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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914042/perfectionism-mediated-the-relationship-between-brain-structure-variation-and-negative-emotion-in-a-nonclinical-sample
#1
Di Wu, Kangcheng Wang, Dongtao Wei, Qunlin Chen, Xue Du, Junyi Yang, Jiang Qiu
In maladaptive respects, perfectionism reflects an individual's concern over making mistakes and doubting the quality of his or her own actions excessively, which would affect one's emotion. However, little is known about the neural mechanisms associated with the perfectionism and negative affect. In this study, voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify the brain regions underlying individual differences in perfectionism, which was measured by the Chinese Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (CFMPS), in a large sample of nonclinical young adults...
December 2, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913960/neuroimaging-abnormalities-in-clade-c-hiv-are-independent-of-tat-genetic-diversity
#2
Robert H Paul, Sarah Phillips, Jacqueline Hoare, David H Laidlaw, Ryan Cabeen, Gayla R Olbricht, Yuqing Su, Dan J Stein, Susan Engelbrecht, Soraya Seedat, Lauren E Salminen, Laurie M Baker, Jodi Heaps, John Joska
Controversy remains regarding the neurotoxicity of clade C human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-C). When examined in preclinical studies, a cysteine to serine substitution in the C31 dicysteine motif of the HIV-C Tat protein (C31S) results in less severe brain injury compared to other viral clades. By contrast, patient cohort studies identify significant neuropsychological impairment among HIV-C individuals independent of Tat variability. The present study clarified this discrepancy by examining neuroimaging markers of brain integrity among HIV-C individuals with and without the Tat substitution...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913587/suppressing-n-acetyl-l-aspartate-naa-synthesis-prevents-loss-of-neurons-in-a-murine-model-of-canavan-leukodystrophy
#3
Jiho Sohn, Peter Bannerman, Fuzheng Guo, Travis Burns, Laird Miers, Christopher Croteau, Naveen K Singhal, Jennifer A McDonough, David Pleasure
Canavan disease is a leukodystrophy caused by aspartoacylase (ASPA) deficiency. The lack of functional ASPA, an enzyme enriched in oligodendroglia that cleaves N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) to acetate and L-aspartic acid, elevates brain NAA and causes "spongiform" vacuolation of superficial brain white matter and neighboring gray matter. In children with Canavan disease, neuroimaging shows early-onset dysmyelination and progressive brain atrophy. Neuron loss has been documented at autopsy in some cases. Prior studies have shown that mice homozygous for the Aspa nonsense mutation Nur7 also develop brain vacuolation...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911306/cortical-thickness-and-microstructural-white-matter-changes-detect-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Zan Wang, Zhengjia Dai, Hao Shu, Duan Liu, Qihao Guo, Yong He, Zhijun Zhang
Both the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are considered to be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the aMCI-related abnormality in gray matter (GM) cortical thickness and white matter (WM) tracts integrity would be modified by the APOE genotype. A total of 146 older adults, including 64 aMCI patients (28 ɛ4 carriers and 36 non-carriers) and 82 healthy controls (39 ɛ4 carriers and 43 non-carriers), underwent a standardized clinical interview, neuropsychological battery assessment, and multi-modal brain magnetic resonance imaging scans...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910866/biomechanical-analysis-of-normal-brain-development-during-the-first-year-of-life-using-finite-strain-theory
#5
Jeong Chul Kim, Li Wang, Dinggang Shen, Weili Lin
The first year of life is the most critical time period for structural and functional development of the human brain. Combining longitudinal MR imaging and finite strain theory, this study aimed to provide new insights into normal brain development through a biomechanical framework. Thirty-three normal infants were longitudinally imaged using MRI from 2 weeks to 1 year of age. Voxel-wise Jacobian determinant was estimated to elucidate volumetric changes while Lagrange strains (both normal and shear strains) were measured to reveal directional growth information every 3 months during the first year of life...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910126/gradient-echo-epi-using-a-high-degree-shim-insert-coil-at-7%C3%A2-t-implications-for-bold-fmri
#6
Tae Kim, Yoojin Lee, Tiejun Zhao, Hoby P Hetherington, Jullie W Pan
PURPOSE: To quantitatively assess the effects of high degree and order (1(st) -4(th+) ) relative to 1(st) -2(nd) degree B0 shimming at 7 Tesla (T) on gradient-echo echo planar imaging (GE-EPI) and blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activation. METHODS: Simulations and GE-EPI were performed at (2mm)(3) and (3mm)(3) resolution, evaluating the temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR), transverse relaxivity ( R2*), BOLD % signal change and activated pixel counts in a breath-hold task...
December 1, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909413/sex-effects-on-smoking-cue-perception-in-non-smokers-smokers-and-ex-smokers-a-pilot-study
#7
Davide Zanchi, Arthur Brody, Stefan Borgwardt, Sven Haller
INTRODUCTION: Recent neuroimaging research suggests sex-related brain differences in smoking addiction. In the present pilot study, we assessed gender-related differences in brain activation in response to cigarette-related video cues, investigating non-smokers, smokers, and ex-smokers. METHODS: First, we compared 29 females (28.6 ± 5.3) vs. 23 males (31.5 ± 6.4), regardless of current smoking status to assess global gender-related effects. Second, we performed a post hoc analysis of non-smokers (9 females and 8 males), smokers (10 females and 8 males), and ex-smokers (10 females and 7 males)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908163/learning-based-3t-brain-mri-segmentation-with-guidance-from-7t-mri-labeling
#8
Minghui Deng, Renping Yu, Li Wang, Feng Shi, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
PURPOSE: Segmentation of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images into white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is crucial for brain structural measurement and disease diagnosis. Learning-based segmentation methods depend largely on the availability of good training ground truth. However, the commonly used 3T MR images are of insufficient image quality and often exhibit poor intensity contrast between WM, GM, and CSF. Therefore, they are not ideal for providing good ground truth label data for training learning-based methods...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907119/gray-matter-hypoxia-in-the-brain-of-the-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Thomas W Johnson, Ying Wu, Nabeela Nathoo, James A Rogers, V Wee Yong, Jeff F Dunn
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) has a significant inflammatory component and may have significant gray matter (GM) pathophysiology. Brain oxygenation is a sensitive measurement of the balance between metabolic need and oxygen delivery. There is evidence that inflammation and hypoxia are interdependent. In this paper, we applied novel, implanted PO2 sensors to measure hypoxia in cortical and cerebellar GM, in an inflammation-induced mouse model of MS. OBJECTIVE: Quantify oxygenation in cortical and cerebellar GM in the awake, unrestrained experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and to relate the results to symptom level and disease time-course...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906750/role-of-orexin-2-and-cb1-receptors-within-the-periaqueductal-gray-matter-in-lateral-hypothalamic-induced-antinociception-in-rats
#10
Mohammad-Hossein Esmaeili, Zahra Reisi, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Abbas Haghparast
Orexin plays an important role in pain modulation. Orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptors (Ox1r and Ox2r) are found at high density in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG). Our previous study showed that chemical stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus with carbachol induces antinociception in the tail-flick test, a model of acute pain, and Ox1r-mediated antinociception in the vlPAG is modulated by the activity of vlPAG CB1 receptors. In the current study, TCS OX2 29, an Ox2r antagonist (5, 15, 50, 150, and 500 nmol/l), was microinjected into the vlPAG 5 min before the administration of carbachol (125 nmol/l)...
November 30, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#11
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#12
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903438/neurite-density-imaging-versus-imaging-of-microscopic-anisotropy-in-diffusion-mri-a-model-comparison-using-spherical-tensor-encoding
#13
Björn Lampinen, Filip Szczepankiewicz, Johan Mårtensson, Danielle van Westen, Pia C Sundgren, Markus Nilsson
In diffusion MRI (dMRI), microscopic diffusion anisotropy can be obscured by orientation dispersion. Separation of these properties is of high importance, since it could allow dMRI to non-invasively probe elongated structures such as neurites (axons and dendrites). However, conventional dMRI, based on single diffusion encoding (SDE), entangles microscopic anisotropy and orientation dispersion with intra-voxel variance in isotropic diffusivity. SDE-based methods for estimating microscopic anisotropy, such as the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) method, must thus rely on model assumptions to disentangle these features...
November 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903333/diffusion-tensor-imaging-predictors-of-episodic-memory-decline-in-healthy-elders-at-genetic-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Melissa A Lancaster, Michael Seidenberg, J Carson Smith, Kristy A Nielson, John L Woodard, Sally Durgerian, Stephen M Rao
OBJECTIVES: White matter (WM) integrity within the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) is important for episodic memory (EM) functioning. The current study investigated the ability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in MTL WM tracts to predict 3-year changes in EM performance in healthy elders at disproportionately higher genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Fifty-one cognitively intact elders (52% with family history (FH) of dementia and 33% possessing an Apolipoprotein E ε4 allelle) were administered the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) at study entry and at 3-year follow-up...
November 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900929/main-effects-and-interactions-of-cerebral-hemispheres-gender-and-age-in-the-calculation-of-volumes-and-asymmetries-of-selected-structures-of-episodic-memory
#15
Rocio Ramirez-Carmona, Haydee Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Brenda Dominguez-Corrales, Erika Aguilar-Castañeda, Ernesto Roldan-Valadez
The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of anatomical (cerebral hemisphere) and demographic (age and gender) variables on the gray matter (GM) volumes and volumetric asymmetry indices (VAIs) of selected structures involved in episodic memory. A cross-sectional study was performed in 47 healthy volunteers. Neuropsychological evaluation revealed similar IQs across the sample. Using SPM-based software, brain segmentation, labeling and volume measurements of the hippocampus, amygdala, middle temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were performed in each cerebral hemisphere...
November 30, 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900365/genome-sequencing-in-a-case-of-niemann-pick-type-c
#16
Max Dougherty, John Lazar, Jason C Klein, Karina Diaz, Theodore Gobillot, Eli Grunblatt, Nicholas Hasle, Daniel Lawrence, Megan Maurano, Maria Nelson, Gregory Olson, Sanjay Srivatsan, Jay Shendure, C Dirk Keene, Thomas Bird, Marshall S Horwitz, Desiree A Marshall
Adult-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is an infrequent presentation of a rare neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder caused by autosomal recessive mutations in NPC1 (∼95%) or NPC2 (∼5%). Our patient was diagnosed at age 33 when he presented with a 10-yr history of difficulties in judgment, concentration, speech, and coordination. A history of transient neonatal jaundice and splenomegaly with bone marrow biopsy suggesting a lipid storage disorder pointed to NPC; biochemical ("variant" level cholesterol esterification) and ultrastructural studies in adulthood confirmed the diagnosis...
November 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899333/abnormalities-of-brain-neural-circuits-related-to-obesity-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#17
Ioannis Papageorgiou, Loukas G Astrakas, Vassileios Xydis, George Alexiou, Panagiotis Bargiotas, Loukia Tzarouchi, Anastasia K Zikou, Dimitrios N Kiortsis, Maria I Argyropoulou
PURPOSE: Increased Body-Mass-Index (BMI) has been associated with brain atrophy in both gray and white matter structures. However, little is known concerning the integrity of white matter tracts in obesity. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the pattern of changes in white matter microstructure in human adiposity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 268 participants (52 obese, 96 overweight and 120 normal-weight) that were retrospectively evaluated by Diffusion Tensor Imaging...
November 26, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898603/an-ultra-high-field-study-of-cerebellar-pathology-in-early-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-using-mp2rage
#18
Mário João Fartaria, Kieran OʼBrien, Alexandra Şorega, Guillaume Bonnier, Alexis Roche, Pavel Falkovskiy, Gunnar Krueger, Tobias Kober, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Cristina Granziera
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to study focal cerebellar pathology in early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) using ultra-high-field magnetization-prepared 2 inversion-contrast rapid gradient-echo (7T MP2RAGE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty early-stage relapsing-remitting MS patients underwent an MP2RAGE acquisition at 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (images acquired at 2 different resolutions: 0.58 × 0.58 × 0.58 mm, 7T_0.58, and 0.75 × 0.75 × 0...
November 28, 2016: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896903/imaging-diagnosis-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-a-neuronal-heterotopia-in-the-brain-of-a-cat
#19
Antonia DeJesus, Bradley J Turek, Evelyn Galban, Jantra Ngosuwan Suran
A domestic shorthair kitten was presented for evaluation and further treatment of seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large multilobulated mass in the third ventricle extending into the right lateral ventricle with secondary obstructive hydrocephalus. The mass was homogeneously isointense to gray matter on T2W, T2-FLAIR, T2(*) W, T1W, and ADC images, and hyperintense on DW-EPI. There was no appreciable contrast enhancement. Seizures were managed medically and with subsequent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement...
November 28, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895606/being-in-a-romantic-relationship-is-associated-with-reduced-gray-matter-density-in-striatum-and-increased-subjective-happiness
#20
Hiroaki Kawamichi, Sho K Sugawara, Yuki H Hamano, Kai Makita, Masahiro Matsunaga, Hiroki C Tanabe, Yuichi Ogino, Shigeru Saito, Norihiro Sadato
Romantic relationship, a widespread feature of human society, is one of the most influential factors in daily life. Although stimuli related to romantic love or being in a romantic relationship commonly result in enhancement of activation or functional connectivity of the reward system, including the striatum, the structure underlying romantic relationship-related regions remain unclear. Because individual experiences can alter gray matter within the adult human brain, we hypothesized that romantic relationship is associated with structural differences in the striatum related to the positive subjective experience of being in a romantic relationship...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
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