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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691937/testing-associations-between-cannabis-use-and-subcortical-volumes-in-two-large-population-based-samples
#1
Nathan A Gillespie, Michael C Neale, Timothy C Bates, Lisa T Eyler, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Jasmin Vassileva, Michael J Lyons, Elizabeth C Prom-Wormley, Katie L McMahon, Paul M Thompson, Greig de Zubicaray, Ian B Hickie, John J McGrath, Lachlan T Strike, Miguel E Rentería, Matthew S Panizzon, Nicholas G Martin, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen, Margaret J Wright
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Disentangling the putative impact of cannabis on brain morphology from other comorbid substance use is critical. After controlling for the effects of nicotine, alcohol and multi-substance use, this study aimed to determine whether frequent cannabis use is associated with significantly smaller subcortical grey matter volumes. DESIGN: Exploratory analyses using mixed linear models, one per region of interest (ROI), were performed whereby individual differences in volume (outcome) at seven subcortical ROIs were regressed onto cannabis and comorbid substance use (predictors)...
April 24, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691468/large-scale-brain-network-associated-with-creative-insight-combined-voxel-based-morphometry-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-analyses
#2
Takeshi Ogawa, Takatsugu Aihara, Takeaki Shimokawa, Okito Yamashita
Creative insight occurs with an "Aha!" experience when solving a difficult problem. Here, we investigated large-scale networks associated with insight problem solving. We recruited 232 healthy participants aged 21-69 years old. Participants completed a magnetic resonance imaging study (MRI; structural imaging and a 10 min resting-state functional MRI) and an insight test battery (ITB) consisting of written questionnaires (matchstick arithmetic task, remote associates test, and insight problem solving task)...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689374/body-mass-index-and-its-relation-to-neuropsychological-functioning-and-brain-volume-in-healthy-older-adults
#3
Marissa Ann Gogniat, Talia Loren Robinson, Catherine Mattocks Mewborn, Kharine Renee Jean, L Stephen Miller
Obesity is a growing concern worldwide because of its adverse health effects, including its negative impact on cognitive functioning. This concern is especially relevant for older adults, who are already likely to experience some cognitive decline and loss of brain volume due to aging [63,13]. However, there is some evidence that higher body mass index (BMI) may actually be protective in later life [8-11]. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to assess the relationship between BMI and neuropsychological functioning in older adults, and concurrently the relationship between BMI and brain volume...
April 21, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688876/neuroanatomical-phenotypes-in-mental-illness-identifying-convergent-and-divergent-cortical-phenotypes-across-autism-adhd-and-schizophrenia
#4
Min Tae M Park, Armin Raznahan, Philip Shaw, Nitin Gogtay, Jason P Lerch, M Mallar Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: There is evidence suggesting neuropsychiatric disorders share genomic, cognitive and clinical features. Here, we ask if autism-spectrum disorders (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and schizophrenia share neuroanatomical variations. METHODS: First, we used measures of cortical anatomy to estimate spatial overlap of neuroanatomical variation using univariate methods. Next, we developed a novel methodology to determine whether cortical deficits specifically target or are "enriched" within functional resting-state networks...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688873/assessing-the-marks-of-change-how-psychotherapy-alters-the-brain-structure-in-women-with-borderline-personality-disorder
#5
Falk Mancke, Ruth Schmitt, Dorina Winter, Inga Niedtfeld, Sabine C Herpertz, Christian Schmahl
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that psychotherapy can alter the function of the brain of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is not known whether psychotherapy can also modify the brain structure of patients with BPD. METHODS: We used structural MRI data of female patients with BPD before and after participation in 12 weeks of residential dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) and compared them to data from female patients with BPD who received treatment as usual (TAU)...
May 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688865/brain-vascular-heterogeneity-implications-for-disease-pathogenesis-and-design-of-in-vitro-blood-brain-barrier-models
#6
REVIEW
Midrelle E Noumbissi, Bianca Galasso, Monique F Stins
The vertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) is composed of cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CEC). The BBB acts as a semi-permeable cellular interface that tightly regulates bidirectional molecular transport between blood and the brain parenchyma in order to maintain cerebral homeostasis. The CEC phenotype is regulated by a variety of factors, including cells in its immediate environment and within functional neurovascular units. The cellular composition of the brain parenchyma surrounding the CEC varies between different brain regions; this difference is clearly visible in grey versus white matter...
April 23, 2018: Fluids and Barriers of the CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688388/brain-properties-predict-proximity-to-symptom-onset-in-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jacob W Vogel, Etienne Vachon-Presseau, Alexa Pichet Binette, Angela Tam, Pierre Orban, Renaud La Joie, Mélissa Savard, Cynthia Picard, Judes Poirier, Pierre Bellec, John C S Breitner, Sylvia Villeneuve
Alzheimer's disease is preceded by a lengthy 'preclinical' stage spanning many years, during which subtle brain changes occur in the absence of overt cognitive symptoms. Predicting when the onset of disease symptoms will occur is an unsolved challenge in individuals with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. In individuals with autosomal dominant genetic Alzheimer's disease, the age of symptom onset is similar across generations, allowing the prediction of individual onset times with some accuracy. We extend this concept to persons with a parental history of sporadic Alzheimer's disease to test whether an individual's symptom onset age can be informed by the onset age of their affected parent, and whether this estimated onset age can be predicted using only MRI...
April 23, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686319/allostatic-load-as-a-predictor-of-grey-matter-volume-and-white-matter-integrity-in-old-age-the-whitehall-ii-mri-study
#8
Enikő Zsoldos, Nicola Filippini, Abda Mahmood, Clare E Mackay, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Mark Jenkinson, Klaus P Ebmeier
The allostatic load index quantifies the cumulative multisystem physiological response to chronic everyday stress, and includes cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory measures. Despite its central role in the stress response, research of the effect of allostatic load on the ageing brain has been limited. We investigated the relation of mid-life allostatic load index and multifactorial predictors of stroke (Framingham stroke risk) and diabetes (metabolic syndrome) with voxelwise structural grey and white matter brain integrity measures in the ageing Whitehall II cohort (N = 349, mean age = 69...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684644/a-gyral-coordinate-system-predictive-of-fibre-orientations
#9
Michiel Cottaar, Matteo Bastiani, Charles Chen, Krikor Dikranian, David Van Essen, Timothy E Behrens, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Saad Jbabdi
When axonal fibres approach or leave the cortex, their trajectories tend to closely follow the cortical convolutions. To quantify this tendency, we propose a three-dimensional coordinate system based on the gyral geometry. For every voxel in the brain, we define a "radial" axis orthogonal to nearby surfaces, a "sulcal" axis along the sulcal depth gradient that preferentially points from deep white matter to the gyral crown, and a "gyral" axis aligned with the long axis of the gyrus...
April 20, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684483/three-dimensional-protein-shape-similarity-analysis-based-on-hybrid-features
#10
Zhong Li, Jiangjiang Yu, Hailong Hu, Shuiwang Ji
The analysis of protein similarity is a matter of concern in the bioinformatics field, since studying the protein similarity can help understand the protein structure-function relationship. To this aim, several methods have been proposed, but currently, protein similarity results are still not satisfactory. Here we presented a novel method for evaluating the similarity of 3D protein models based on hybrid features, including the local diameter (LD), the salient geometric feature (SGF) and the heat kernel signature (HKS)...
April 20, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682732/a-morphometric-signature-of-depressive-symptoms-in-unmedicated-patients-with-mood-disorders
#11
T Wise, L Marwood, A M Perkins, A Herane-Vives, S C R Williams, A H Young, A J Cleare, D Arnone
OBJECTIVE: A growing literature indicates that unipolar depression and bipolar depression are associated with alterations in grey matter volume. However, it is unclear to what degree these patterns of morphometric change reflect symptom dimensions. Here, we aimed to predict depressive symptoms and hypomanic symptoms based on patterns of grey matter volume using machine learning. METHOD: We used machine learning methods combined with voxel-based morphometry to predict depressive and self-reported hypomanic symptoms from grey matter volume in a sample of 47 individuals with unmedicated unipolar and bipolar depression...
April 22, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679698/neurophysiological-and-neuroradiological-multimodal-approach-for-early-poor-outcome-prediction-after-cardiac-arrest
#12
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Lolli, Riccardo Carrai, Marco Moretti, Maddalena Spalletti, Morena Cozzolino, Adriano Peris, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
INTRODUCTION: Prognosticating outcome after cardiac arrest(CA) requires a multimodal approach. However, evidence regarding combinations of methods is limited. We evaluated whether the combination of electroencephalography(EEG), somatosensory evoked potentials(SEPs) and brain computed tomography(CT) could predict poor outcome. METHODS: We screened our database regarding patients successfully resuscitated after CA, for whom EEG, SEPs and brain CT were available within 24 hours...
April 18, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679378/prominent-microglial-activation-in-cortical-white-matter-is-selectively-associated-with-cortical-atrophy-in-primary-progressive-aphasia
#13
Daniel T Ohm, Garam Kim, Tamar Gefen, Alfred Rademaker, Sandra Weintraub, Eileen Bigio, M-Marsel Mesulam, Emily Rogalski, Changiz Geula
AIMS: Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by selective language impairments associated with focal cortical atrophy favouring the language dominant hemisphere. PPA is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and significant accumulation of activated microglia. Activated microglia can initiate an inflammatory cascade that may contribute to neurodegeneration, but their quantitative distribution in cortical white matter and their relationship with cortical atrophy are unknown...
April 21, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667705/intellectual-disability-in-cerebral-palsy-a-population-based-retrospective-study
#14
Susan M Reid, Elaine M Meehan, Sarah J Arnup, Dinah S Reddihough
AIM: A population-based observational study design was used to describe the epidemiology of intellectual disability in cerebral palsy (CP) in terms of clinical and neuroimaging associations, and to report the impact of intellectual disability on utilization of health services and length of survival. METHOD: Population CP registry data were used to retrospectively assess the frequency of intellectual disability and strength of associations between intellectual disability and mobility, epilepsy, vision, hearing, communication, and neuroimaging patterns (n=1141)...
April 18, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664964/monitoring-for-myelopathic-progression-with-multiparametric-quantitative-mri
#15
Allan R Martin, Benjamin De Leener, Julien Cohen-Adad, Sukhvinder Kalsi-Ryan, David W Cadotte, Jefferson R Wilson, Lindsay Tetreault, Aria Nouri, Adrian Crawley, David J Mikulis, Howard Ginsberg, Eric M Massicotte, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Patients with mild degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) are often managed non-operatively, and surgery is recommended if neurological progression occurs. However, detection of progression is often subjective. Quantitative MRI (qMRI) directly measures spinal cord (SC) tissue changes, detecting axonal injury, demyelination, and atrophy. This longitudinal study compared multiparametric qMRI with clinical measures of progression in non-operative DCM patients. METHODS: 26 DCM patients were followed...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660514/early-life-predictors-of-brain-development-at-term-equivalent-age-in-infants-born-across-the-gestational-age-spectrum
#16
REVIEW
Deanne K Thompson, Claire E Kelly, Jian Chen, Richard Beare, Bonnie Alexander, Marc L Seal, Katherine Lee, Lillian G Matthews, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong
BACKGROUND: It is well established that preterm infants have altered brain development compared with full-term (FT; ≥37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) infants, however the perinatal factors associated with brain development in preterm infants have not been fully elucidated. In particular, perinatal predictors of brain development may differ between very preterm infants (VP; <32 weeks' GA) and infants born moderate (MP; 32-33 weeks' GA) and late (LP; 34-36 weeks' GA) preterm, but this has not been studied...
April 13, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648581/multiple-sclerosis-lesions-affect-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-the-spinal-cord
#17
Benjamin N Conrad, Robert L Barry, Baxter P Rogers, Satoshi Maki, Arabinda Mishra, Saakshi Thukral, Subramaniam Sriram, Aashim Bhatia, Siddharama Pawate, John C Gore, Seth A Smith
Patients with multiple sclerosis present with focal lesions throughout the spinal cord. There is a clinical need for non-invasive measurements of spinal cord activity and functional organization in multiple sclerosis, given the cord's critical role in the disease. Recent reports of spontaneous blood oxygenation level-dependent fluctuations in the spinal cord using functional MRI suggest that, like the brain, cord activity at rest is organized into distinct, synchronized functional networks among grey matter regions, likely related to motor and sensory systems...
April 10, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629942/paediatric-multiple-sclerosis-and-other-acute-demyelinating-diseases
#18
Kevin Rostásy, Barbara Bajer-Kornek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimmunological diseases encompass a wide spectrum of diseases in children. Apart from the discovery of autoantibodies affecting primarily grey matter structures and the improved clinical characterization of rare entities such as N-methyl D-aspartate receptor-R- encephalitis, important strides have also been made in autoimmune-mediated white matter diseases, including paediatric multiple sclerosis (pedMS) and other acute demyelinating syndromes (ADS) often associated with antibodies (abs) against myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein (MOG)...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628272/altered-grey-matter-volume-and-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-schizo-obsessive-comorbidity
#19
Yong-Ming Wang, Lai-Quan Zou, Wen-Lan Xie, Zhuo-Ya Yang, Xiong-Zhao Zhu, Eric F C Cheung, Thomas Alrik Sørensen, Arne Møller, Raymond C K Chan
Recent findings suggest that schizo-obsessive comorbidity (SOC) may be a unique diagnostic entity. We examined grey matter (GM) volume and cortical thickness in 22 patients with SOC, and compared them with 21 schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, 22 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and 22 healthy controls (HCs). We found that patients with SOC exhibited reduced GM volume in the left thalamus, the left inferior semi-lunar lobule of the cerebellum, the bilateral medial orbitofrontal cortex (medial oFC), the medial superior frontal gyrus (medial sFG), the rectus gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) compared with HCs...
March 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626338/imaging-and-genetic-biomarkers-predicting-transition-to-psychosis
#20
Stuart A Hunter, Stephen M Lawrie
The search for diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in schizophrenia care and treatment is the focus of many within the research community. Longitudinal cohorts of patients presenting at elevated genetic and clinical risk have provided a wealth of data that has informed our understanding of the development of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.Imaging follow-up of high-risk cohorts has demonstrated changes in cerebral grey matter of those that eventually transition to schizophrenia that predate the onset of symptoms and evolve over the course of illness...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
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