keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Grey matter

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470996/default-mode-network-and-deep-gray-matter-analysis-in-neuromyelitis-optica-patients
#1
Fernanda C Rueda-Lopes, Fernanda M C Pessôa, Gustavo Tukamoto, Fabíola Rachid Malfetano, Simone Batista Scherpenhuijzen, Soniza Alves-Leon, Emerson L Gasparetto
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to detect functional changes in default-mode network of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance images and the evaluation of subcortical grey-matter structures volumes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NMO patients (n = 28) and controls patients (N=19) were enrolled. We used the integrated registration and segmentation tool, part of FMRIB's Software Library (FSL) to segment subcortical structures including the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, hippocampus and amygdalae...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468785/explaining-the-heterogeneity-of-functional-connectivity-findings-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-empirically-informed-modeling-study
#2
Prejaas Tewarie, Martijn D Steenwijk, Matthew J Brookes, Bernard M J Uitdehaag, Jeroen J G Geurts, Cornelis J Stam, Menno M Schoonheim
To understand the heterogeneity of functional connectivity results reported in the literature, we analyzed the separate effects of grey and white matter damage on functional connectivity and networks in multiple sclerosis. For this, we employed a biophysical thalamo-cortical model consisting of interconnected cortical and thalamic neuronal populations, informed and amended by empirical diffusion MRI tractography data, to simulate functional data that mimic neurophysiological signals. Grey matter degeneration was simulated by decreasing within population connections and white matter degeneration by lowering between population connections, based on lesion predilection sites in multiple sclerosis...
February 21, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467469/effects-of-adolescent-alcohol-consumption-on-the-brain-and-behaviour
#3
REVIEW
Linda P Spear
Per occasion, alcohol consumption is higher in adolescents than in adults in both humans and laboratory animals, with changes in the adolescent brain probably contributing to this elevated drinking. This Review examines the contributors to and consequences of the use of alcohol in adolescents. Human adolescents with a history of alcohol use differ neurally and cognitively from other adolescents; some of these differences predate the commencement of alcohol consumption and serve as potential risk factors for later alcohol use, whereas others emerge from its use...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465624/subcortical-grey-matter-structures-in-multiple-sclerosis-what-is-their-role-in-cognition
#4
Álvaro J Cruz-Gómez, Naiara Aguirre, Carla Sanchis-Segura, César Ávila, Cristina Forn
The present study aimed to investigate altered grey matter (GM) and functional connectivity (FC) in deep subcortical areas, such as the thalamus and basal ganglia, and their relationship with cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Thirty-six patients were neuropsychologically assessed, classified as cognitive preserved (CP) and CI, and were compared with 18 healthy controls. GM atrophy and FC were observed in 10 predefined functional areas of the thalamus and in six of basal ganglia. GM atrophy was prominent in the basal ganglia in CI patients compared with CP MS patients...
February 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463454/diagnostic-potential-of-dentatorubrothalamic-tract-analysis-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#5
Morinobu Seki, Klaus Seppi, Christoph Mueller, Thomas Potrusil, Georg Goebel, Eva Reiter, Michael Nocker, Ruth Steiger, Matthias Wildauer, Elke R Gizewski, Gregor K Wenning, Werner Poewe, Christoph Scherfler
BACKGROUND: The differentiation of progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism (PSP-P) from Parkinson's disease (PD) remains a major clinical challenge. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic potential of observer-independent assessments of microstructural integrity within infratentorial brain regions to differentiate PSP-Richardson's syndrome (PSP-RS), PSP-P and PD. METHODS: 3T MRI parameters of mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, grey and white matter volumes from patients with PSP-RS (n = 12), PSP-P (n = 12) and mean disease duration of 2...
February 7, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463250/grey-matter-volume-in-healthy-and-epileptic-beagles-using-voxel-based-morphometry-a-pilot-study
#6
Lisa Frank, Matthias Lüpke, Draginja Kostic, Wolfgang Löscher, Andrea Tipold
BACKGROUND: One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE) diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR) images of one dog breed (Beagles) were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV) were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE)), using voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
February 20, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462334/left-frontal-hub-connectivity-delays-cognitive-impairment-in-autosomal-dominant-and-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Nicolai Franzmeier, Emrah Düzel, Frank Jessen, Katharina Buerger, Johannes Levin, Marco Duering, Martin Dichgans, Christian Haass, Marc Suárez-Calvet, Anne M Fagan, Katrina Paumier, Tammie Benzinger, Colin L Masters, John C Morris, Robert Perneczky, Daniel Janowitz, Cihan Catak, Steffen Wolfsgruber, Michael Wagner, Stefan Teipel, Ingo Kilimann, Alfredo Ramirez, Martin Rossor, Mathias Jucker, Jasmeer Chhatwal, Annika Spottke, Henning Boecker, Frederic Brosseron, Peter Falkai, Klaus Fliessbach, Michael T Heneka, Christoph Laske, Peter Nestor, Oliver Peters, Manuel Fuentes, Felix Menne, Josef Priller, Eike J Spruth, Christiana Franke, Anja Schneider, Barbara Kofler, Christine Westerteicher, Oliver Speck, Jens Wiltfang, Claudia Bartels, Miguel Ángel Araque Caballero, Coraline Metzger, Daniel Bittner, Michael Weiner, Jae-Hong Lee, Stephen Salloway, Adrian Danek, Alison Goate, Peter R Schofield, Randall J Bateman, Michael Ewers
Patients with Alzheimer's disease vary in their ability to sustain cognitive abilities in the presence of brain pathology. A major open question is which brain mechanisms may support higher reserve capacity, i.e. relatively high cognitive performance at a given level of Alzheimer's pathology. Higher functional MRI-assessed functional connectivity of a hub in the left frontal cortex is a core candidate brain mechanism underlying reserve as it is associated with education (i.e. a protective factor often associated with higher reserve) and attenuated cognitive impairment in prodromal Alzheimer's disease...
February 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461803/exploring-ion-suppression-in-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-a-heterogeneous-tissue
#8
Adam Taylor, Alex Dexter, Josephine Bunch
In this study we have explored several aspects of regional analyte suppression in mass spectrometry imaging of a heterogeneous sample; transverse cryosections of mouse brain. Olanzapine was homogeneously coated across the section prior to DESI and MALDI mass spectrometry imaging. We employed the concept of a tissue extinction coefficient (TEC) to assess suppression of an analyte on tissue relative to its intensity in an off tissue region. We expanded the use of TEC, by first segmenting anatomical regions using graph-cuts clustering, and calculating a TEC for each cluster...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459311/effect-of-hyaluronic-acid-hydrogels-containing-astrocyte-derived-extracellular-matrix-and-or-v2a-interneurons-on-histologic-outcomes-following-spinal-cord-injury
#9
Russell E Thompson, Jennifer Pardieck, Laura Smith, Peter Kenny, Lindsay Crawford, Molly Shoichet, Shelly Sakiyama-Elbert
One reason for the lack of regeneration, and poor clinical outcomes, following central nervous system (CNS) injury is the formation of a glial scar that inhibits new axon growth. In addition to forming the glial scar, astrocytes have been shown to be important for spontaneous SCI recovery in rodents, suggesting some astrocyte populations are pro-regenerative, while others are inhibitory following injury. In this work, the effect of implanting hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels containing extracellular matrix (ECM) harvested from mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived astrocytes on histologic outcomes following SCI in rats was explored...
February 6, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458189/impact-of-time-of-day-on-diffusivity-measures-of-brain-tissue-derived-from-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Cibu Thomas, Neda Sadeghi, Amrita Nayak, Aaron Trefler, Joelle Sarlls, Chris Baker, Carlo Pierpaoli
Diurnal fluctuations in MRI measures of structural and functional properties of the brain have been reported recently. These fluctuations may have a physiological origin, since they have been detected using different MRI modalities, and cannot be explained by factors that are typically known to confound MRI measures. While preliminary evidence suggests that measures of structural properties of the brain based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fluctuate as a function of time-of-day (TOD), the underlying mechanism has not been investigated...
February 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455171/visual-motor-integration-and-fine-motor-skills-at-6%C3%A2-years-of-age-and-associations-with-neonatal-brain-volumes-in-children-born-extremely-preterm-in-sweden-a-population-based-cohort-study
#11
Jenny Bolk, Nelly Padilla, Lea Forsman, Lina Broström, Kerstin Hellgren, Ulrika Åden
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. SETTING: Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. PARTICIPANTS: All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454105/assessing-the-repeatability-of-absolute-cmro-2-oef-and-haemodynamic-measurements-from-calibrated-fmri
#12
Alberto Merola, Michael A Germuska, Kevin Murphy, Richard G Wise
As energy metabolism in the brain is largely oxidative, the measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ) is a desirable biomarker for quantifying brain activity and tissue viability. Currently, PET techniques based on oxygen isotopes are the gold standard for obtaining whole brain CMRO 2 maps. Among MRI techniques that have been developed as an alternative are dual calibrated fMRI (dcFMRI) methods, which exploit simultaneous measurements of BOLD and ASL signals during a hypercapnic-hyperoxic experiment to modulate brain blood flow and oxygenation...
February 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451323/-18f-av-1451-tau-pet-and-primary-progressive-aphasia
#13
Keith A Josephs, Peter R Martin, Hugo Botha, Christopher G Schwarz, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Mary M Machulda, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Stephen D Weigand, Matthew L Senjem, Rene L Utianski, Daniel A Drubach, Bradley F Boeve, David T Jones, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Val J Lowe, Jennifer L Whitwell
OBJECTIVES: To assess [ 18 F]AV-1451 tau-PET uptake patterns across the primary progressive aphasia (PPA) variants (logopenic, semantic and agrammatic), examine regional uptake patterns of [ 18 F]AV-1451 independent of clinical diagnosis, and compare the diagnostic utility of [ 18 F]AV-1451, [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxygluclose (FDG)-PET and MRI to differentiate the PPA variants. METHODS: We performed statistical parametric mapping of [ 18 F]AV-1451 across 40 PPA patients (logopenic-PPA=14, semantic-PPA=13 and agrammatic-PPA=13) compared to 80 cognitively normal, PiB-negative controls, age and gender matched 2:1...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449712/imaging-structural-and-functional-brain-development-in-early-childhood
#14
REVIEW
John H Gilmore, Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Wei Gao
In humans, the period from term birth to ∼2 years of age is characterized by rapid and dynamic brain development and plays an important role in cognitive development and risk of disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. Recent imaging studies have begun to delineate the growth trajectories of brain structure and function in the first years after birth and their relationship to cognition and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. This Review discusses the development of grey and white matter and structural and functional networks, as well as genetic and environmental influences on early-childhood brain development...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447065/born-criminal-differences-in-structural-functional-and-behavioural-lateralization-between-criminals-and-noncriminals
#15
Priscilla Savopoulos, Annukka K Lindell
Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour...
February 15, 2018: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442274/congenital-olfactory-impairment-is-linked-to-cortical-changes-in-prefrontal-and-limbic-brain-regions
#16
Helena Gásdal Karstensen, Martin Vestergaard, William F C Baaré, Arnold Skimminge, Bjarki Djurhuus, Bjarki Ellefsen, Norbert Brüggemann, Camilla Klausen, Anne-Mette Leffers, Niels Tommerup, Hartwig R Siebner
The human sense of smell is closely associated with morphological differences of the fronto-limbic system, specifically the piriform cortex and medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC). Still it is unclear whether cortical volume in the core olfactory areas and connected brain regions are shaped differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI) matched with sixteen normosmic controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441571/arterial-and-microvascular-supply-of-cerebral-hemispheres-in-the-nude-mouse-revealed-using-corrosion-casting-and-scanning-electron-microscopy
#17
Simone Sangiorgi, Alessandro De Benedictis, Marcella Reguzzoni, Andrea Trezza, Silvia Cossu, Carlo Efisio Marras, Silvio Bellocchi, Alessandro Manelli, Marina Protasoni
Morphological analyses of cerebral vascularization are not only important for the characterization of the anatomical and physiological relationships between vascular and nervous tissue, but also required to understand structural modifications that occur in many pathological conditions affecting the brain. The aim of this study was to generate a three-dimensional vascular map of the cerebral hemispheres in the nude mouse brain, a widely used animal model for studying tumour biology. We used the corrosion casting (CC) technique to isolate blood vessels from 30 nude mouse brains...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441412/progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients-show-substantial-lesion-activity-that-correlates-with-clinical-disease-severity-and-sex-a-retrospective-autopsy-cohort-analysis
#18
Sabina Luchetti, Nina L Fransen, Corbert G van Eden, Valeria Ramaglia, Matthew Mason, Inge Huitinga
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly heterogeneous disease with large inter-individual differences in disease course. MS lesion pathology shows considerable heterogeneity in localization, cellular content and degree of demyelination between patients. In this study, we investigated pathological correlates of disease course in MS using the autopsy cohort of the Netherlands Brain Bank (NBB), containing 182 MS brain donors. Using a standardized autopsy procedure including systematic dissection from standard locations, 3188 tissue blocks containing 7562 MS lesions were dissected...
February 13, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438266/new-ways-of-seeing-the-mechanistic-heterogeneity-of-multiple-sclerosis-plaque-pathogenesis
#19
Ethan I Meltzer, Fiona E Costello, Elliot M Frohman, Teresa C Frohman
BACKGROUND: Over the past few decades, we have witnessed a transformation with respect to the principles and pathobiological underpinnings of multiple sclerosis (MS). From the traditional rubric of MS as an inflammatory and demyelinating disorder restricted to central nervous system (CNS) white matter, our contemporary view has evolved to encompass a broader understanding of the variable mechanisms that contribute to tissue injury, in a disorder now recognized to affect white and grey matter compartments...
March 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438199/changes-in-cerebral-function-parameters-with-maraviroc-intensified-antiretroviral-therapy-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-positive-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-study
#20
Borja Mora-Peris, George Bouliotis, Kulasegaram Ranjababu, Amanda Clarke, Frank A Post, Mark Nelson, Laura Burgess, Juan Tiraboschi, Saye Khoo, Steve Taylor, Deborah Ashby, Alan Winston
BACKGROUND: Maraviroc-intensified antiretroviral therapy (ART) may be associated with cognitive benefits. METHODS: Therapy naïve, cognitively asymptomatic, HIV-positive individuals were randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to standard ART (Arm1; tenofovir-emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir) or maraviroc intensified ART (Arm2: abacavir-lamivudine plus darunavir/ritonavir/maraviroc). Over 48 weeks, detailed assessments of cognitive function (CF) tests were undertaken and cerebral metabolites measured using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
February 12, 2018: AIDS
keyword
keyword
17163
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"