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Pressure Wave

Om Prakash Suthar, Shyam Mathur, Vikas Gupta, Harish Agarwal, Arvind Mathur, Pradeep Singh, Sohan Lal Sharma
Introduction: Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent condition in western countries as well as in India. Lower level of vitamin D is associated with increased arterial stiffness by activating renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality including increased risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to study the correlation between serum vitamin D level, various measures of arterial stiffness and cardiovascular morbidity in elderly individuals...
March 2018: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Tamara Merz, Britta Lukaschewski, Daniela Wigger, Aileen Rupprecht, Martin Wepler, Michael Gröger, Clair Hartmann, Matthew Whiteman, Csaba Szabo, Rui Wang, Christiane Waller, Peter Radermacher, Oscar McCook
BACKGROUND: Both the hydrogen sulfide/cystathionine-γ-lyase (H2 S/CSE) and oxytocin/oxytocin receptor (OT/OTR) systems have been reported to be cardioprotective. H2 S can stimulate OT release, thereby affecting blood volume and pressure regulation. Systemic hyper-inflammation after blunt chest trauma is enhanced in cigarette smoke (CS)-exposed CSE-/- mice compared to wildtype (WT). CS increases myometrial OTR expression, but to this point, no data are available on the effects CS exposure on the cardiac OT/OTR system...
October 19, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Asami Sano-Furukawa, Takanori Hattori, Kazuki Komatsu, Hiroyuki Kagi, Takaya Nagai, Jamie J Molaison, António M Dos Santos, Christopher A Tulk
At ambient pressure, the hydrogen bond in materials such as ice, hydrates, and hydrous minerals that compose the Earth and icy planets generally takes an asymmetric O-H···O configuration. Pressure significantly affects this configuration, and it is predicted to become symmetric, such that the hydrogen is centered between the two oxygen atoms at high pressure. Changes of physical properties of minerals relevant to this symmetrization have been found; however, the atomic configuration around this symmetrization has remained elusive so far...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fletcher A Miller
In the 1970s, as cardiac imaging matured from M-mode to two-dimensional echocardiography, investigators in Norway showed that continuous-wave Doppler ultrasonography could be used to accurately measure the mean gradient and pressure half-time for stenotic mitral valves. In the 1980s, continuous-wave Doppler was validated for measurement of the pressure gradient across stenotic aortic valves, and pulsed-wave Doppler combined with two-dimensional echocardiographic imaging was validated for noninvasive measurement of stroke volume and cardiac output...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Mustafa Korkutata, Tsuyoshi Saitoh, Yoan Cherasse, Shuji Ioka, Feng Duo, Rujie Qin, Nobuyuki Murakoshi, Shinya Fujii, Xuzhao Zhou, Fumihiro Sugiyama, Jiang-Fan Chen, Hidetoshi Kumagai, Hiroshi Nagase, Michael Lazarus
Insomnia is one of the most common sleep problems with an estimated prevalence of 10%-15% in the general population. Although adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R) agonists strongly induce sleep, their cardiovascular effects preclude their use in treating sleep disorders. Enhancing endogenous A2A R signaling, however, may be an alternative strategy for treating insomnia, because adenosine levels in the brain accumulate during wakefulness. In the present study, we found that 3,4-difluoro-2-((2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino)benzoic acid, denoted A2A R positive allosteric modulator (PAM)-1, enhanced adenosine signaling at the A2A R and induced slow wave sleep (SWS) without affecting body temperature in wild-type male mice after intraperitoneal administration, whereas the SWS-inducing effect of this benzoic acid derivative was abolished in A2A R KO mice...
October 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Pascal Nicolay, Hugo Chambon, Gudrun Bruckner, Christian Gruber, Sylvain Ballandras, Emilie Courjon, Matthias Stadler
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors are small, passive and wireless devices. We present here the latest results obtained in a project aimed at developing a SAW-based implantable pressure sensor, equipped with a well-defined, 30 μm-thick, 4.7 mm-in-diameter, Lithium Niobate (LN) membrane. A novel fabrication process was used to solve the issue of accurate membrane etching in LN. LN/Si wafers were fabricated first, using wafer-bonding techniques. Grinding/polishing operations followed, to reduce the LN thickness to 30 μm...
October 16, 2018: Sensors
Pinelopi Grigoropoulou, Anastasios Tentolouris, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Dimitrios Tsilingiris, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Maria Sykara, Nikolaos Tentolouris
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increased aortic stiffness, assessed with the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Statins reduce effectively cardiovascular disease and mortality in high-risk patients. The aim of this prospective non-randomized, observational study was to examine the impact of treatment with either 10 mg atorvastatin plus diet or diet alone on carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia...
October 17, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Yulia N Grigorova, Wen Wei, Natalia Petrashevskaya, Valentina Zernetkina, Ondrej Juhasz, Rachel Fenner, Christian Gilbert, Edward G Lakatta, Joseph I Shapiro, Alexei Y Bagrov, Olga V Fedorova
High salt (HS) intake stimulates the production of marinobufagenin (MBG), an endogenous steroidal Na/K-ATPase ligand, which activates profibrotic signaling. HS is accompanied by a blood pressure (BP) increase in salt-sensitive hypertension, but not in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether HS stimulates MBG production and activates transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) profibrotic signaling in young normotensive rats, and whether these changes can be reversed by reducing salt to a normal salt (NS) level...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chunyan Li, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Corey Haughey, Anton Reiner
Purpose: We sought to determine if sympathetic denervation of choroid impairs choroidal blood flow (ChBF) regulation and harms retina. Methods: Rats received bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (SCGx), which depleted choroid of sympathetic but not parasympathetic innervation. The flash-evoked scotopic ERG and visual acuity were measured 2 to 3 months after SCGx, and vasoconstrictive ChBF baroregulation during high systemic arterial blood pressure (ABP) induced by LNAME was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF)...
October 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Yinji Ma, Jungil Choi, Aurélie Hourlier-Fargette, Yeguang Xue, Ha Uk Chung, Jong Yoon Lee, Xiufeng Wang, Zhaoqian Xie, Daeshik Kang, Heling Wang, Seungyong Han, Seung-Kyun Kang, Yisak Kang, Xinge Yu, Marvin J Slepian, Milan S Raj, Jeffrey B Model, Xue Feng, Roozbeh Ghaffari, John A Rogers, Yonggang Huang
Continuous monitoring of blood pressure, an essential measure of health status, typically requires complex, costly, and invasive techniques that can expose patients to risks of complications. Continuous, cuffless, and noninvasive blood pressure monitoring methods that correlate measured pulse wave velocity (PWV) to the blood pressure via the Moens-Korteweg (MK) and Hughes Equations, offer promising alternatives. The MK Equation, however, involves two assumptions that do not hold for human arteries, and the Hughes Equation is empirical, without any theoretical basis...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hak Jin Kim, Eun Jeong Cho, Mi Hyang Kwak, Bang Wool Eom, Hong Man Yoon, Soo-Jeong Cho, Jong Yeul Lee, Chan Gyoo Kim, Keun Won Ryu, Young-Woo Kim, Il Ju Choi
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of gastrectomy on blood pressure (BP) in early gastric cancer survivors with hypertension and whether well-controlled BP was due solely to surgery-induced weight loss. METHODS: The study enrolled 66 early gastric cancer patients with hypertension, undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), or gastrectomy. Blood analyses, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring, brachial ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), and echocardiography were measured prior to, 3 months after, and 1 year after ESD or gastrectomy...
October 13, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Hideyuki Hayashi, Yukio Abe, Yusuke Morita, Eisaku Nakane, Yoshizumi Haruna, Tetsuya Haruna, Moriaki Inoko
BACKGROUND: Large V waves in the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) waveform traditionally indicate severe mitral regurgitation (MR). However, our understanding of MR etiology and hemodynamics has changed in recent decades. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to reevaluate the association between large V waves and current MR to determine whether traditional large V wave criteria remain optimal. METHOD: We reviewed 1,964 right heart catheterizations (RHCs) performed at our institution from 2010 to 2017, and retrospectively selected 126 patients with sinus rhythm who underwent echocardiography within 2 days (0...
October 12, 2018: Cardiology
Rong Z Gan
Eardrum or tympanic membrane (TM) is a multilayer soft tissue membrane located at the end of the ear canal to receive sound pressure and transport the sound into the middle ear and cochlea. Rupture of the TM is one of the most frequent injuries of the ear after blast exposure in military service members. The TM mechanical property changes induced by blast waves also affect progressive hearing loss in veterans. This chapter describes the biomechanical measurements and modeling of blast wave transduction through the ear and the TM mechanical property changes after blast exposure...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jacqueline Reinhard, Susanne Wiemann, Stephanie C Joachim, Marina Palmhof, Julia Woestmann, Bernd Denecke, Yingchun Wang, Gregory P Downey, Andreas Faissner
Glaucomatous neurodegeneration represents one of the major causes of irreversible blindness worldwide. Yet, the detailed molecular mechanisms that initiate optic nerve damage and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss are not fully understood. Members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily are key players in numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In order to investigate the potential functional relevance of the PTP megakaryocyte 2 (Meg2) in retinal neurodegeneration, we analyzed Meg2 knockout (KO) and heterozygous (HET)-synonym protein-tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 9 (Ptpn9)-mice...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Bahar Gürlek Demirci, Emre Tutal, Irem O Eminsoy, Eyup Kulah, Siren Sezer
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the relationship between the effect of total dietary fiber intake on C-reactive protein (CRP) and on oxidative stress parameters such as serum advanced glycation end products (AGEs), superoxide dysmutase (SOD), malondialdehyde, and arterial stiffness by pulse wave velocity (PWv) in maintanace hemodialysis (MHD) patients. METHODS: Among 650 MHD patients, 128 were selected according to inclusion criteria. The dietary survey was performed with a 3-day dietary history...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Makoto Shimizu, Nayuta Takemori, Daniel Guterding, Harald O Jeschke
Among iron chalcogenide superconductors, FeS can be viewed as a simple, highly compressed relative of FeSe without a nematic phase and with weaker electronic correlations. Under pressure, however, the superconductivity of stoichiometric FeS disappears and reappears, forming two domes. We perform electronic structure and spin fluctuation theory calculations for tetragonal FeS in order to analyze the nature of the superconducting order parameter. In the random phase approximation, we find a gap function with d-wave symmetry at ambient pressure, in agreement with several reports of a nodal superconducting order parameter in FeS...
September 28, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Gee Hee Kim, Jung Sun Cho, Woo-Baek Chung, Chan Seok Park, Sang Hyun Ihm
Left atrial (LA) strain is known to exhibit an early progressive reduction in hypertensive patients with diastolic dysfunction. However, an association of the renin-angiotensin-*aldosterone system (RAAS) with LA deformation has not been found in these patients. We aimed to investigate the association of plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with LA and left ventricle (LV) deformation in never-treated early hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 101 never-treated subjects who were registered in a working group at The Catholic University of Korea...
October 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Mo-Li Zhu, Rui-Li Sun, He-Yun Zhang, Fan-Rong Zhao, Guo-Pin Pan, Chong Zhang, Ping Song, Peng Li, Jian Xu, Shuangxi Wang, Ya-Ling Yin
BACKGROUNDS AND AIMS: Increased arterial stiffness may increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) are potentially useful in controlling the central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in mild to moderate essential hypertension, while the effects of ARBs in aged patients with essential hypertension are not entirely investigated. METHODS: The carotid-femoral arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured in aged patients with essential hypertension...
October 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Valérie E Stegehuis, Gilbert Wm Wijntjens, Tadashi Murai, Jan J Piek, Tim P van de Hoef
Fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided percutaneous coronary intervention results in better long-term clinical outcomes compared with coronary angiography alone in intermediate stenoses in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary physiology measurements have emerged for clinical decision making in interventional cardiology, but the focus lies mainly on epicardial vessels rather than the impact of these stenoses on the myocardial microcirculation. The latter can be quantified by measuring the coronary flow reserve (CFR), a combined pressure and flow index with a strong ability to predict clinical outcomes in CAD...
August 2018: European Cardiology
John S Woods, Francesca Verones
Despite the high amount of pressure placed on benthic habitats by anthropogenic activities, particularly in coastal shelf areas, as yet, the impact of seabed damaging activities on ecosystem quality has not been included in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). We present a globally applicable impact characterisation approach, parameterized within 17 marine ecoregions in Europe. Our modelling approach includes two perspectives: the single-impact perspective and the repeated-impact perspective. The approach for the single-impact perspective is a function of the spatio-temporal scale and intensity of the anthropogenic disturbance, the initial benthic response, and an estimated ecological recovery period...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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