affect dysregulation and social inhibition. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: a cohort of eighty-six socio-economically deprived male Caucasian participants previously identified as suicidal, attending a non-clinical community group...
November 30, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508671/chronobiological-dis-rhythmicity-is-related-to-emotion-dysregulation-and-suicidality-in-depressive-bipolar-ii-disorder-with-mixed-features
#5
Laura Palagini, Giada Cipollone, Umberto Moretto, Isabella Masci, Beniamino Tripodi, Danila Caruso, Giulio Perugi
In Bipolar Disorder, chronobiological rhythm alterations play a key role by negatively influencing its entire trajectory. Our aim was to assess their potential association with emotion dysregulation and suicidality in subjects with Bipolar Disorder. Eighty-five patients with Bipolar Disorder - II depressive episode with mixed features were recruited and 35 as healthy controls. Subjects were evaluated with SCID-DSM-5, the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), the DERS: Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI)...
November 24, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508600/acceptability-and-use-of-evidence-based-practices-for-firearm-storage-in-pediatric-primary-care
#6
Rinad S Beidas, Shari Jager-Hyman, Emily M Becker-Haimes, Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Brian K Ahmedani, John E Zeber, Joel A Fein, Gregory K Brown, Courtney A Gregor, Adina Lieberman, Steven C Marcus
OBJECTIVES: Promoting safe firearm storage in pediatric primary care is one way to address youth suicide by firearm. The study objective is to determine perspectives of primary care physicians (PCPs) and leaders of primary care practices regarding acceptability and use of screening, counseling, and firearm locks, three components of an adapted evidence-based intervention, the Firearm Safety Check. METHODS: In 2016, an online survey was conducted in two large United States health systems...
November 15, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507054/intimate-relationships-buffer-suicidality-in-national-guard-service-members-a-longitudinal-study
#7
Adrian J Blow, Adam Farero, Dara Ganoczy, Heather Walters, Marcia Valenstein
OBJECTIVE: Members of the U.S. military are at a high suicide risk. While studies have examined predictors of suicide in the U.S. military, more studies are needed which examine protective factors for suicide. Informed by the interpersonal theory of suicide, this study examined the strength of the intimate relationship and its role as a buffer of suicidality in National Guard service members. METHOD: A total of 712 National Guard residing in a Midwestern state, who had all recently returned home from a deployment, took part in this study and completed surveys at 6 and 12 months postdeployment...
December 3, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30505628/a-social-media-based-examination-of-the-effects-of-counseling-recommendations-after-student-deaths-on-college-campuses
#8
Koustuv Saha, Ingmar Weber, Munmun De Choudhury
Student deaths on college campuses, whether brought about by a suicide or an uncontrollable incident, have serious repercussions for the mental wellbeing of students. Consequently, many campus administrators implement post-crisis intervention measures to promote student-centric mental health support. Information about these measures, which we refer to as " counseling recommendations ", are often shared via electronic channels, including social media. However, the current ability to assess the effects of these recommendations on post-crisis psychological states is limited...
June 2018: Proceedings of the ... International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503218/inpatient-psychiatric-care-following-a-suicide-related-hospitalization-a-pilot-trial-of-post-admission-cognitive-therapy-in-a-military-medical-center
#9
Marjan Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Jessica M LaCroix, Kanchana U Perera, Laura Neely, Geoffrey Grammer, Jennifer Weaver, Laura A Novak, Victoria Colborn, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with a recent suicidal crisis are typically admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. However, targeted inpatient interventions for suicide prevention remain sparse. Thus, this pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a brief inpatient cognitive behavioral protocol, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT) for the prevention of suicide. METHODS: United States service members and beneficiaries (N = 24) psychiatrically hospitalized at a military medical center due to a recent suicidal crisis were randomized to receive either PACT plus Enhanced Usual Care (PACT + EUC) or EUC alone...
November 27, 2018: General Hospital Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30500659/readmissions-after-firearm-injury-requiring-vascular-repair
#10
Jeffrey J Siracuse, Alik Farber, Thea James, Thomas W Cheng, Yi Zuo, Jeffrey A Kalish, Douglas W Jones, Bindu Kalesan
INTRODUCTION: Firearm injuries can be morbid and potentially have high resource utilization. Historically, trauma and vascular surgery patients are at higher risk for readmissions. Our goal was to assess the risk for readmission among patients undergoing vascular repair after a firearm injury. METHODS: The National Readmission Database was queried from 2011-2014. All firearm injuries with or without vascular repair were analyzed. Multivariable analysis was conducted to assess the effect of concurrent vascular repair on readmissions at 30, 90, and 180 days...
November 27, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30499596/suicide-risk-and-social-support-in-australian-resource-sector-employees-a-cross-sectional-study
#11
P Miller, L Brook, N J Stomski, G Ditchburn, P Morrison
This study examines the association between suicide risk and social support in Australian resource sector employees. We included 150 participants, who completed the Beck Hopelessness Scale and MOS-Social Support Survey. Data were analyzed using smallest space analysis and multidimensional scalogram analysis. The analysis identified four distinct regions, which were conceptualized as "confiding," "affection," "companionship," and "practical help." All of these components of social support were associated with hopelessness, which has important clinical implications as hopelessness is related to suicide risk...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498462/diffusion-of-a-peer-led-suicide-preventive-intervention-through-school-based-student-peer-and-adult-networks
#12
Trevor A Pickering, Peter A Wyman, Karen Schmeelk-Cone, Chelsey Hartley, Thomas W Valente, Anthony R Pisani, Kelly L Rulison, Charles Hendricks Brown, Mark LoMurray
Background: Peer-led interventions have been applied to prevent various health behavior problems and may be an important complement to individual-level suicide prevention approaches. Sources of Strength trains student "peer leaders" in secondary schools to conduct prevention activities that encourage other students to build healthy social bonds and strengthen help-seeking norms. Prior work examining diffusion of peer-led programs has focused on youths' closeness to peer leaders but minimally on other factors such as connections to adults and suicidal behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30496107/measuring-progress-from-1990-to-2017-and-projecting-attainment-to-2030-of-the-health-related-sustainable-development-goals-for-195-countries-and-territories-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2017
#13
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of "leaving no one behind", it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health-related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990-2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30489671/exploring-nurses-and-patients-perceptions-of-hope-and-hope-engendering-nurse-interventions-in-an-eating-disorder-facility-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#14
Debra Haas Stavarski, Robbi K Alexander, Shelby N Ortiz, Thomas Wasser
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) experience suicidal thoughts and behaviors at elevated rates compared to the general population. Hope-engendering nursing actions may increase patients' levels of hope for the future, improve coping self-efficacy, and possibly reduce suicidality. Although nursing staff are integral ED treatment team members, little is known about nursing actions targeting hopefulness. AIM: Explore differences between patients' and nurses' perceptions of hope-engendering nurse actions and the relationship actions have with patients' perception of hope...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484776/readmissions-after-pediatric-hospitalization-for-suicide-ideation-and-suicide-attempt
#15
Stephanie Doupnik, Jonathan Rodean, Bonnie T Zima, Tumaini R Coker, Diana Worsley, Kris P Rehm, James C Gay, Matt Hall, Steve Marcus
OBJECTIVE: To inform resource allocation toward a continuum of care for youth at risk of suicide, we examined unplanned 30-day readmissions after pediatric hospitalization for either suicide ideation (SI) or suicide attempt (SA). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a nationally representative sample of 133,516 hospitalizations for SI or SA among 6- to 17-year-olds to determine prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics of 30-day readmissions using the 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Dataset (NRD)...
November 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484367/the-mediating-role-of-coping-style-associations-between-intimate-partner-violence-and-suicide-risks-among-chinese-wives-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#16
Weizi Wu, Ye Zhang, Lloyd Goldsamt, Fang Yan, Honghong Wang, Xianhong Li
The wives of men who have sex with men, known as " Tongqi" in China, have increasingly attracted public attention due to their potential risks of suicide and sexually transmitted infections and HIV. However, few studies have explored the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and suicide risk or the mediating effect of coping style on these associations among Tongqi in China. To describe these relationships, a cross-sectional online survey was conducted in China from February 2016 to February 2017...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483306/demographics-clinical-characteristics-and-therapeutic-approaches-among-older-adults-referred-to-mobile-psychiatric-crisis-intervention-teams-a-retrospective-study
#17
Estelle Gillès de Pélichy, Karsten Ebbing, Alcina Matos Queiros, Cécile Hanon, Armin von Gunten, Zaia Sellah, Henk Verloo
Background / Aims: The advent of mobile old age psychiatry intervention teams supports policies maintaining older adults in their habitual living environments, even those who are very old and suffering from acute cognitive and psychiatric impairments. Analyzing sociodemographic data, clinical and health characteristics, reasons for crisis-oriented psychiatric consultations, and other therapeutic suggestions for supporting home- or nursing home-dwelling older adult patients suffering from an onset of a psychiatric crisis...
September 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30481631/improvement-of-hypothalamic-hamartoma-related-psychiatric-disorder-after-stereotactic-laser-ablation-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Elsa V Arocho-Quinones, Jennifer Koop, Sean M Lew
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) are non-neoplastic congenital malformations associated with refractory epilepsy and behavioral disorders. Improvement in behavioral functioning following resection of HHs has been reported. Stereotactic laser ablation (SLA), a minimally invasive technique, has been used for the treatment of HH-related epilepsy. We report the case of child with a HH, gelastic seizures, and severe psychiatric dysfunction who was successfully treated via SLA therapy...
November 24, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478803/childhood-neglect-and-adolescent-suicidal-ideation-a-moderated-mediation-model-of-hope-and-depression
#19
Sylvia Y C L Kwok, Minmin Gu
Using data collected on a two-wave longitudinal sample of 910 adolescents with mean age of 13.68 years in Hong Kong, China, this survey aimed to test a moderated mediation model to account for the developmental pathway from childhood experiences of neglect to suicidal ideation in adolescents. Results showed that adolescents who were neglected as children had higher levels of suicidal ideation; furthermore, this relation was mediated by adolescents' depressive symptoms, while the path between adolescents' depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation was moderated by adolescents' sense of hope...
November 26, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478528/association-between-psychotic-experiences-and-non-accidental-self-injury-results-from-a-nationally-representative-survey-of-adolescents
#20
Emily Hielscher, Melissa Connell, David Lawrence, Stephen R Zubrick, Jennifer Hafekost, James G Scott
PURPOSE: The association between psychotic experiences (PEs) and non-accidental self-injury (NASI; including self-harm and suicide attempts) is well established, although variables influencing this relationship have not been comprehensively examined. This study aimed to investigate (1) the cross-sectional PE-NASI association before and after adjustment for confounders, and (2) the individual contribution of each confounding and potentially mediating variable to the association. METHODS: A random sample of Australian adolescents aged 14-17 years (n = 1998) completed self-report questions regarding any self-harm, suicidality or PEs experienced in the past 12 months in 2013-2014 as part of the Young Minds Matter Survey, a national household survey...
November 26, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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