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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920431/cerebral-blood-flow-blood-supply-and-cognition-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Jacobus F A Jansen, Frank C G van Bussel, Harm J van de Haar, Matthias J P van Osch, Paul A M Hofman, Martin P J van Boxtel, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Miranda T Schram, Coen D A Stehouwer, Joachim E Wildberger, Walter H Backes
We investigated whether type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and the presence of cognitive impairment are associated with altered cerebral blood flow (CBF). Forty-one participants with and thirty-nine without T2DM underwent 3-Tesla MRI, including a quantitative technique measuring (macrovascular) blood flow in the internal carotid artery and an arterial spin labeling technique measuring (microvascular) perfusion in the grey matter (GM). Three analysis methods were used to quantify the CBF: a region of interest analysis, a voxel-based statistical parametric mapping technique, and a 'distributed deviating voxels' method...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920149/mir-142-3p-is-a-key-regulator-of-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-synaptopathy-in-neuroinflammation
#2
Georgia Mandolesi, Francesca De Vito, Alessandra Musella, Antonietta Gentile, Silvia Bullitta, Diego Fresegna, Helena Sepman, Claudio Di Sanza, Nabila Haji, Francesco Mori, Fabio Buttari, Emerald Perlas, Maria Teresa Ciotti, Eran Hornstein, Irene Bozzoni, Carlo Presutti, Diego Centonze
: MicroRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in posttranscriptional gene regulation of several physiological and pathological processes. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and degenerative disease of the CNS, and in its mouse model, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), miRNA dysregulation has been mainly related to immune system dysfunction and white matter pathology. However, little is known about their role in grey matter pathology. Here, we explored miRNA involvement in the inflammation-driven alterations of synaptic structure and function, collectively known as synaptopathy, a neuropathological process contributing to excitotoxic neurodegeneration in MS/EAE...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#3
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918913/reduced-cortical-thickness-in-body-dysmorphic-disorder
#4
Sally A Grace, Ben G Buchanan, Jerome J Maller, Wei Lin Toh, David J Castle, Susan L Rossell
Recent neuroimaging studies in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have implicated abnormal structure and function of occipito-temporal and fronto-limbic regions in the potential pathophysiology of the disorder. To date, morphometric investigations have yielded inconsistent results, and have suggested that clinical symptoms may mediate structural brain abnormalities in BDD. We measured Grey Matter (GM) cortical thickness in 20 participants with BDD and 20 healthy control participants matched on age, gender, estimated IQ and handedness...
November 22, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917536/the-potential-of-neuroimaging-for-identifying-predictors-of-adolescent-alcohol-use-initiation-and-misuse
#5
Laura O'Halloran, Charlotte Nymberg, Lee Jollans, Hugh Garavan, Robert Whelan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dysfunction in brain regions underlying impulse control, reward processing and executive function have been associated previously with adolescent alcohol misuse. However, identifying pre-existing neurobiological risk factors, as distinct from changes arising from early alcohol-use, is difficult. Here, we outline how neuroimaging data can identify the neural predictors of adolescent alcohol-use initiation and misuse by using prospective longitudinal studies to follow initially alcohol-naive individuals over time and by neuroimaging adolescents with inherited risk factors for alcohol misuse...
December 5, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916657/pharmacokinetic-analysis-and-drug-delivery-efficiency-of-the-focused-ultrasound-induced-blood-brain-barrier-opening-in-non-human-primates
#6
Gesthimani Samiotaki, Maria Eleni Karakatsani, Amanda Buch, Stephanos Papadopoulos, Shih Ying Wu, Sachin Jambawalikar, Elisa E Konofagou
PURPOSE: Focused Ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with systemically administered microbubbles has been shown to open the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) locally, non-invasively and reversibly in rodents and non-human primates (NHP), suggesting the immense potential of this technique. The objective of this study entailed the investigation of the physiologic changes in the brain following the FUS-induced BBB opening and their relationship with the underlying anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetic analysis was implemented in NHP's that received FUS at various acoustic pressures...
December 1, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915378/mother-infant-interactions-and-regional-brain-volumes-in-infancy-an-mri-study
#7
Vaheshta Sethna, Inês Pote, Siying Wang, Maria Gudbrandsen, Anna Blasi, Caroline McCusker, Eileen Daly, Emily Perry, Kerrie P H Adams, Maria Kuklisova-Murgasova, Paula Busuulwa, Sarah Lloyd-Fox, Lynne Murray, Mark H Johnson, Steven C R Williams, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig, Grainne M McAlonan
It is generally agreed that the human brain is responsive to environmental influences, and that the male brain may be particularly sensitive to early adversity. However, this is largely based on retrospective studies of older children and adolescents exposed to extreme environments in childhood. Less is understood about how normative variations in parent-child interactions are associated with the development of the infant brain in typical settings. To address this, we used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relationship between observational measures of mother-infant interactions and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3- to 6-month-old infants (N = 39)...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915118/a-streamlined-acquisition-for-mapping-baseline-brain-oxygenation-using-quantitative-bold
#8
Alan J Stone, Nicholas P Blockley
Quantitative BOLD (qBOLD) is a non-invasive MR technique capable of producing quantitative measurements of the haemodynamic and metabolic properties of the brain. Here we propose a refinement of the qBOLD methodology, dubbed streamlined-qBOLD, in order to provide a clinically feasible method for mapping baseline brain oxygenation. In streamlined-qBOLD confounding signal contributions are minimised during data acquisition through the application of (i) a Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) preparation to remove cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) signal contamination, (ii) a Gradient Echo Slice Excitation Profile Imaging (GESEPI) acquisition to reduce the effect of macroscopic magnetic field gradients and (iii) an Asymmetric Spin Echo (ASE) pulse sequence to directly measure the reversible transverse relaxation rate, R2'...
November 30, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911321/the-effects-of-meditation-on-grey-matter-atrophy-and-neurodegeneration-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#9
Nicole Last, Emily Tufts, Leslie E Auger
The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908444/clinical-application-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-mapping-in-voxel-based-morphometry-in-the-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
H Takahashi, K Ishii, N Kashiwagi, Y Watanabe, H Tanaka, T Murakami, N Tomiyama
AIM: To evaluate the performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) mapping compared with voxel-based morphometry and to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of ADC mapping in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population comprised 31 patients with AD (group A) and 24 patients without dementia (group B) who underwent three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted imaging (WI) and two-dimensional (2D) echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907080/development-of-an-automated-mri-based-diagnostic-protocol-for-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-disease-specific-pathognomonic-features-a-quantitative-disease-state-classification-study
#11
Christina Schuster, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
BACKGROUND: Despite significant advances in quantitative neuroimaging, the diagnosis of ALS remains clinical and MRI-based biomarkers are not currently used to aid the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to develop a robust, disease-specific, multimodal classification protocol and validate its diagnostic accuracy in independent, early-stage and follow-up data sets. METHODS: 147 participants (81 ALS patients and 66 healthy controls) were divided into a training sample and a validation sample...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903933/translocator-positron-emission-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopic-imaging-of-brain-glial-cell-activation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Gourab Datta, Ines R Violante, Gregory Scott, Karl Zimmerman, Andre Santos-Ribeiro, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Omar Malik, Olga Ciccarelli, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterised by a diffuse inflammatory response mediated by microglia and astrocytes. Brain translocator protein (TSPO) positron-emission tomography (PET) and [myo-inositol] magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were used together to assess this. OBJECTIVE: To explore the in vivo relationships between MRS and PET [(11)C]PBR28 in MS over a range of brain inflammatory burden. METHODS: A total of 23 patients were studied...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896065/analysis-of-ageing-associated-grey-matter-volume-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-shows-excess-atrophy-in-subcortical-regions
#13
Courtney A Bishop, Rexford D Newbould, Jean Sz Lee, Lesley Honeyfield, Rebecca Quest, Alessandro Colasanti, Rehiana Ali, Miriam Mattoscio, Antonio Cortese, Richard Nicholas, Paul M Matthews, Paolo A Muraro, Adam D Waldman
Age of onset in multiple sclerosis (MS) exerts an influence on the course of disease. This study examined whether global and regional brain volumes differed between "younger" and "older" onset MS subjects who were matched for short disease duration, mean 1.9 years and burden as measured by the MS Severity Score and relapses. 21 younger-onset MS subjects (age 30.4 ± 3.2 years) were compared with 17 older-onset (age 48.7 ± 3.3 years) as well as age-matched controls (n = 31, 31.9 ± 3.5 years and n = 21, 47...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893386/optimizing-mr-scan-design-for-model-based-t1-t2-estimation-from-steady-state-sequences
#14
Gopal Nataraj, Jon-Fredrick Nielsen, Jeffrey Fessler
Rapid, reliable quantification of MR relaxation parameters T1 and T2 is desirable for many clinical applications. Steady-state sequences such as Spoiled Gradient-Recalled Echo (SPGR) and Dual-Echo Steady-State (DESS) are fast and wellsuited for relaxometry because the signals they produce are quite sensitive to T1 and T2 variation. However, T1, T2 estimation with these sequences typically requires multiple scans with varied sets of acquisition parameters. This paper describes a systematic framework for selecting scan types (e...
October 4, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892543/functional-and-structural-signatures-of-the-anterior-insula-are-associated-with-risk-taking-tendency-of-analgesic-decision-making
#15
Chia-Shu Lin, Hsiao-Han Lin, Shih-Yun Wu
In a medical context, decision-making is associated with complicated assessment of gains, losses and uncertainty of outcomes. We here provide novel evidence about the brain mechanisms underlying decision-making of analgesic treatment. Thirty-six healthy participants were recruited and completed the Analgesic Decision-making Task (ADT), which quantified individual tendency of risk-taking (RPI), as the frequency of choosing a riskier option to relieve pain. All the participants received resting-state (rs) functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural MRI...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890829/antenatal-exposure-to-antidepressants-is-associated-with-altered-brain-development-in-very-preterm-born-neonates
#16
Samantha K Podrebarac, Emma G Duerden, Vann Chau, Ruth E Grunau, Anne Synnes, Tim F Oberlander, Steven P Miller
BACKGROUND: Antenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) is associated with an enhanced risk of preterm birth. Very preterm-born neonates (<32-week gestation) antenatally-exposed to SSRIs may show altered brain development. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether antenatal-SSRI exposure was associated with adverse neonatal brain microstructural and metabolic development using diffusion tensor and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. DESIGN/METHODS: Of 177 neonates enrolled, 14 (8%) were antenatally exposed to SSRIs...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888657/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-structural-and-functional-changes-in-major-depressive-disorders-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Haitang Qiu, Xirong Li, Wenjing Zhao, Lian Du, Peiyu Huang, Yixiao Fu, Tian Qiu, Peng Xie, Huaqing Meng, Qinghua Luo
BACKGROUND This study aimed to study the brain structural and functional changes after 8 courses of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). MATERIAL AND METHODS MRI scans were performed on 12 depressive patients before and after 8 courses of ECT and compared with those of 15 normal controls. Data were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using SPM8 software. Functional MRI (fMRI) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) analyses were used to assess the functional changes after ECT...
November 26, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884107/association-between-changes-in-cerebral-grey-matter-volume-and-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-patients-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-cohort-study
#18
Nicolai Goettel, Panagiota Mistridis, Manfred Berres, Julia Reinhardt, Christoph Stippich, Andreas U Monsch, Luzius A Steiner
BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline is frequently observed in elderly patients after major surgery. The pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) remains unclear. The aim of our investigation is to identify potential associations between brain volume change and POCD in elderly patients undergoing major surgery. METHODS: This is a prospective observational cohort study approved by the regional ethics board. We intend to compare specific brain volumes (hippocampus, lateral ventricle, total grey matter volume, regional cortical thickness) on magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive functions determined by a neuropsychological assessment battery in 70 study participants aged ≥65 years before and 3 and 12 months after major noncardiac surgery...
November 25, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876002/sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-with-unusual-initial-presentation-as-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-case-report
#19
Edgaras Dirzius, Renata Balnyte, Vesta Steibliene, Rymante Gleizniene, Inga Gudinaviciene, Andrius Radziunas, Kestutis Petrikonis
BACKGROUND: Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive and fatal neurodegenerative prion disease. MRI findings are included in diagnostic criteria for probable CJD, giving a sensitivity and specificity more than 90%, but the atypical radiological presentations in the early stage of the disease could cause the diagnostic difficulties. CJD can be definitively diagnosed by histopathological confirmation, brain biopsy or at autopsy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of 53-year-old woman with a history of a rapidly progressive dementia with symptoms of visual impairment, increased extrapyramidal type muscle tonus, stereotypical movements and ataxic gait resulting in the patient's death after13 months...
November 22, 2016: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871434/neural-correlates-of-anxiety-symptoms-in-mild-parkinson-s-disease-a-prospective-longitudinal-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#20
Natalie Wee, Ming-Ching Wen, Nagaendran Kandiah, Russell J Chander, Aloysius Ng, Wing Lok Au, Louis C S Tan
BACKGROUND: Anxiety is prevalent in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and may affect patients' quality of life. Yet, little is known about the neural basis of anxiety in PD, and none have used a longitudinal design. METHODS: 73 patients with mild PD were recruited and followed up for 18months. A whole-brain analysis was first used to identify brain regions associated with anxiety symptoms, followed by a regional analysis focusing on a priori hypothesised regions at baseline...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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