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Superficial Fascia

Alaa Eldin Adel Elmaddawy, Alaa Eldin Mazy
Background: The thyroid gland surgery is a common and painful procedure demanding analgesia. Many regional techniques are applied for anterior neck surgeries mostly assigned in relation to the involved cervical fascia. Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) is a selective alpha 2 adrenoceptor agonist which prolongs the sensory blockade duration of local anesthetics. Our study hypothesis is that ultrasound (US)-guided bilateral superficial cervical plexus block (BSCPB) may provide longer analgesia when adding dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine-epinephrine...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Pei-An Hu, Zheng-Rong Zhou
Background Nodular fasciitis rarely occurs in young adults and children; it usually resembles other tumors, even malignancy. Purpose To review the imaging findings of six cases of nodular fasciitis misdiagnosed radiologically. Material and Methods The clinical and radiologic features of six cases of histologically proven but radiologically misdiagnosed nodular fasciitis were reviewed retrospectively. Two cases underwent both plain and enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans and the other four had both regular and enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) scans...
July 31, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Thomas von Arx, Marc J. Nakashima, Scott Lozanoff
The individual appearance and facial expression are based on the musculoskeletal system of the face. The bones of the face contribute to the anterior portion of the skull. This region is also referred to as the facial skeleton or viscerocranium. The muscles of the face include all mimetic muscles innervated by the cranial nerve VII (facial nerve). Two masticatory muscles (masseter, temporalis) that are supplied by the motoric portion of the cranial nerve V3 (mandibular nerve) also contribute to the contour of the face...
July 30, 2018: Swiss Dental Journal
Masakazu Ohuchi, Masaki Fukunaga, Kunihiko Nagakari, Daisuke Azuma, Shintaro Kohama, Jun Nomoto, Kazuhiro Sakamoto
PURPOSE: The question as to whether laparoscopic surgery should be applied for inguinal hernia after radical prostatectomy remains a debate due to surgical difficulty arising from adhesions in the prevesical space. We report the surgical technique used in our department, its outcomes, and its safety and effectiveness compared with the surgical outcomes of primary transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair (TAPP) cases. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From February 2013 to January 2017, 30 patients with inguinal hernia were treated with TAPP after radical prostatectomy...
July 25, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Hyung Hwa Jeong, Joon Pio Hong, Hyun Suk Suh
Elevating thin flaps has long been a goal of reconstructive surgeons. Thin flaps have numerous advantages in reconstruction. In this study, we present a surgical method for elevating a thin flap and demonstrate the safety of the procedure. A retrospective review was performed of the electronic medical records of patients who underwent thin flap elevation for lower extremity reconstruction from April 2016 to September 2016 at the Department of Plastic Surgery of Asan Medical Center. All flaps included in this study were elevated above the superficial fascia...
July 2018: Archives of Plastic Surgery
Ayesha Moin, Akshay D Shetty, T S Archana, Saurabh G Kale
Facial paralysis can be a devastating consequence resulting from blunt and penetrating trauma to the head and neck, as well as surgical injury, either accidental or due to involvement by tumor. In addition, the etiology can be attributed to a variety of other causes, ranging from infectious to metabolic, and is frequently idiopathic in nature. The incidence of facial nerve injury during temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgeries varies among surgeons. There are many factors that could contribute to the injury of the temporal and zygomatic branches of the facial nerve...
January 2018: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Fu-Hui Dong
The miminally-invasive techniques of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) uses different types of acupuncture needles to treat diseased locations with special techniques. These techniques include different methods of insertion and closed incision (press cutting, sliding cutting, scrape cutting, etc.). This needling technique is based on the traditional Chinese medicine theories of Pi Bu (cutaneous), Jing Jin (sinew), Jing Luo (meridian), Wu Ti (five body structure components) and Zang Fu (organ system). Commonly used needles include: needle Dao , needle with edge, Pi needle, Shui needle, Ren needle, Gou needle, Chang Yuan needle, Bo needle and so on...
June 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Juntaro Matsumoto, Toyohiko Isu, Kyongsong Kim, Naotaka Iwamoto, Kazuyoshi Yamazaki, Masanori Isobe
Superficial peroneal nerve (S-PN) entrapment neuropathy (S-PNEN) is comparatively rare and may be an elusive clinical entity. There is yet no established surgical procedure to treat idiopathic S-PNEN. We report our surgical treatment and clinical outcomes. We surgically treated 5 patients (6 sites) with S-PNEN. The 2 men and 3 women ranged in age from 67 to 91 years; one patient presented with bilateral leg involvement. Mean post-operative follow-up was 25.3 months. We recorded their symptoms before- and at the latest follow-up visit after surgery using a Numerical Rating Scale and the Japan Orthopedic Association score to evaluate the affected area...
July 15, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Fabio Henrique Luiz Leonardo, Mariana Anabuki, Allan Christian Pieroni Gonçalves
Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe infection of the subcutaneous tissue characterized by necrosis of the superficial fascia and overlying skin and is usually associated with previous trauma and comorbidities. Periorbital necrotizing fasciitis is rare and commonly causes visual loss and soft tissue defects. A better prognosis relies critically on early diagnosis, prompt medical treatment, and timely surgical intervention. We describe a rare case of periorbital necrotizing fasciitis in the absence of an inciting event...
June 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
Andreas Schilder, Walter Magerl, Thomas Klein, Rolf-Detlef Treede
Introduction/Objectives: Verbal descriptors are an important pain assessment parameter. The purpose of this study was to explore the ability to discriminate deep muscle pain and overlying fascia pain according to verbal descriptors and compare the pattern with skin stimulation (from previously published data). Methods: In 16 healthy human subjects, electrical stimulation was chosen to excite a broad spectrum of nociceptive primary afferents innervating the respective tissues...
May 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Peter J Ciolek, Brandon L Prendes, Michael A Fritz
INTRODUCTION: The reconstructive goals following radical parotidectomy include restoration of symmetry, reanimation of the face, and reestablishment of oral competence. We present our experience utilizing the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap, orthodromic temporalis tendon transfer (OTTT), and facial nerve cable grafting to reestablish form and function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, 17 patients underwent radical parotidectomy followed by immediate reconstruction...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
So Young Kim, Young Jae Lee, Goo-Hyun Mun
BACKGROUND: Thinned perforator flaps, reported techniques, and degree of thinning differ by study. This study investigated the anatomy of subcutaneous tissue according to the varying fattiness and identified which component and how much of the subcutaneous tissue layer needed to be excluded to meet target flap thickness using computed tomography. METHODS: Three stratified fattiness groups consisting of 30 donors were formed for thoracodorsal artery perforator, superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator, and anterolateral thigh flaps...
August 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Yong-Ming Li
The "superficial fascia" is often interpreted as "tendon-membrane like structure" in acupuncture field and it is speculated that acupuncture stimulation-induced structural alteration of the superficial fascia may contribute to the alleviation of many medical conditions. The fact is that the superficial fascia mainly consists of subcutaneous adipose tissue and fibrotic network (which function in storing, supporting and buffering external pressure and are not responsible for producing " Deqi " or "needling sensations"), and has no typical tendon or membrane structure in hypodermis...
May 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Adam Ostrzenski
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the clitoral infrafrenulum layer exists. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This descriptive observational study was conducted using 15 fresh human female cadavers. Macro and micro stratum-by-stratum anatomical dissections of the clitoral frenulum were performed bilaterally. Target tissue biopsies were obtained for microscopic examination and the specimens were stained with eosin and hematoxylin. The principal observations: The skin folds with erectile tissue between them create the superficial stratum of the clitoral frenulum...
June 5, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
Lihong Wen, Jinhuang Wang, Yang Li, Dalie Liu
Objective: To review the research progress of midfacial fat compartments, and to thoroughly understand its current state of the anatomy and the aging morphologic characters of midfacial fat compartments, as well as the current status of clinical applications. Methods: The recent literature concerning the midfacial fat compartments and related clinical applications were extensively reviewed and analyzed. Results: Midfacial fat layer has been considered as a fusion and a continuous layer, experiencing a global atrophy when aging...
February 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
X Q Li, X Wang, Y L Han, G Ji, Z H Chen, J Zhang, J P Zhu, J X Duan, Y J He, X M Yang, W J Liu
Objective: To explore the effects of anteriolateral thigh perforator flap and fascia lata transplantation in combination with computed tomography angiography (CTA) on repair of electrical burn wounds of head with skull exposure and necrosis. Methods: Seven patients with head electrical burns accompanied by skull exposure and necrosis were admitted to our burn center from March 2016 to December 2017. Head CTA was performed before the operation. The diameters of the facial artery and vein or the superficial temporal artery and vein were measured, and their locations were marked on the body surface...
May 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Longcan Liu, Yuanbo Liu, Mengqing Zang, Shan Zhu, Bo Chen, Shanshan Li
Objective: To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of sideburn reconstruction using the expanded island scalp flap based on the parietal branch of the superficial temporal vessel. Methods: Between February 2012 and April 2015, 7 patients underwent sideburn reconstruction. There were 3 males and 4 females with an average age of 15 years (range, 4-44 years). The etiologies included burn injury in 3 cases, trauma in 1 case, radiation therapy in 1 case, and congenital melanocytic nevus in 2 cases...
November 1, 2017: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Chenxi Cao, Zhengming Cao, Guangyu Liu, Songyang Liu, Yanqi Ye, Tiezheng Sun
BACKGROUND: Angioleiomyoma is a very rare benign solitary soft tissue neoplasm originating from smooth muscle layer of blood vessels. The tumor is usually located in the subcutis or the superficial fasciae, but less often in the deep fasciae, especially rare in the knee joint cavity. Diagnosis is frequently delayed or misdiagnosed as loose body or anterior knee pain because of its rare occurrence and poor awareness of physicians. Few studies have presented intra-articular angioleiomyoma and such cases become rarer and more difficult to diagnose when it presents as loose body...
May 24, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Hui Li, Kaide Li, Wenhao Jia, Chaoying Han, Jinlong Chen, Lei Liu
PURPOSE: It has been widely accepted that a split of the deep temporal fascia occurs approximately 2 to 3 cm above the zygomatic arch and extends into the superficial and deep layers. The deep layer of the deep temporal fascia is between the superficial temporal fat pad and the temporal muscle. However, during procedures, the authors noted the absence of the deep layer of the deep temporal fascia between the superficial temporal fat pad and the temporal muscle. This prospective study was conducted to clarify the presence or absence of a deep layer of the deep temporal fascia...
August 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Giuseppe Cappellano, Evi M Morandi, Johannes Rainer, Philipp Grubwieser, Katharina Heinz, Dolores Wolfram, David Bernhard, Susanne Lobenwein, Gerhard Pierer, Christian Ploner
Human abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue consists of two individual layers—the superficial adipose tissue (SAT) and deep adipose tissue (DAT)—separated by the Scarpa’s fascia. The present study focuses on the analysis of morphological and immunological differences of primary adipocytes, adipose-derived stem cells (ASC), and tissue-infiltrating immune cells found in SAT and DAT. Adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated from human SAT and DAT specimens and phenotypically characterized by in vitro assays...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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