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Gray matter

Lara M Wierenga, Marieke G N Bos, Elisabeth Schreuders, Ferdi Vd Kamp, Jiska S Peper, Christian K Tamnes, Eveline A Crone
The onset of adolescence in humans is marked by hormonal changes that give rise to secondary sexual characteristics, noted as puberty. It has, however, proven challenging to unravel to what extent pubertal changes may have organizing effects on the brain beyond chronological age, as reported in animal studies. The present longitudinal study aimed to characterize the unique effects of age and puberty on subcortical brain volumes and included three waves of data collection at two-year intervals and 680 T1-weighted MRI scans of 271 participants (54% females) aged between 8 and 29 years old...
March 8, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Takuma Ohmichi, Masaki Kondo, Masahiro Itsukage, Hidetaka Koizumi, Shigenori Matsushima, Nagato Kuriyama, Kazunari Ishii, Etsuro Mori, Kei Yamada, Toshiki Mizuno, Takahiko Tokuda
OBJECTIVE The gold standard for the diagnosis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is the CSF removal test. For elderly patients, however, a less invasive diagnostic method is required. On MRI, high-convexity tightness was reported to be an important finding for the diagnosis of iNPH. On SPECT, patients with iNPH often show hyperperfusion of the high-convexity area. The authors tested 2 hypotheses regarding the SPECT finding: 1) it is relative hyperperfusion reflecting the increased gray matter density of the convexity, and 2) it is useful for the diagnosis of iNPH...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sunao Mizumura, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Murata, Kosei Yoshimura, Nobutomo Ishii, Tadashi Kokubo, Miyako Morooka, Akiko Kajiyama, Atsuro Terahara
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the Southampton method for dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT is widely used to quantitatively evaluate striatal radioactivity. The specific binding ratio (SBR) is the ratio of specific to non-specific binding observed after placing pentagonal striatal voxels of interest (VOIs) as references. Although the method can reduce the partial volume effect, the SBR may fluctuate due to the presence of low-count areas of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), caused by brain atrophy, in the striatal VOIs...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Luqing Wei, Hong Chen, Guo-Rong Wu
The neurovisceral integration model has shown a key role of the amygdala in neural circuits underlying heart rate variability (HRV) modulation, and suggested that reciprocal connections from amygdala to brain regions centered on the central autonomic network (CAN) are associated with HRV. To provide neuroanatomical evidence for these theoretical perspectives, the current study used covariance analysis of MRI-based gray matter volume (GMV) to map structural covariance network of the amygdala, and then determined whether the interregional structural correlations related to individual differences in HRV...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Sarah Caughlin, Shikhar Maheshwari, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Aaron J Harris, Kristina Jurcic, Ken K-C Yeung, David F Cechetto, Shawn N Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of simple gangliosides GM2 and GM3, and gangliosides with longer long-chain bases (d20:1) have been linked to toxicity and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, complex gangliosides, such as GM1, have been shown to be neuroprotective. Recent evidence using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has demonstrated that a-series gangliosides are differentially altered during normal aging, yet it remains unclear how simple species are shifting relative to complex gangliosides in the prodromal stages of AD...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Katsuyuki Taguchi, Toshihide Itoh, Matthew K Fuld, Eric Fournie, Okkyun Lee, Kyo Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: A novel imaging technique ("X-map") has been developed to identify acute ischemic lesions for stroke patients using non-contrast-enhanced dual-energy computed tomography (NE-DE-CT). Using the 3-material decomposition technique, the original X-map ("X-map 1.0") eliminates fat and bone from the images, suppresses the gray matter (GM)-white matter (WM) tissue contrast, and makes signals of edema induced by severe ischemia easier to detect. The aim of this study was to address the following 2 problems with the X-map 1...
March 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Evgeny J Chumin, Joaquín Goñi, Meredith E Halcomb, Timothy C Durazzo, Mario Džemidžić, Karmen K Yoder
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has been widely used to investigate the integrity of white matter (WM; indexed by fractional anisotropy, FA) in alcohol dependence and cigarette smoking. These disorders are highly comorbid, yet cigarette use has often not been adequately controlled in neuroimaging studies of alcohol dependent populations. In addition, information on white matter deficits in currently drinking, nontreatment-seeking (NTS) individuals with alcohol dependence is limited...
March 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Rainer Benndorf, Robert R Gilmont, Sahoko Hirano, Richard F Ransom, Peter R Jungblut, Martin Bommer, James E Goldman, Michael J Welsh
When analyzing small stress proteins of rat and human tissues by electrophoretic methods followed by western blotting, and using the anti-HspB1/anti-HspB5 antibody clone 8A7, we unexpectedly found a protein with a molecular mass of ~44 kDa. On two-dimensional gels, this protein resolved into four distinct species. Electrophoretic and immunological evidence suggests that this 44 kDa protein is a derivative of HspB5, most likely a covalently linked HspB5 dimer. This HspB5-like 44 kDa protein (HspB5L-P44) is particularly abundant in rat heart, brain, and renal cortex and glomeruli...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Per F Nordmark, Christina Ljungberg, Roland S Johansson
Transection of the median nerve typically causes lifelong restriction of fine sensory and motor skills of the affected hand despite the best available surgical treatment. Inspired by recent findings on activity-dependent structural plasticity of the adult brain, we used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the brains of 16 right-handed adults who more than two years earlier had suffered injury to the left or right median nerve followed by microsurgical repair. Healthy individuals served as matched controls. Irrespective of side of injury, we observed gray matter reductions in left ventral and right dorsal premotor cortex, and white matter reductions in commissural pathways interconnecting those motor areas...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Gaetano, Dieter A Häring, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue, Nicole Mueller-Lenke, Avinash Thakur, Davorka Tomic, Ludwig Kappos, Till Sprenger
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of fingolimod on deep gray matter (dGM), thalamus, cortical GM (cGM), white matter (WM), and ventricular volume (VV) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS: Data were pooled from 2 phase III studies. A total of 2,064 of 2,355 (88%) contributed to the analysis: fingolimod 0.5 mg n = 783, fingolimod 1.25 mg n = 799, or placebo n = 773. Percentage change from baseline in dGM and thalamic volumes was evaluated with FMRIB's Integrated Registration & Segmentation Tool; WM, cGM, and VV were evaluated with structural image evaluation using normalization of atrophy cross-sectional version (SIENAX) at months 12 and 24...
March 14, 2018: Neurology
Maria Luíza de Medeiros Rêgo, Daniel Aranha Rego Cabral, Eduardo Bodnariuc Fontes
Heart Failure is a clinical syndrome prevalent throughout the world and a major contribution to mortality of cardiac patients in Brazil. In addition, this pathology is strongly related to cerebral dysfunction, with a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. Many mechanisms may be related to cognitive loss, such as cerebral hypoperfusion, atrophy and loss of gray matter of the brain, and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. The literature is clear regarding the benefits of aerobic physical activity in healthy populations in the modulation of the autonomic nervous system and in brain functions...
January 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Ahmed M Elkady, Dana Cobzas, Hongfu Sun, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
BACKGROUND: Combined R2* and quantitative susceptibility (QS) has been previously used in cross-sectional multiple sclerosis (MS) studies to distinguish deep gray matter (DGM) iron accumulation and demyelination. PURPOSE: We propose and apply discriminative analysis of regional evolution (DARE) to define specific changes in MS and healthy DGM. STUDY TYPE: Longitudinal (baseline and 2-year follow-up) retrospective study. SUBJECTS: Twenty-seven relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 17 progressive MS (PMS), and corresponding age-matched healthy subjects...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
S Kabatas, C S Demir, E Civelek, I Yilmaz, A Kircelli, C Yilmaz, Y Akyuva, E Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. METHODS: Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
David J Eve, George Steiner, Ajay Mahendrasah, Paul R Sanberg, Crupa Kurien, Avery Thomson, Cesar V Borlongan, Svitlana Garbuzova-Davis
Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) alterations, including capillary rupture, have been demonstrated in animal models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and ALS patients. To date, treatment to restore BSCB in ALS is underexplored. Here, we evaluated whether intravenous transplantation of human bone marrow CD34+ (hBM34+ ) cells into symptomatic ALS mice leads to restoration of capillary integrity in the spinal cord as determined by detection of microhemorrhages. Three different doses of hBM34+ cells (5 × 104 , 5 × 105 or 1 × 106 ) or media were intravenously injected into symptomatic G93A SOD1 mice at 13 weeks of age...
February 13, 2018: Oncotarget
Daphne Stam, Yun-An Huang, Jan Van den Stock
Personality reflects the set of psychological traits and mechanisms characteristic for an individual. Geno-neuro-biologically inspired personality accounts have proposed a set of temperaments and characters that jointly compose personality profiles. The present study addresses the link between neurobiology and personality and investigates the association between temperament traits and regional gray matter volume. Furthermore, the specificity of these associations as well as the underlying components that drive the association are addressed...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Qiang Zeng, Feina Shi, Jianmin Zhang, Chenhan Ling, Fei Dong, Biao Jiang
Purpose: To present a new modified tri-exponential model for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to detect the strictly diffusion-limited compartment, and to compare it with the conventional bi- and tri-exponential models. Methods: Multi- b -value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with 17 b -values up to 8,000 s/mm2 were performed on six volunteers. The corrected Akaike information criterions (AICc) and squared predicted errors (SPE) were calculated to compare these three models. Results: The mean f 0 values were ranging 11...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Christiane Graetz, Adriane Gröger, Felix Luessi, Anke Salmen, Daniela Zöller, Janine Schultz, Nelly Siller, Vinzenz Fleischer, Barbara Bellenberg, Achim Berthele, Viola Biberacher, Joachim Havla, Michael Hecker, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Jan S Kirschke, Tania Kümpfel, Ralf Linker, Friedemann Paul, Steffen Pfeuffer, Philipp Sämann, Gerrit Toenges, Frank Weber, Uwe K Zettl, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher, Gisela Antony, Sergiu Groppa, Heinz Wiendl, Bernhard Hemmer, Mark Mühlau, Carsten Lukas, Ralf Gold, Christina M Lill, Frauke Zipp
BACKGROUND: The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) shows substantial inter-individual variability. The underlying determinants of disease severity likely involve genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of APOE and HLA polymorphisms as well as smoking and body mass index (BMI) in the very early MS course. METHODS: Untreated patients ( n = 263) with a recent diagnosis of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS or clinically isolated syndrome underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Nora Maria Raschle, Willeke Martine Menks, Lynn Valérie Fehlbaum, Martin Steppan, Areti Smaragdi, Karen Gonzalez-Madruga, Jack Rogers, Roberta Clanton, Gregor Kohls, Anne Martinelli, Anka Bernhard, Kerstin Konrad, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Christine M Freitag, Graeme Fairchild, Stephane A De Brito, Christina Stadler
Callous-unemotional traits are characterized by a lack of empathy, a disregard for others' feelings and shallow or deficient affect, such as a lack of remorse or guilt. Neuroanatomical correlates of callous-unemotional traits have been demonstrated in clinical samples (i.e., adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders). However, it is unknown whether callous-unemotional traits are associated with neuroanatomical correlates within normative populations without clinical levels of aggression or antisocial behavior...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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