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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533125/markers-of-immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-brains-of-young-adults-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-a-difference
#1
William H Hoffman, Carol M Artlett, Dallas Boodhoo, Mary G F Gilliland, Luis Ortiz, Dries Mulder, David H T Tjan, Alvaro Martin, Alexandru Tatomir, Horea Rus
Due to the limited data on diabetic ketoacidosis and brain edema (DKA/BE) in children/adolescents and the lack of recent data on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we addressed the question of whether neuroinflammation was present in the fatal DKA of adults. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies on the brains of two young adults with T1D and fatal DKA and compared them with two teenagers with poorly controlled diabetes and fatal DKA. C5b-9, the membrane attack complex (MAC) had significantly greater deposits in the grey and white matter of the teenagers than the young adults (p=0...
May 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533118/white-matter-alterations-at-pubertal-onset
#2
Sila Genc, Marc L Seal, Thijs Dhollander, Charles B Malpas, Philip Hazell, Timothy J Silk
Recent neurodevelopmental research supports the contribution of pubertal stage to local and global grey and white matter remodelling. Little is known, however, about white matter microstructural alterations at pubertal onset. This study investigated differences in white matter properties between pre-pubertal and pubertal children using whole brain fixel-based analysis (FBA) of the microscopic density and macroscopic cross-section of fibre bundles. Diffusion-weighted imaging data were acquired for 74 typically developing children (M=10...
May 19, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532471/perfusion-by-arterial-spin-labelling-following-single-dose-tadalafil-in-small-vessel-disease-pastis-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#3
Mathilde M H Pauls, Natasha Clarke, Sarah Trippier, Shai Betteridge, Franklyn A Howe, Usman Khan, Christina Kruuse, Jeremy B Madigan, Barry Moynihan, Anthony C Pereira, Debbie Rolfe, Egill Rostrup, Caroline E Haig, Thomas R Barrick, Jeremy D Isaacs, Atticus H Hainsworth
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease is a common cause of vascular cognitive impairment in older people, with no licensed treatment. Cerebral blood flow is reduced in small vessel disease. Tadalafil is a widely prescribed phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor that increases blood flow in other vascular territories. The aim of this trial is to test the hypothesis that tadalafil increases cerebral blood flow in older people with small vessel disease. METHODS/DESIGN: Perfusion by Arterial Spin labelling following Single dose Tadalafil In Small vessel disease (PASTIS) is a phase II randomised double-blind crossover trial...
May 22, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526888/brain-structural-networks-associated-with-intelligence-and-visuomotor-ability
#4
Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Won-Gyo Shin, Tae Young Lee, Ji-Won Hur, Kang Ik K Cho, William Seunghyun Sohn, Seung-Goo Kim, Kwang-Hyuk Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Increasing evidence indicates that multiple structures in the brain are associated with intelligence and cognitive function at the network level. The association between the grey matter (GM) structural network and intelligence and cognition is not well understood. We applied a multivariate approach to identify the pattern of GM and link the structural network to intelligence and cognitive functions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 92 healthy individuals. Source-based morphometry analysis was applied to the imaging data to extract GM structural covariance...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525836/arterial-spin-labelling-shows-functional-depression-of-non-lesion-tissue-in-chronic-wernicke-s-aphasia
#5
Holly Robson, Karsten Specht, Helen Beaumont, Laura M Parkes, Karen Sage, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Roland Zahn
Behavioural impairment post-stroke is a consequence of structural damage and altered functional network dynamics. Hypoperfusion of intact neural tissue is frequently observed in acute stroke, indicating reduced functional capacity of regions outside the lesion. However, cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rarely investigated in chronic stroke. This study investigated CBF in individuals with chronic Wernicke's aphasia (WA) and examined the relationship between lesion, CBF and neuropsychological impairment. Arterial spin labelling CBF imaging and structural MRIs were collected in 12 individuals with chronic WA and 13 age-matched control participants...
November 10, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521401/mri-features-of-intracranial-anaplastic-hemangiopericytoma
#6
Liang-Cai Bai, Tian-You Luo, Hao Zhu, Rui Xu
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of intracranial anaplastic hemangiopericytoma (AHPC) were analyzed. The pathological examination showed that there was a great number of irregularly arranged tumor cells with nuclear atypia, and mitotic properties were commonly seen providing support for clinical staging, therapy and prognosis judgment. Eighteen cases of intracranial AHPC proved by operation and pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Both plain and enhanced MR scans were performed and the results were compared with pathology in all cases...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516805/mesial-temporal-lobe-and-subcortical-grey-matter-volumes-differentially-predict-memory-across-stages-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
James F Sumowski, Victoria M Leavitt, Maria A Rocca, Matilde Inglese, Gianna Riccitelli, Korhan Buyukturkoglu, Alessandro Meani, Massimo Filippi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Memory deficits due to multiple sclerosis (MS) have been variably linked to lower subcortical grey matter (SCGM) and mesial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes. We investigated which is the better predictor and whether this changes across disease stages. METHODS/RESULTS: Memory was assessed in 315 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured volumes of total brain, grey matter, white matter, MTL (hippocampus, amygdala) and SCGM (thalamus, caudate)...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516431/a-comparison-of-neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-multiple-sclerosis-major-depression-and-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-is-there-a-common-cause
#8
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Michael Berk, Basant K Puri
There is copious evidence of abnormalities in resting-state functional network connectivity states, grey and white matter pathology and impaired cerebral perfusion in patients afforded a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis, major depression or chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (myalgic encephalomyelitis). Systemic inflammation may well be a major element explaining such findings. Inter-patient and inter-illness variations in neuroimaging findings may arise at least in part from regional genetic, epigenetic and environmental variations in the functions of microglia and astrocytes...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514668/concurrent-white-matter-bundles-and-grey-matter-networks-using-independent-component-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Saad Jbabdi
Developments in non-invasive diffusion MRI tractography techniques have permitted the investigation of both the anatomy of white matter pathways connecting grey matter regions and their structural integrity. In parallel, there has been an expansion in automated techniques aimed at parcellating grey matter into distinct regions based on functional imaging. Here we apply independent component analysis to whole-brain tractography data to automatically extract brain networks based on their associated white matter pathways...
May 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514330/-mri-morphometry-of-neuroplastic-changes-in-the-brain-after-conservative-treatment-of-traumatic-brachial-plexopathy
#10
S A Zhivolupov, E N Gnevyshev, A G Trufanov, L V Voronkov, A A Jurin, N A Rashidov, I N Samartsev, I D Poltavsky
AIM: To identify neuroplastic changes in the brain structures during treatment of traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus (the pathology of peripheral nervous system). MATERIAL AND METHODS: MRI morphometry of white and grey matter was studied in 62 patients with traumatic axonotomy of the brachial plexus. RESULTS: There were correlations between the thickness of sensorimotor cortex, morphometric parameters (volume, diffusion, fractional anisotropy) of subcortical formations (corticospinal tracts, the forceps minor), severity of neurological deficit and dynamics of clinical course depending on the therapeutic strategy...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511918/molecular-imaging-of-serotonin-degeneration-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Gwenn S Smith, Frederick S Barrett, Jin Hui Joo, Najlla Nassery, Alena Savonenko, Devin J Sodums, Christopher M Marano, Cynthia A Munro, Jason Brandt, Michael A Kraut, Yun Zhou, Dean F Wong, Clifford I Workman
Neuropathological and neuroimaging studies have consistently demonstrated degeneration of monoamine systems, especially the serotonin system, in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease. The evidence for degeneration of the serotonin system in mild cognitive impairment is limited. Thus, the goal of the present study was to measure the serotonin transporter in vivo in mild cognitive impairment and healthy controls. The serotonin transporter is a selective marker of serotonin terminals and of the integrity of serotonin projections to cortical, subcortical and limbic regions, as well as the cell bodies of origin (raphe nuclei)...
May 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507318/cerebellar-volume-and-cerebellocerebral-structural-covariance-in-schizophrenia-a-multisite-mega-analysis-of-983-patients-and-1349-healthy-controls
#12
T Moberget, N T Doan, D Alnæs, T Kaufmann, A Córdova-Palomera, T V Lagerberg, J Diedrichsen, E Schwarz, M Zink, S Eisenacher, P Kirsch, E G Jönsson, H Fatouros-Bergman, L Flyckt, G Pergola, T Quarto, A Bertolino, D Barch, A Meyer-Lindenberg, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye
Although cerebellar involvement across a wide range of cognitive and neuropsychiatric phenotypes is increasingly being recognized, previous large-scale studies in schizophrenia (SZ) have primarily focused on supratentorial structures. Hence, the across-sample reproducibility, regional distribution, associations with cerebrocortical morphology and effect sizes of cerebellar relative to cerebral morphological differences in SZ are unknown. We addressed these questions in 983 patients with SZ spectrum disorders and 1349 healthy controls (HCs) from 14 international samples, using state-of-the-art image analysis pipelines optimized for both the cerebellum and the cerebrum...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506874/impact-of-acquisition-and-analysis-strategies-on-cortical-depth-dependent-fmri
#13
Sriranga Kashyap, Dimo Ivanov, Martin Havlicek, Benedikt A Poser, Kâmil Uludağ
Functional MRI at ultra-high magnetic fields (≥ 7T) provides the opportunity to probe columnar and laminar processing in the human brain in vivo at submillimeter spatial scales. However, fMRI data only indirectly reflects the neuronal laminar profile, due to a bias to ascending and pial veins inherent in gradient- and spin-echo BOLD fMRI. In addition, accurate delineation of the cortical depths is difficult, due to the relatively large voxel sizes and lack of sufficient tissue contrast in the functional images...
May 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506263/mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#14
G McLean, M Lawrence, R Simpson, S W Mercer
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness based stress reduction (MBSR) is increasingly being used to improve outcomes such as stress and depression in a range of long-term conditions (LTCs). While systematic reviews on MBSR have taken place for a number of conditions there remains limited information on its impact on individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Medline, Central, Embase, Amed, CINAHAL were searched in March 2016. These databases were searched using a combination of MeSH subject headings where available and keywords in the title and abstracts...
May 15, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501823/cerebellar-atrophy-in-neurodegeneration-a-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Helena M Gellersen, Christine C Guo, Claire O'Callaghan, Rachel H Tan, Saber Sami, Michael Hornberger
INTRODUCTION: The cerebellum has strong cortical and subcortical connectivity, but is rarely taken into account for clinical diagnosis in many neurodegenerative conditions, particularly in the absence of clinical ataxia. The current meta-analysis aims to assess patterns of cerebellar grey matter atrophy in seven neurodegenerative conditions (Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple system atrophy (MSA), progressive supranuclear palsy (MSP))...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501822/structural-mri-correlates-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-progression
#16
Joe Senda, Naoki Atsuta, Hirohisa Watanabe, Epifanio Bagarinao, Kazunori Imai, Daichi Yokoi, Yuichi Riku, Michihito Masuda, Ryoichi Nakamura, Hazuki Watanabe, Mizuki Ito, Masahisa Katsuno, Shinji Naganawa, Gen Sobue
PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents with varying degrees of brain degeneration that can extend beyond the corticospinal tract (CST). Furthermore, the clinical course and progression of ALS varies widely. Brain degeneration detected using structural MRI could reflect disease progression. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: On study registration, 3-Tesla volumetric MRI and diffusion tensor imaging scans were obtained at baseline in 38 healthy controls and 67 patients with sporadic ALS...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501553/progressive-cortical-reorganisation-a-framework-for-investigating-structural-changes-in-schizophrenia
#17
REVIEW
Lena Palaniyappan
One of the few well-replicated features of schizophrenia is the demonstration of neuroanatomical abnormalities affecting cortical and subcortical grey matter (GM). Evidence to date suggests that the greatest reduction in GM occurs in the immediate post-onset phase. The predominant view to date is that the accelerated grey matter (GM) loss represents an adverse process (degenerative or developmental deficit) contributing to the unfavourable course of schizophrenia. This prevailing emphasis on decompensation often overlooks the fact that human brain has an inherent capacity to remodel itself in response to insults that affect its function...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498826/divergent-influences-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factor-domains-on-cognition-grey-and-white-matter-morphology
#18
Mitzi M Gonzales, Olusola Ajilore, Rebecca C Charlton, Jamie Cohen, Shaolin Yang, Erica Sieg, Dulal K Bhaumik, Anand Kumar, Melissa Lamar
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity are associated with preclinical alterations in cognition and brain structure; however, this often comes from studies of comprehensive risk scores or single isolated factors. We examined associations of empirically-derived cardiovascular disease risk factor domains with cognition and brain structure. METHODS: 124 adults (age~59.8±13.1;41% African American;50% women) underwent neuropsychological and cardiovascular assessments and structural MRI...
January 16, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496151/exploring-nonlinear-topological-states-of-matter-with-exciton-polaritons-edge-solitons-in-kagome-lattice
#19
D R Gulevich, D Yudin, D V Skryabin, I V Iorsh, I A Shelykh
Matter in nontrivial topological phase possesses unique properties, such as support of unidirectional edge modes on its interface. It is the existence of such modes which is responsible for the wonderful properties of a topological insulator - material which is insulating in the bulk but conducting on its surface, along with many of its recently proposed photonic and polaritonic analogues. We show that exciton-polariton fluid in a nontrivial topological phase in kagome lattice, supports nonlinear excitations in the form of solitons built up from wavepackets of topological edge modes - topological edge solitons...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495227/lab-scale-co-digestion-of-kitchen-waste-and-brown-water-for-a-preliminary-performance-evaluation-of-a-decentralized-waste-and-wastewater-management
#20
Maria Cristina Lavagnolo, Francesca Girotto, Osamu Hirata, Raffaello Cossu
An overall interaction is manifested between wastewater and solid waste management schemes. At the Laboratory of Environmental Engineering (LISA) of the University of Padova, Italy, the scientific and technical implications of putting into practice a decentralized waste and wastewater treatment based on the separation of grey water, brown water (BW - faecal matter) and yellow water (YW - urine) are currently undergoing investigation in the Aquanova Project. An additional aim of this concept is the source segregation of kitchen waste (KW) for subsequent anaerobic co-digestion with BW...
May 8, 2017: Waste Management
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