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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089557/lower-total-and-regional-grey-matter-brain-volumes-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection-associations-with-hiv-disease-severity-substance-use-and-cognition
#1
C Paula Lewis-De Los Angeles, Paige L Williams, Yanling Huo, Shirlene D Wang, Kristina A Uban, Megan M Herting, Kathleen Malee, Ram Yogev, John G Csernansky, Sharon Nichols, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
Despite improved survival due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) show cognitive deficits and developmental delay at increased rates. HIV affects the brain during critical periods of development, and the brain may be a persistent reservoir for HIV due to suboptimal blood brain barrier penetration of cART. We conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and cognitive testing in 40 PHIV youth (mean age=16.7 years) recruited from the NIH Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) who are part of the first generation of PHIV youth surviving into adulthood...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088647/the-developmental-relationship-between-specific-cognitive-domains-and-grey-matter-in-the-cerebellum
#2
Dorothea M Moore, Anila M D'Mello, Lauren M McGrath, Catherine J Stoodley
There is growing evidence that the cerebellum is involved in cognition and cognitive development, yet little is known about the developmental relationship between cerebellar structure and cognitive subdomains in children. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between cerebellar grey matter (GM) and language, reading, working memory, executive function, and processing speed in 110 individuals aged 8-17 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) Study. Further, we examined the effect of age on the relationships between cerebellar GM and cognition...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087439/cerebrovascular-heterogeneity-and-neuronal-excitability
#3
REVIEW
Laura Librizzi, Marco de Curtis, Damir Janigro, Leonie Runtz, Frederic deBock, Emmanuel L Barbier, Nicola Marchi
The cerebral vasculature is a complex tridimensional network of arterial and venous vessels which are anatomically in proximity of and functionally coupled to neurons. Depending on the cellular composition of the vascular wall and its anatomical arrangement, cerebral vessels control regional blood flow, define interstitial homeostasis or cerebrospinal fluid circulation and influence immune cell patrolling. Pathological deviations from these functions promote or are a consequence of brain diseases, directly impacting neuronal firing...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087191/alterations-of-brain-activity-in-fibromyalgia-patients
#4
REVIEW
Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Sahattaya Paiboonworachat, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086761/is-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia-categorically-distinct-from-treatment-responsive-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review
#5
Amy L Gillespie, Ruta Samanaite, Jonathan Mill, Alice Egerton, James H MacCabe
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a highly heterogeneous disorder, and around a third of patients are treatment-resistant. The only evidence-based treatment for these patients is clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic with relatively weak dopamine antagonism. It is plausible that varying degrees of response to antipsychotics reflect categorically distinct illness subtypes, which would have significant implications for research and clinical practice. If these subtypes could be distinguished at illness onset, this could represent a first step towards personalised medicine in psychiatry...
January 13, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078547/znf804a-rs1344706-interacts-with-comt-rs4680-to-affect-prefrontal-volume-in-healthy-adults
#6
Qiang Xu, Yongqin Xiong, Congcong Yuan, Feng Liu, Fangshi Zhao, Junlin Shen, Wen Qin, Chunshui Yu
The biological function of ZNF804A rs1344706, the first genome-wide supported risk variant of schizophrenia, remains largely unknown. Based on the upregulating effect of ZNF804A on the expression of COMT, we hypothesize that ZNF804A may affect grey matter volume (GMV) by interacting with COMT. Voxel-based morphometry was applied to analyze the main and interaction effects of ZNF804A rs1344706 and COMT rs4680 on brain GMV in 274 healthy young human subjects. The GMV of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed a significant COMT rs4680 × ZNF804A rs1344706 interaction, manifesting as an inverted U-shape modulation by the presumed dopamine signaling...
January 11, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075185/cerebellar-heterogeneity-and-its-impact-on-pet-data-quantification-of-5-ht-receptor-radioligands
#7
Melanie Ganz, Ling Feng, Hanne Demant Hansen, Vincent Beliveau, Claus Svarer, Gitte M Knudsen, Douglas N Greve
In the quantification of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer binding, a commonly used method is reference tissue modeling (RTM). RTM necessitates a proper reference and a ubiquitous choice for G-protein coupled receptors is the cerebellum. We investigated regional differences in uptake within the grey matter of the cerebellar hemispheres (CH), the cerebellar white matter (CW), and the cerebellar vermis (CV) for five PET radioligands targeting the serotonin system. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of choosing different reference regions when quantifying neocortical binding...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072842/fractal-analysis-of-brain-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-bold-signals-from-children-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-mtbi
#8
Olga Dona, Michael D Noseworthy, Carol DeMatteo, John F Connolly
BACKGROUND: Conventional imaging techniques are unable to detect abnormalities in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Yet patients with mTBI typically show delayed response on neuropsychological evaluation. Because fractal geometry represents complexity, we explored its utility in measuring temporal fluctuations of brain resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rs-BOLD) signal. We hypothesized that there could be a detectable difference in rs-BOLD signal complexity between healthy subjects and mTBI patients based on previous studies that associated reduction in signal complexity with disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069688/up-regulation-of-cb2-receptors-in-reactive-astrocytes-in-canine-degenerative-myelopathy-a-disease-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
María Fernández-Trapero, Francisco Espejo-Porras, Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Joan R Coates, Carmen Pérez-Díaz, Eva de Lago, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Targeting the CB2 receptor afforded neuroprotection in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors were facilitated by their up-regulation in the spinal cord in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice. Herein, we have investigated whether a similar CB2 receptor up-regulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, are evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM), caused from mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1)...
January 9, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067584/short-segment-myelitis-as-a-first-manifestation-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#10
So-Young Huh, Su-Hyun Kim, Jae-Won Hyun, In Hye Jeong, Min Su Park, Sang-Hyun Lee, Ho Jin Kim
BACKGROUND: Some patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) present with spinal cord lesions extending fewer than three vertebral segments (short transverse myelitis, STM), hindering an early diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the frequency and imaging characteristics of STM lesions in patients presenting with myelitis as an initial manifestation of NMOSD. METHODS: Patients seen at three referral hospitals in Korea between June 2005 and March 2015 who met the following inclusion criteria were recruited for review: seropositivity for aquaporin-4 antibody, initial presentation with myelitis and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed within 1 month of initial myelitis onset...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066707/longitudinal-changes-in-microstructural-white-matter-metrics-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Chantel D Mayo, Erin L Mazerolle, Lesley Ritchie, John D Fisk, Jodie R Gawryluk
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Current avenues of AD research focus on pre-symptomatic biomarkers that will assist with early diagnosis of AD. The majority of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based biomarker research to date has focused on neuronal loss in grey matter and there is a paucity of research on white matter. METHODS: Longitudinal DTI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 database were used to examine 1) the within-group microstructural white matter changes in individuals with AD and healthy controls at baseline and year one; and 2) the between-group microstructural differences in individuals with AD and healthy controls at both time points...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065850/deep-grey-matter-iron-accumulation-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#12
Michal Juhás, Hongfu Sun, Matthew R G Brown, Marnie B MacKay, Karl F Mann, Wolfgang H Sommer, Alan H Wilman, Serdar M Dursun, Andrew J Greenshaw
PURPOSE: Evaluate brain iron accumulation in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients compared to controls using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). METHODS: QSM was performed retrospectively by using phase images from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). 20 male AUD patients and 15 matched healthy controls were examined. Susceptibility values were manually traced in deep grey matter regions including caudate nucleus, combined putamen and globus pallidus, combined substantia nigra and red nucleus, dentate nucleus, and a reference white matter region in the internal capsule...
January 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064170/cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-brain-volumes-in-men-and-women-in-the-finger-study
#13
Heikki Pentikäinen, Tiia Ngandu, Yawu Liu, Kai Savonen, Pirjo Komulainen, Merja Hallikainen, Miia Kivipelto, Rainer Rauramaa, Hilkka Soininen
BACKGROUND: high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with larger brain volumes but data on sex differences in the association of CRF with brain volumes are scarce. We investigated whether the association of CRF with total grey matter (GM) and white matter volumes as well as medial temporal lobe and striatum volumes is different between men and women at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: we used baseline data from The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) in which the inclusion criteria were set to select individuals with cognitive performance at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age according to Finnish population norms...
January 6, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059782/differential-hemispheric-predilection-of%C3%A2-microstructural-white-matter-and%C3%A2-functional-connectivity-abnormalities-between-respectively-semantic-and%C3%A2-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#14
Rozanna Meijboom, Rebecca M E Steketee, Leontine S Ham, Aad van der Lugt, John C van Swieten, Marion Smits
Semantic dementia (SD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), subtypes of frontotemporal dementia, are characterized by distinct clinical symptoms and neuroimaging features, with predominant left temporal grey matter (GM) atrophy in SD and bilateral or right frontal GM atrophy in bvFTD. Such differential hemispheric predilection may also be reflected by other neuroimaging features, such as brain connectivity. This study investigated white matter (WM) microstructure and functional connectivity differences between SD and bvFTD, focusing on the hemispheric predilection of these differences...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057431/advanced-structural-neuroimaging-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-where-do-we-stand
#15
REVIEW
Albert Stezin, Abhishek Lenka, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, Jitender Saini, Pramod K Pal
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by presence of supranuclear gaze palsy, early postural instability, parkinsonism and cognitive impairment. Advanced structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated variable areas of grey and white matter involvement in PSP. Grey matter (GM) involvement is predominantly reported in the midbrain, subcortical structures such as thalamus and basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Most white matter (WM) tracts are also reported to be damaged in PSP...
December 26, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054634/within-brain-area-tractography-suggests-local-modularity-using-high-resolution-connectomics
#16
Peter N Taylor, Yujiang Wang, Marcus Kaiser
Previous structural brain connectivity studies have mainly focussed on the macroscopic scale of around 1,000 or fewer brain areas (network nodes). However, it has recently been demonstrated that high resolution structural connectomes of around 50,000 nodes can be generated reproducibly. In this study, we infer high resolution brain connectivity matrices using diffusion imaging data from the Human Connectome Project. With such high resolution we are able to analyse networks within brain areas in a single subject...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054131/global-and-regional-annual-brain-volume-loss-rates-in-physiological-aging
#17
Sven Schippling, Ann-Christin Ostwaldt, Per Suppa, Lothar Spies, Praveena Manogaran, Carola Gocke, Hans-Jürgen Huppertz, Roland Opfer
The objective is to estimate average global and regional percentage brain volume loss per year (BVL/year) of the physiologically ageing brain. Two independent, cross-sectional single scanner cohorts of healthy subjects were included. The first cohort (n = 248) was acquired at the Medical Prevention Center (MPCH) in Hamburg, Germany. The second cohort (n = 316) was taken from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS). Brain parenchyma (BP), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), corpus callosum (CC), and thalamus volumes were calculated...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053819/thalamic-atrophy-contributes-to-low-slow-wave-sleep-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder
#18
Lei Su, Yujuan Han, Rong Xue, Kristofer Wood, Fu-Dong Shi, Yaou Liu, Ying Fu
Slow wave sleep abnormality has been reported in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), but mechanism for such abnormality is unknown. To determine the structural defects in the brain that account for the decrease of slow wave sleep in NMOSD patients. Thirty-three NMOSD patients and 18 matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Polysomnography was used to monitor slow wave sleep and three-dimensional T1-weighted MRIs were obtained to assess the alterations of grey matter volume. The percentage of deep slow wave sleep decreased in 93% NMOSD patients...
December 2016: Aging and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046971/th-cd-206-01-expectation-maximization-algorithm-based-tissue-mixture-quantification-for-perfusion-mri
#19
H Han, Z Liang, L Li, L Xing
PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of estimating the tissue mixture perfusions and quantifying cerebral blood flow change in arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MR images. METHODS: The proposed perfusion MR image analysis framework consists of 5 steps: (1) Inhomogeneity correction was performed on the T1- and T2-weighted images, which are available for each studied perfusion MR dataset. (2) We used the publicly available FSL toolbox to strip off the non-brain structures from the T1- and T2-weighted MR images...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046904/th-cd-202-05-dect-based-tissue-segmentation-as-input-to-monte-carlo-simulations-for-proton-treatment-verification-using-pet-imaging
#20
B Berndt, T Tessonnier, F Schwarz, J Bauer, M Wuerl, F Kamp, C Thieke, C Belka, F Verhaegen, M Reiser, W Sommer, G Dedes, G Landry, K Parodi
PURPOSE: To improve agreement of predicted and measured positron emitter yields in patients, after proton irradiation for PET-based treatment verification, using a novel dual energy CT (DECT) tissue segmentation approach, overcoming known deficiencies from single energy CT (SECT). METHODS: DECT head scans of 5 trauma patients were segmented and compared to existing decomposition methods with a first focus on the brain. For validation purposes, three brain equivalent solutions [water, white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) - equivalent with respect to their reference carbon and oxygen contents and CT numbers at 90kVp and 150kVp] were prepared from water, ethanol, sucrose and salt...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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