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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829053/context-the-grey-matter-of-cancer
#1
EDITORIAL
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August 22, 2017: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828757/longitudinal-alterations-of-local-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Qiaoling Zeng, Xiaojun Guan, Jason C F Law Yan Lun, Zhujing Shen, Tao Guo, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Xiaojun Xu, Min Chen, Minming Zhang
We used resting-state fMRI to evaluate longitudinal alterations in local spontaneous brain activity in Parkinson's disease (PD) over a 2-year period. Data were acquired from 23 PD patients at baseline and follow-up, and 27 age- and sex-matched normal controls. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) were used to identify differences in local spontaneous brain activity and grey matter volume. With disease progression, we observed a progressive decrease in ReHo in the sensorimotor cortex, default-mode network, and left cerebellum, but increased ReHo in the supplementary motor area, bilateral temporal gyrus, and hippocampus...
August 21, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828029/oral-administration-of-red-ginseng-extract-promotes-neurorestoration-after-compressive-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#3
Pengxiang Zhu, Keiichi Samukawa, Hiroko Fujita, Hidemasa Kato, Masahiro Sakanaka
Red ginseng and its active ingredients have been shown to decrease neuron death after brain ischemia in experimental animals. However, little is known about the effects of orally administered ginseng extract on spinal cord injury. We orally gave red ginseng extract (RGE) to rats with compressed spinal cord injury (SCI). Open-field locomotor scores were measured as indices of motor function. Histopathological changes and cytokine expressions in situ after SCI were evaluated. Compared to vehicle treatment, RGE treatment (350 mg/kg/day) significantly improved locomotor score up to levels close to those pre-SCI, prevented neuron loss, and facilitated the restoration of white matter in the spinal cord at 14 days after SCI...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827179/oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-are-paired-with-gaba-neurons-in-the-mouse-dorsal-cortex-unbiased-stereological-analysis
#4
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during early stages of post-natal life. However, OPCs persist beyond developmental myelination and represent an important population of cycling cells in the grey and white matter of the adult brain. While adult OPCs form unique territories that are maintained through self-avoidance, some cortical OPCs appear to position their cell body very close to that of a neuron, forming what are known as OPC-neuron pairs...
August 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817577/detailing-neuroanatomical-development-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence-using-noddi
#5
Alyssa Mah, Bryce Geeraert, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have provided much evidence of white and subcortical gray matter changes during late childhood and early adolescence that suggest increasing myelination, axon density, and/or fiber coherence. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) can be used to further characterize development in white and subcortical grey matter regions in the brain by improving specificity of the MRI signal compared to conventional DTI. We used measures from NODDI and DTI to examine white and subcortical gray matter development in a group of 27 healthy participants aged 8-13 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815879/calibrated-imaging-reveals-altered-grey-matter-metabolism-related-to-white-matter-microstructure-and-symptom-severity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Nicholas A Hubbard, Monroe P Turner, Minhui Ouyang, Lyndahl Himes, Binu P Thomas, Joanna L Hutchison, Shawheen Faghihahmadabadi, Scott L Davis, Jeremy F Strain, Jeffrey Spence, Daniel C Krawczyk, Hao Huang, Hanzhang Lu, John Hart, Teresa C Frohman, Elliot M Frohman, Darin T Okuda, Bart Rypma
Multiple sclerosis (MS) involves damage to white matter microstructures. This damage has been related to grey matter function as measured by standard, physiologically-nonspecific neuroimaging indices (i.e., blood-oxygen-level dependent signal [BOLD]). Here, we used calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to examine the extent to which specific, evoked grey matter physiological processes were associated with white matter diffusion in MS. Evoked changes in BOLD, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen metabolism (CMRO2 ) were measured in visual cortex...
August 16, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811257/auditory-conflict-and-congruence-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#7
Camilla N Clark, Jennifer M Nicholas, Jennifer L Agustus, Christopher J D Hardy, Lucy L Russell, Emilie V Brotherhood, Katrina M Dick, Charles R Marshall, Catherine J Mummery, Jonathan D Rohrer, Jason D Warren
Impaired analysis of signal conflict and congruence may contribute to diverse socio-emotional symptoms in frontotemporal dementias, however the underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here we addressed this issue in patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n=19) and semantic dementia (SD; n=10) relative to healthy older individuals (n=20). We created auditory scenes in which semantic and emotional congruity of constituent sounds were independently probed; associated tasks controlled for auditory perceptual similarity, scene parsing and semantic competence...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805273/neurotoxicosis-in-horses-associated-with-consumption-of-trema-micrantha
#8
M P Lorenzett, P R Pereira, D M Bassuino, G Konradt, W Panziera, M V Bianchi, F F Argenta, M E Hammerschmitt, R A Caprioli, C S L de Barros, S P Pavarini, D Driemeier
BACKGROUND: Trema micrantha is a tree widely distributed throughout the Americas. The tree produces highly palatable leaves that have been associated with natural poisoning in goats, sheep and horses, in which hepatic necrosis and hepatic encephalopathy have been observed. OBJECTIVES: This study describes malacia and haemorrhage in the central nervous system due to T. micrantha consumption, with minimal to absent hepatic lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series...
August 14, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802090/assessment-of-the-dynamics-of-human-glymphatic-system-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs
#9
Teemu Myllylä, Markus Harju, Vesa Korhonen, Alexander Bykov, Vesa Kiviniemi, Igor Meglinski
Fluctuations in brain water content has attracted increasing interest, particularly as regards studies of the glymphatic system, which is connected with the complex organisation of dural lymphatic vessels, responsible for cleaning tissue. Disturbances of glymphatic circulation are associated with several brain disorders, including dementia. This paper introduces an approach to non-invasive measurement of water dynamics in the human brain utilizing near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We demonstrate the possibility to sense dynamic variations of water content between the skull and grey matter, for instance, in the subarachnoid space...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799860/mutations-in-leptin-lep-gene-are-associated-with-carcass-and-meat-quality-traits-in-crossbreed-rabbits
#10
Lukasz Migdal, Konrad Koziol, Sylwia Palka, Wladyslaw Migdal, Tomasz Zabek, Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur, Anna Migdal, Michal Kmiecik, Dorota Maj, Jozef Bieniek
Leptin is a hormone synthesized and secreted primarily in adipose cells that help to regulate energy balance. This study examined the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the rabbit leptin gene with growth traits, slaughter traits and physicochemical parameters of New Zealand White (NZW) and Belgian Giant Grey (BGG) crossbreed rabbits. In total, 320 crossbreed animals were genotyped for polymorphisms within exon 2-g.16081633T>C, intron 1_2-g.16081420C>T, and within UTR-g.16079636C>G for association analysis...
August 11, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797738/tissue-magnetic-susceptibility-mapping-as-a-marker-of-tau-pathology-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
J O'Callaghan, H Holmes, N Powell, J A Wells, O Ismail, I F Harrison, B Siow, R Johnson, Z Ahmed, A Fisher, S Meftah, M J O'Neill, T K Murray, E C Collins, K Shmueli, M F Lythgoe
Alzheimer's disease is connected to a number of other neurodegenerative conditions, known collectively as 'tauopathies', by the presence of aggregated tau protein in the brain. Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress in AD are associated with tau pathology and both the breakdown of axonal sheaths in white matter tracts and excess iron accumulation grey matter brain regions. Despite the identification of myelin and iron concentration as major sources of contrast in quantitative susceptibility maps of the brain, the sensitivity of this technique to tau pathology has yet to be explored...
August 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797663/improvement-of-olfactory-function-after-sinus-surgery-correlates-with-white-matter-properties-measured-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#12
Daniel Güllmar, Tabea Seeliger, Hilmar Gudziol, Ulf K M Teichgräber, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Thomas Bitter
Impaired olfaction is associated with a volume decrease in the olfactory bulb as well as in the gray matter of cortical olfactory areas. On the other hand, restitution of an impaired olfaction results in a regain of volume in these regions. Studies investigating similar changes in the cerebral white matter are virtually not existent. The aim of this prospective study therefore was to investigate cerebral white matter using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 31 patients (54±13years) with olfactory impairment (chronic rhinosinusitis) and planned functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) were included...
August 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791401/implications-of-white-matter-damage-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-review
#13
Ting Zhou, Tina Khorshid Ahmad, Kiana Gozda, Jessica Truong, Jiming Kong, Michael Namaka
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, which involves the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. ALS has long been considered a disease of the grey matter; however, pathological alterations of the white matter (WM), including axonal loss, axonal demyelination and oligodendrocyte death, have been reported in patients with ALS. The present review examined motor neuron death as the primary cause of ALS and evaluated the associated WM damage that is guided by neuronal‑glial interactions...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774682/methods-for-molecular-imaging-of-brain-tumours-in-a-hybrid-mr-pet-context-water-content-t2%C3%A2-diffusion-indices-and-fet-pet
#14
A M Oros-Peusquens, R Loução, M Zimmermann, K-J Langen, N J Shah
The aim of this study is to present and evaluate a multiparametric and multi-modality imaging protocol applied to brain tumours and investigate correlations between these different imaging measures (R1.1). In particular, we describe a method for rapid, non-invasive, quantitative imaging of water content of brain tissue, based on a single multiple-echo gradient-echo (mGRE) acquisition. We include in the processing a method for noise reduction of the multi-contrast data based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA)...
July 31, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772208/structural-brain-correlates-of-interpersonal-violence-systematic-review-and-voxel-based-meta-analysis-of-neuroimaging-studies
#15
REVIEW
Jelle Lamsma, Clare Mackay, Seena Fazel
Owing to inconsistent nomenclature and results, we have undertaken a label-based review and anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of studies measuring the quantitative association between regional grey matter (GM) volume and interpersonal violence. Following PRISMA guidelines, we identified studies by searching 3 online databases (Embase, Medline, PsycInfo) and reference lists. Thirty-five studies were included in the label-based review, providing information for 1288 participants and 86 brain regions...
July 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771482/uncoupling-protein-2-haplotype-does-not-affect-human-brain-structure-and-function-in-a-sample-of-community-dwelling-older-adults
#16
Verena Heise, Enikő Zsoldos, Sana Suri, Claire Sexton, Anya Topiwala, Nicola Filippini, Abda Mahmood, Charlotte L Allan, Archana Singh-Manoux, Mika Kivimäki, Clare E Mackay, Klaus P Ebmeier
Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a mitochondrial membrane protein that plays a role in uncoupling electron transport from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) formation. Polymorphisms of the UCP2 gene in humans affect protein expression and function and have been linked to survival into old age. Since UCP2 is expressed in several brain regions, we investigated in this study whether UCP2 polymorphisms might 1) affect occurrence of neurodegenerative or mental health disorders and 2) affect measures of brain structure and function...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765320/corticostriatal-signatures-of-schadenfreude-evidence-from-huntington-s-disease
#17
Sandra Baez, Mariana Pino, Mildred Berrío, Hernando Santamaría-García, Lucas Sedeño, Adolfo M García, Sol Fittipaldi, Agustín Ibáñez
Schadenfreude-pleasure at others' misfortunes-is a multidetermined social emotion which involves reward processing, mentalising and perspective-taking abilities. Patients with Huntington's disease (HD) exhibit reductions of this experience, suggesting a role of striatal degeneration in such impairment. However, no study has directly assessed the relationship between regional brain atrophy in HD and reduced schadenfreude. Here, we assessed whether grey matter (GM) atrophy in patients with HD correlates with ratings of schadenfreude...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765056/predicting-brain-age-with-deep-learning-from-raw-imaging-data-results-in-a-reliable-and-heritable-biomarker
#18
James H Cole, Rudra P K Poudel, Dimosthenis Tsagkrasoulis, Matthan W A Caan, Claire Steves, Tim D Spector, Giovanni Montana
Machine learning analysis of neuroimaging data can accurately predict chronological age in healthy people. Deviations from healthy brain ageing have been associated with cognitive impairment and disease. Here we sought to further establish the credentials of 'brain-predicted age' as a biomarker of individual differences in the brain ageing process, using a predictive modelling approach based on deep learning, and specifically convolutional neural networks (CNN), and applied to both pre-processed and raw T1-weighted MRI data...
July 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764938/neuroimaging-techniques-to-assess-inflammation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#19
REVIEW
Silvia Tommasin, Costanza Giannì, Laura De Giglio, Patrizia Pantano
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease that represents a leading cause of disability in young adults and is characterized by inflammation and degeneration of both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM). Defining the presence or absence of inflammation on individual basis is a key point in choosing the therapy and monitoring the treatment response. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represents the most sensitive non-invasive tool to monitor inflammation in the clinical practice. Indeed, in the early phase of inflammation MRI detects new lesions as extrusion of gadolinium contrast agents across the altered blood-brain-barrier (BBB)...
July 29, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763718/lifetime-ptsd-and-geriatric-depression-symptomatology-relate-to-altered-dorsomedial-frontal-and-amygdala-morphometry
#20
Lindsay K Knight, Farah Naaz, Teodora Stoica, Brendan E Depue
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects a large portion of combat deployed Veterans. Moreover, many individuals also suffer from comorbid late life depression (geriatric depression; GD). While a great deal of research has begun to characterize the morphometric features of PTSD and depression individually, few studies have investigated the interacting effect of these two disorders, specifically in a Veteran population. The current study used cortical and subcortical surface-based morphometry (SBM) in combination with psychological assessments of PTSD and GD symptom severity to examine morphometric alterations in Vietnam War Veterans...
July 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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