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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239063/stimulating-neural-plasticity-with-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-in-huntington-s-disease-a-proof-of-concept-study
#1
Marina Papoutsi, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Douglas Langbehn, Ralf Reilmann, Geraint Rees, Sarah J Tabrizi
Novel methods that stimulate neuroplasticity are increasingly being studied to treat neurological and psychiatric conditions. We sought to determine whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback training is feasible in Huntington's disease (HD), and assess any factors that contribute to its effectiveness. In this proof-of-concept study, we used this technique to train 10 patients with HD to volitionally regulate the activity of their supplementary motor area (SMA). We collected detailed behavioral and neuroimaging data before and after training to examine changes of brain function and structure, and cognitive and motor performance...
December 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239055/brain-structural-alterations-associated-with-dysfunctional-cognitive-control-of-pain-in-patients-with-low-back-pain
#2
O Chehadi, A C Rusu, K Konietzny, E Schulz, O Köster, T Schmidt-Wilcke, M I Hasenbring
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown that chronic back pain (CBP) can lead to functional alterations in the circuitry underlying the cognitive control of pain. Thought suppression (TS) is a common type of cognitive control of pain. Previous research has shown that TS has paradoxical effects that may increase the awareness of pain. Pain-related TS may also increase individuals' attention to pain, which may also increase pain sensation, but thus far, the relationship between pain-related TS and structural brain alterations is unknown...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237520/-patterns-of-brain-injury-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-recommendations-on-classification
#3
Jian Mao
Although there are unified criteria for the clinical diagnosis and grading of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), clinical features and neuropathological patterns vary considerably among the neonates with HIE due to birth asphyxia in the same classification. The patterns and progression of brain injury in HIE, which is closely associated with long-term neurodevelopment outcomes, can be well shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but different sequences may lead to different MRI findings at the same time...
December 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236647/assessing-the-marks-of-change-how-psychotherapy-alters-the-brain-structure-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#4
Falk Mancke, Ruth Schmitt, Dorina Winter, Inga Niedtfeld, Sabine C Herpertz, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychotherapy can alter the function of the brain of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is not known whether psychotherapy can also modify the brain structure of patients with BPD. METHODS: We used structural MRI data of female patients with BPD before and after participation in 12 weeks of residential dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) and compared them to data from female patients with BPD who received treatment as usual (TAU)...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234091/structural-reorganization-of-the-early-visual-cortex-following-braille-training-in-sighted-adults
#5
Łukasz Bola, Katarzyna Siuda-Krzywicka, Małgorzata Paplińska, Ewa Sumera, Maria Zimmermann, Katarzyna Jednoróg, Artur Marchewka, Marcin Szwed
Training can induce cross-modal plasticity in the human cortex. A well-known example of this phenomenon is the recruitment of visual areas for tactile and auditory processing. It remains unclear to what extent such plasticity is associated with changes in anatomy. Here we enrolled 29 sighted adults into a nine-month tactile Braille-reading training, and used voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to describe the resulting anatomical changes. In addition, we collected resting-state fMRI data to relate these changes to functional connectivity between visual and somatosensory-motor cortices...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231140/up-regulation-of-dmn-connectivity-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-via-network-based-cognitive-training
#6
Matteo De Marco, Francesca Meneghello, Cristina Pilosio, Jessica Rigon, Annalena Venneri
BACKGROUND: Previous work designed a network-based protocol of cognitive training. This programme exploits a mechanism of induced task-oriented co-activation of multiple regions that are part of the default mode network (DMN), to induce functional rewiring and increased functional connectivity within this network. OBJECTIVE: In this study, the programme was administered to patients with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment to test its effects in a clinical sample...
December 11, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228211/asymmetry-of-post-mortem-neuropathology-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#7
David J Irwin, Corey T McMillan, Sharon X Xie, Katya Rascovsky, Vivianna M Van Deerlin, H Branch Coslett, Roy Hamilton, Geoffrey Aguirre, Edward B Lee, Virginia M Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski, Murray Grossman
Antemortem behavioural and anatomic abnormalities have largely been associated with right hemisphere disease in behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, but post-mortem neuropathological examination of bilateral hemispheres remains to be defined. Here we measured the severity of post-mortem pathology in both grey and white matter using a validated digital image analysis method in four cortical regions sampled from each hemisphere in 26 patients with behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, including those with frontotemporal degeneration (i...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228180/longitudinal-structural-and-molecular-neuroimaging-in-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#8
Katerina A Tetzloff, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Robert I Reid, Anthony J Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia affects normal grammatical language production, often occurs with apraxia of speech, and is associated with left frontal abnormalities on cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We aimed to perform a detailed assessment of longitudinal change on structural and molecular neuroimaging to provide a complete picture of neurodegeneration in these patients, and to determine how patterns of progression compare to patients with isolated apraxia of speech (primary progressive apraxia of speech)...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227947/virtual-water-trade-of-agricultural-products-a-new-perspective-to-explore-the-belt-and-road
#9
Yu Zhang, Jin-He Zhang, Qing Tian, Ze-Hua Liu, Hong-Lei Zhang
The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226283/improving-functional-mri-registration-using-whole-brain-functional-correlation-tensors
#10
Yujia Zhou, Pew-Thian Yap, Han Zhang, Lichi Zhang, Qianjin Feng, Dinggang Shen
Population studies of brain function with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) largely rely on the accurate inter-subject registration of functional areas. This is typically achieved through registration of the corresponding T1-weighted MR images with more structural details. However, accumulating evidence has suggested that such strategy cannot well-align functional regions which are not necessarily confined by the anatomical boundaries defined by the T1-weighted MR images. To mitigate this problem, various registration algorithms based directly on rs-fMRI data have been developed, most of which have utilized functional connectivity (FC) as features for registration...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225356/quantitative-neurobiological-evidence-for-accelerated-brain-aging-in-alcohol-dependence
#11
Matthias Guggenmos, Katharina Schmack, Maria Sekutowicz, Maria Garbusow, Miriam Sebold, Christian Sommer, Michael N Smolka, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrich S Zimmermann, Andreas Heinz, Philipp Sterzer
The premature aging hypothesis of alcohol dependence proposes that the neurobiological and behavioural deficits in individuals with alcohol dependence are analogous to those of chronological aging. However, to date no systematic neurobiological evidence for this hypothesis has been provided. To test the hypothesis, 119 alcohol-dependent subjects and 97 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent structural MRI. Whole-brain grey matter volume maps were computed from structural MRI scans using voxel-based morphometry and parcelled into a comprehensive set of anatomical brain regions...
December 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223496/multi-modal-imaging-investigation-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-cytoarchitecture-in-neurodevelopment
#12
Natalie J Forde, Jilly Naaijen, David J Lythgoe, Sophie E A Akkermans, Thaïra J C Openneer, Andrea Dietrich, Marcel P Zwiers, Pieter J Hoekstra, Jan K Buitelaar
Multi-modal imaging may improve our understanding of the relationship between cortical morphology and cytoarchitecture. To this end we integrated the analyses of several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) metrics within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Considering the ACCs role in neurodevelopmental disorders, we also investigated the association between neuropsychiatric symptoms and the various metrics. T1 and diffusion-weighted MRI and 1H-MRS (ACC voxel) data along with phenotypic information were acquired from children (8-12 years) with various neurodevelopmental disorders (n=95) and healthy controls (n=50)...
December 6, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217680/non-newly-generated-immature-neurons-in-the-sheep-brain-are-not-restricted-to-cerebral-cortex
#13
Matteo Piumatti, Ottavia Palazzo, Chiara La Rosa, Paola Crociara, Roberta Parolisi, Federico Luzzati, Frederic Lévy, Luca Bonfanti
A newly proposed form of brain structural plasticity consists of non-newly generated, "immature" neurons of the adult cerebral cortex. Similar to newly generated neurons, these cells express the cytoskeletal protein Doublecortin (DCX), yet they are generated prenatally, then remaining in a state of immaturity for long periods. In rodents, the immature neurons are restricted to the paleocortex, whereas in other mammals are found also in neocortex. Here, we analyzed the DCX-expressing cells in the whole sheep brain of both sexes, to search for an indicator of structural plasticity at a cellular level in a relatively large-brained, long-living mammal...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217405/a-novel-perspective-to-calibrate-temporal-delays-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-using-hypercapnic-and-hyperoxic-respiratory-challenges
#14
Allen A Champagne, Alex A Bhogal, Nicole S Coverdale, Clarisse I Mark, Douglas J Cook
Redistribution of blood flow across different brain regions, arising from the vasoactive nature of hypercapnia, can introduce errors when examining cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) response delays. In this study, we propose a novel analysis method to characterize hemodynamic delays in the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to hypercapnia, and hyperoxia, as a way to provide insight into transient differences in vascular reactivity between cortical regions, and across tissue depths. A pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling sequence was used to acquire BOLD and cerebral blood flow simultaneously in 19 healthy adults (12 F; 20 ± 2 years) during boxcar CO2 and O2 gas inhalation paradigms...
December 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215777/atypical-anorexia-nervosa-is-not-related-to-brain-structural-changes-in-newly-diagnosed-adolescent-patients
#15
Gaia Olivo, Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lyle Wiemerslage, Ingemar Swenne, Christina Zhukovsky, Helena Salonen-Ros, Elna-Marie Larsson, Santino Gaudio, Samantha J Brooks, Helgi B Schiöth
OBJECTIVE: Patients with atypical anorexia nervosa (AN) have many features overlapping with AN in terms of genetic risk, age of onset, psychopathology and prognosis of outcome, although the weight loss may not be a core factor. While brain structural alterations have been reported in AN, there are currently no data regarding atypical AN patients. METHOD: We investigated brain structure through a voxel-based morphometry analysis in 22 adolescent females newly-diagnosed with atypical AN, and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214883/longitudinal-structural-changes-in-als-a-three-time-point-imaging-study-of-white-and-gray-matter-degeneration
#16
Peter Bede, Orla Hardiman
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional imaging studies offer valuable pathological insights into the neurodegenerative changes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, clinical trials urgently require sensitive monitoring markers that can detect subtle progressive changes over relatively short periods of time. We have conducted a three time-point longitudinal study to explore anatomical patterns of disease spread and to determine whether MRI metrics capture longitudinal changes over four and eight-month intervals...
December 7, 2017: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214796/grey-matter-correlates-of-autistic-traits-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Malin Björnsdotter, Monika Davidovic, Louise Karjalainen, Göran Starck, Håkan Olausson, Elisabet Wentz
Background: Patients with anorexia nervosa exhibit higher levels of behaviours typically associated with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but the neural basis is unclear. We sought to determine whether elevated autistic traits in women with anorexia nervosa may be reflected in cortical morphology. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional grey matter volumes in high-resolution MRI structural brain scans in women with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211812/a-simulation-study-on-the-impact-of-the-blood-flow-dependent-component-in-18f-av45-suvr-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Julie Ottoy, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Sigrid Stroobants, Steven Staelens
BACKGROUND: Increased brain uptake on [18F]AV45 PET is a biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The standardised uptake value ratio (SUVR) is widely used for quantification but is subject to variability. Here we evaluate how SUVR of a cortical target region is affected by blood flow changes in the target and two frequently used reference regions. METHODS: Regional baseline time-activity curves (TACs) were simulated based on metabolite-corrected plasma input functions and pharmacokinetic parameters obtained from our previously acquired data in healthy control (HC; n = 10), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 15) and AD cohorts (n = 9)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211727/playing-super-mario-64-increases-hippocampal-grey-matter-in-older-adults
#19
Greg L West, Benjamin Rich Zendel, Kyoko Konishi, Jessica Benady-Chorney, Veronique D Bohbot, Isabelle Peretz, Sylvie Belleville
Maintaining grey matter within the hippocampus is important for healthy cognition. Playing 3D-platform video games has previously been shown to promote grey matter in the hippocampus in younger adults. In the current study, we tested the impact of 3D-platform video game training (i.e., Super Mario 64) on grey matter in the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of older adults. Older adults who were 55 to 75 years of age were randomized into three groups. The video game experimental group (VID; n = 8) engaged in a 3D-platform video game training over a period of 6 months...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207432/-sonography-of-the-optic-nerve-a-new-bedside-tool-in-intensive-care
#20
Christopher Hohmann, Konrad R Koch, Roman Pfister, Guido Michels
History and clinical findings Here, we present the case history of a 76-year old man with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to a cardiogenic shock and a consecutive no-flow-time of approximately 10 minutes. After 25 minutes of resuscitation procedures a spontaneous return of circulation could be established. The patient was admitted to our center for emergency coronary angiography. After coronary stenting the patient was admitted to our intensive care unit and treated in accordance with the guidelines on cardiogenic shock due to myocardial infarction...
December 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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