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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931718/multiple-sclerosis-and-epilepsy-much-more-than-a-coincidence
#1
Massimiliano Calabrese
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Although inflammatory lesions of the white matter are the hallmark of the disease, several neuropathological and imaging studies have clearly confirmed that the grey matter is not spared by the disease. The most recent data suggest that a chronic meningeal inflammation leads to a subpial demyelination resulting in a surface-in gradient of neuronal loss. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926145/morphological-features-in-juvenile-huntington-disease-associated-with-cerebellar-atrophy-magnetic-resonance-imaging-morphometric-analysis
#2
Abderrahmane Hedjoudje, Gaël Nicolas, Alice Goldenberg, Catherine Vanhulle, Clémentine Dumant-Forrest, Guillaume Deverrière, Pauline Treguier, Isabelle Michelet, Lucie Guyant-Maréchal, Didier Devys, Emmanuel Gerardin, Jean-Nicolas Dacher, Pierre-Hugues Vivier
BACKGROUND: The imaging features of Huntington disease are well known in adults, unlike in juvenile-onset Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis in three juvenile Huntington disease patients (ages 2, 4 and 6 years old) to determine whether quantitative cerebral and cerebellar morphological metrics may provide diagnostically interesting patterns of cerebellar and cerebellar atrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the cases of three siblings with extremely early presentations of juvenile Huntington disease associated with dramatic expansions of the morbid paternal allele from 43 to more than 100 CAG trinucleotide repeats...
June 20, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925331/brain-mri-morphometric-analysis-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-with-sleep-disturbances
#3
Andrius Radziunas, Vytenis Pranas Deltuva, Arimantas Tamasauskas, Rymante Gleizniene, Aiste Pranckeviciene, Kestutis Petrikonis, Adomas Bunevicius
BACKGROUND: Sleep disturbances are common in patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible association of cortical thickness, cortical and subcortical volume with sleep disturbances in PD patients. METHODS: Twenty-eight PD patients (14 men and 14 women, median age 58 years) were evaluated for sleep disturbances with PDSS and underwent brain MRI. Control group consisted of 28 healthy volunteers who were matched by age and gender...
June 20, 2018: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924721/a-negative-association-between-brainstem-pontine-grey-matter-volume-well-being-and-resilience-in-healthy-twins
#4
Justine M Gatt, Karen L O Burton, Kylie M Routledge, Katrina L Grasby, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Stuart M Grieve, Peter R Schofield, Anthony W F Harris, C Richard Clark, Leanne M Williams
BACKGROUND: Associations between well-being, resilience to trauma and the volume of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing (e.g., threat/reward circuits) are largely unexplored, as are the roles of shared genetic and environmental factors derived from multivariate twin modelling. METHODS: This study presents, to our knowledge, the first exploration of well-being and volumes of grey-matter regions involved in affective processing using a region-of-interest, voxel-based approach in 263 healthy adult twins (60% monozygotic pairs, 61% females, mean age 39...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923666/regional-structural-hypo-and-hyperconnectivity-of-frontal-striatal-and-frontal-thalamic-pathways-in-behavioral-variant-frontotemporal-dementia
#5
David Jakabek, Brian D Power, Matthew D Macfarlane, Mark Walterfang, Dennis Velakoulis, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Markus Nilsson, Jeffrey C L Looi, Alexander F Santillo
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) has been predominantly considered as a frontotemporal cortical disease, with limited direct investigation of frontal-subcortical connections. We aim to characterize the grey and white matter components of frontal-thalamic and frontal-striatal circuits in bvFTD. Twenty-four patients with bvFTD and 24 healthy controls underwent morphological and diffusion imaging. Subcortical structures were manually segmented according to published protocols. Probabilistic pathways were reconstructed separately from the dorsolateral, orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortex to the striatum and thalamus...
June 20, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913667/do-patients-with-functional-chest-pain-have-neuroplastic-reorganization-of-the-pain-matrix-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#6
Jens Brøndum Frøkjær, Andra Sorina Boldea, Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff, Anne Lund Krarup, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Georg Dimcevski, Asbjørn Mohr Drewes
Background and aims In functional chest pain (FCP) of presumed esophageal origin central nervous system hyperexcitability is generally believed to play an important role in pain pathogenesis. However, this theory has recently been challenged. Using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging, the aim was to characterize any microstructural reorganization of the pain neuromatrix in FCP patients. Methods 13 FCP patients and 20 matched healthy controls were studied in a 3T MR scanner. Inclusion criteria were relevant chest pain, normal coronary angiogram and normal upper gastrointestinal evaluation...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913244/during-development-ng2-glial-cells-of-the-spinal-cord-are-restricted-to-the-oligodendrocyte-lineage-but-generate-astrocytes-upon-acute-injury
#7
Wenhui Huang, Xianshu Bai, Laura Stopper, Bogdan Catalin, Luciana Politti Cartarozzi, Anja Scheller, Frank Kirchhoff
NG2 glia are self-renewal cells widely populating the entire central nervous system (CNS). The differentiation potential of NG2 glia in the brain has been systematically studied. However, the fate of NG2 glia in the spinal cord during development and after injury is still unclear. Here, we took advantage of faithful expression of Cre in NG2-CreERT2 knock-in mice to demonstrate that spinal NG2 glia remain committed to the oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage and generate OLs, but not astrocytes or neurons, during development...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912283/immune-evasive-gene-switch-enables-regulated-delivery-of-chondroitinase-after-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Emily R Burnside, Fred De Winter, Athanasios Didangelos, Nicholas D James, Elena-Cristina Andreica, Hugo Layard-Horsfall, Elizabeth M Muir, Joost Verhaagen, Elizabeth J Bradbury
Chondroitinase ABC is a promising preclinical therapy that promotes functional neuroplasticity after CNS injury by degrading extracellular matrix inhibitors. Efficient delivery of chondroitinase ABC to the injured mammalian spinal cord can be achieved by viral vector transgene delivery. This approach dramatically modulates injury pathology and restores sensorimotor functions. However, clinical development of this therapy is limited by a lack of ability to exert control over chondroitinase gene expression. Prior experimental gene regulation platforms are likely to be incompatible with the non-resolving adaptive immune response known to occur following spinal cord injury...
June 14, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911280/claustral-structural-connectivity-and-cognitive-impairment-in-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Alessandro Arrigo, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Michele Gaeta, Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Gaetana Chillemi, Silvia Marino, Alberto Cacciola, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina Rizzo, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The claustrum is a thin grey matter structure which is involved in a wide brain network. Previous studies suggested a link between claustrum and Parkinson's Disease (PD), showing how α-synuclein pathology may affect claustral neurons as well as how α-synuclein immunoreactivity may correlate with the onset of cognitive dysfunctions. Our aim is to investigate, via diffusion MRI, claustral structural network changes in drug naïve PD patients, with the goal to understand whether such changes may contribute to cognitive decline in PD...
June 18, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909586/fractal-dimension-brain-morphometry-a-novel-approach-to-quantify-white-matter-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Abhijit Das, Luduan Zhang, Frank Hillary, Glenn R Wylie, Guang H Yue
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907835/structural-neural-correlates-of-physiological-mirror-activity-during-isometric-contractions-of-non-dominant-hand-muscles
#11
Tom Maudrich, Rouven Kenville, Jöran Lepsien, Arno Villringer, Patrick Ragert
Mirror Activity (MA) describes involuntarily occurring muscular activity in contralateral homologous limbs during unilateral movements. This phenomenon has not only been reported in patients with neurological disorders (i.e. Mirror Movements) but has also been observed in healthy adults referred to as physiological Mirror Activity (pMA). However, despite recent hypotheses, the underlying neural mechanisms and structural correlates of pMA still remain insufficiently described. We investigated the structural correlates of pMA during isometric contractions of hand muscles with increasing force demands on a whole-brain level by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907813/early-life-and-pubertal-stress-differentially-modulate-grey-matter-development-in-human-adolescents
#12
Anna Tyborowska, Inge Volman, Hannah C M Niermann, J Loes Pouwels, Sanny Smeekens, Antonius H N Cillessen, Ivan Toni, Karin Roelofs
Animal and human studies have shown that both early-life traumatic events and ongoing stress episodes affect neurodevelopment, however, it remains unclear whether and how they modulate normative adolescent neuro-maturational trajectories. We characterized effects of early-life (age 0-5) and ongoing stressors (age 14-17) on longitudinal changes (age 14 to17) in grey matter volume (GMV) of healthy adolescents (n = 37). Timing and stressor type were related to differential GMV changes. More personal early-life stressful events were associated with larger developmental reductions in GMV over anterior prefrontal cortex, amygdala and other subcortical regions; whereas ongoing stress from the adolescents' social environment was related to smaller reductions over the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907385/long-term-changes-in-cerebrovascular-reactivity-following-ec-ic-bypass-for-intracranial-steno-occlusive-disease
#13
Casey Rosen, Larissa McKetton, Jeremy Russell, Kevin Sam, Julien Poublanc, Adrian Crawley, Jay S Han, Olivia Sobczyk, James Duffin, Danny M Mandell, Michael Tymianski, Joseph A Fisher, David J Mikulis, Lashmi Venkatraghavan
The purpose of this retrospective observational study is to investigate the long-term changes in cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) as a measure of cerebral hemodynamics in patients with intracranial steno-occlusive disease (IC-SOD) after they have undergone an Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass. Twenty-six patients suffering from IC-SOD were selected from our CVR database. Nineteen patients underwent unilateral and 7 underwent bilateral revascularization. CVR measurements were done using BOLD-MRI and precisely controlled CO2 and expressed as ΔBOLD (%)/Δ PET CO2 (mmHg)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906634/whole-head-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-using-a-least-norm-direct-dipole-inversion-method
#14
Hongfu Sun, Yuhan Ma, M Ethan MacDonald, G Bruce Pike
A new dipole field inversion method for whole head quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is proposed. Instead of performing background field removal and local field inversion sequentially, the proposed method performs dipole field inversion directly on the total field map in a single step. To aid this under-determined and ill-posed inversion process and obtain robust QSM images, Tikhonov regularization is implemented to seek the local susceptibility solution with the least-norm (LN) using the L-curve criterion...
June 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905649/multivariate-pattern-classification-of-brain-white-matter-connectivity-predicts-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#15
Jidan Zhong, David Qixiang Chen, Peter S P Hung, Dave J Hayes, Kevin E Liang, Karen D Davis, Mojgan Hodaie
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a severe form of chronic facial neuropathic pain. Increasing interest in the neuroimaging of pain has highlighted changes in the root entry zone in TN, but also group level CNS grey and white matter abnormalities. Group differences in neuroimaging data are frequently evaluated with univariate statistics, however this approach is limited because it is based on single, or clusters of, voxels. In contrast, multivariate pattern analyses consider all the model's neuroanatomical features to capture a specific distributed spatial pattern...
June 13, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904713/data-on-multimodal-approach-for-early-poor-outcome-cerebral-performance-categories-3-5-prediction-after-cardiac-arrest
#16
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Lolli, Riccardo Carrai, Marco Moretti, Maddalena Spalletti, Morena Cozzolino, Adriano Peris, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
The data presented in this article are related to our research article entitled 'Neurophysiological and neuroradiological multimodal approach for early poor outcome prediction after cardiac arrest' (Scarpino et al., 2018) [1]. We reported two additional analyses, including results gathered from somatosensory evoked potentials(SEPs), brain computed tomography(CT) and electroencephalography(EEG) performed on 183 subjects within the first 24 h after cardiac arrest(CA). In the first analysis, we considered the Cerebral Performance Categories(CPC) 3, 4 and 5a,b (severe disability, unresponsive wakefulness state, neurological death and non-neurological death, respectively) as poor outcomes...
August 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902493/relationship-between-ventricular-characteristics-on-brain-computed-tomography-and-6-month-neurologic-outcome-in-cardiac-arrest-survivors-who-underwent-targeted-temperature-management
#17
Dong Hun Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung, Yong Hun Jung, Yong Soo Cho, In Soo Cho, Chun Song Yun, Jin Woong Kim, Jung Soo Park, Yong Il Min
AIM OF THE STUDY: Brain swelling after cardiac arrest may affect the ventricles. We aimed to investigate the prognostic performance of ventricular characteristics on brain computed tomography (CT) in cardiac arrest survivors who underwent targeted temperature management (TTM). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adult comatose cardiac arrest survivors who underwent brain CT scan within 24 hours after resuscitation and underwent TTM from 2014 to 2016...
June 11, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902203/rapid-high-resolution-t1-mapping-as-a-marker-of-brain-development-normative-ranges-in-key-regions-of-interest
#18
Sylvain Eminian, Steven David Hajdu, Reto Antoine Meuli, Philippe Maeder, Patric Hagmann
OBJECTIVES: We studied in a clinical setting the age dependent T1 relaxation time as a marker of normal late brain maturation and compared it to conventional techniques, namely the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two healthy subjects ranging from ages 1 year to 20 years were included in our study. T1 brain maps in which the intensity of each pixel corresponded to T1 relaxation times were generated based on MR imaging data acquired using a MP2RAGE sequence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29894826/chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer-mri-contrast-in-the-human-brain-at-9-4-t
#19
Moritz Zaiss, Mark Schuppert, Anagha Deshmane, Kai Herz, Philipp Ehses, Lars Füllbier, Tobias Lindig, Benjamin Bender, Ulrike Ernemann, Klaus Scheffler
PURPOSE: The high chemical shift separation at 9.4 T allows for selective saturation of proton pools in exchange with water protons. For the first time, highly selective and comprehensive chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) experiments were performed in the human brain at 9.4 T. This work provides insight into CEST signals in the human brain in comparison with existing animal studies, as well as with CEST effects in vivo at lower field strengths. METHODS: A novel snapshot-CEST method for human brain scans at 9...
June 9, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891013/sequential-stages-and-distribution-patterns-of-aging-related-tau-astrogliopathy-artag-in-the-human-brain
#20
Gabor G Kovacs, Sharon X Xie, John L Robinson, Edward B Lee, Douglas H Smith, Theresa Schuck, Virginia M-Y Lee, John Q Trojanowski
Aging-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG) describes tau pathology in astrocytes in different locations and anatomical regions. In the present study we addressed the question of whether sequential distribution patterns can be recognized for ARTAG or astroglial tau pathologies in both primary FTLD-tauopathies and non-FTLD-tauopathy cases. By evaluating 687 postmortem brains with diverse disorders we identified ARTAG in 455. We evaluated frequencies and hierarchical clustering of anatomical involvement and used conditional probability and logistic regression to model the sequential distribution of ARTAG and astroglial tau pathologies across different brain regions...
June 11, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
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