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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166690/-facial-emotion-recognition-theory-of-mind-and-empathy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Samar S Ayache, Moussa A Chalah, Tania Kuempfel, Frank Padberg, Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Ulrich Palm
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, causes frequent disability, mood disorders, fatigue, and cognitive dysfunction. As a part of the last, social cognition is frequently disturbed in MS patients. It comprises empathy and social perception of emotions from facial, bodily and vocal cues. Social cognitive deficits worsen affect decoding, interpersonal relationship, and quality of life. Despite the impact of these deficits on global functioning, only a small number of studies have investigated its correlations and overlaps with MS symptoms...
November 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165048/psychoradiologic-utility-of-mr-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-radiomics-analysis
#2
Huaiqiang Sun, Ying Chen, Qiang Huang, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, Yan Shi, Xin Xu, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To identify cerebral radiomic features related to diagnosis and subtyping of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to build and evaluate classification models for ADHD diagnosis and subtyping on the basis of the identified features. Materials and Methods A consecutive cohort of 83 age- and sex-matched children with newly diagnosed and never-treated ADHD (mean age 10.83 years ± 2.30; range, 7-14 years; 71 boys, 40 with ADHD-inattentive [ADHD-I] and 43 with ADHD-combined [ADHD-C, or inattentive and hyperactive]) and 87 healthy control subjects (mean age, 11...
November 22, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164504/basal-ganglia-cerebral-blood-flow-associates-with-psychomotor-speed-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#3
John P Ryan, Howard J Aizenstein, Trevor J Orchard, Karen A Nunley, Helmet Karim, Caterina Rosano
Type 1 diabetes is associated with slower psychomotor speed, but the neural basis of this relationship is not yet understood. The basal ganglia are a set of structures that are vulnerable to small vessel disease, particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Thus, we examined the relationship between psychomotor speed and resting state resting cerebral blood flow in a sample of adults with diabetes onset during childhood (≤ 17 years of age). The sample included 77 patients (39 M, 38 F) with a mean age of 47...
November 21, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163352/parahippocampal-involvement-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-a-proof-of-concept-from-memory-guided-saccades
#4
Silvia Colnaghi, Giorgio Beltrami, Guy Poloni, Anna Pichiecchio, Stefano Bastianello, Carlo Andrea Galimberti, Maurizio Versino
Objective: Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) may involve extrahippocampal areas of structural damage and dysfunction. The accuracy of medium-term spatial memory can be tested by memory-guided saccades (MGS) to evaluate a functional impairment of the parahippocampal cortex (PHC), while voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis can be used to detect a structural damage of the latter region. Methods: MGS with 3- and 30-s memorization delays were compared between 7 patients affected by right MTLE-HS (r-MTLE-HS), 6 patients affected by left MTLE-HS, and 13 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163253/coping-with-childbirth-brain-structural-associations-of-personal-growth-initiative
#5
Judith Mangelsdorf
Major life events require psychological adaptations and can be accompanied by brain structural and functional changes. The goal of the current study was to investigate the association of personal growth initiative (PGI) as a form of proactive coping strategy before childbirth, with gray matter volume after delivery. Childbirth is one of the few predictable major life events, which, while being one of the most positive experiences for many, is also accompanied by multidimensional stress for the mother. Previous research has shown that high stress is associated with reductions in gray matter volume in limbic cortices as well as the prefrontal cortex (PFC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163068/larger-subcortical-gray-matter-structures-and-smaller-corpora-callosa-at-age-5-years-in-hiv-infected-children-on-early-art
#6
Steven R Randall, Christopher M R Warton, Martha J Holmes, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton, Andre J W van der Kouwe, Ernesta M Meintjes
Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 90% of HIV infected (HIV+) children. Since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV/AIDS has transitioned to a chronic condition where central nervous system (CNS) damage may be ongoing. Although, most guidelines recommend early ART to reduce CNS viral reservoirs, the brain may be more vulnerable to potential neurotoxic effects of ART during the rapid development phase in the first years of life. Here we investigate differences in subcortical volumes between 5-year-old HIV+ children who received early ART (before age 18 months) and uninfected children using manual tracing of Magnetic Resonance Images...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163021/schizophrenia-shows-disrupted-links-between-brain-volume-and-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#7
Anees Abrol, Barnaly Rashid, Srinivas Rachakonda, Eswar Damaraju, Vince D Calhoun
Studies featuring multimodal neuroimaging data fusion for understanding brain function and structure, or disease characterization, leverage the partial information available in each of the modalities to reveal data variations not exhibited through the independent analyses. Similar to other complex syndromes, the characteristic brain abnormalities in schizophrenia may be better understood with the help of the additional information conveyed by leveraging an advanced modeling method involving multiple modalities...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163017/electrical-neuroimaging-of-music-processing-reveals-mid-latency-changes-with-level-of-musical-expertise
#8
Clara E James, Mathias S Oechslin, Christoph M Michel, Michael De Pretto
This original research focused on the effect of musical training intensity on cerebral and behavioral processing of complex music using high-density event-related potential (ERP) approaches. Recently we have been able to show progressive changes with training in gray and white matter, and higher order brain functioning using (f)MRI [(functional) Magnetic Resonance Imaging], as well as changes in musical and general cognitive functioning. The current study investigated the same population of non-musicians, amateur pianists and expert pianists using spatio-temporal ERP analysis, by means of microstate analysis, and ERP source imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162362/prediabetes-is-associated-with-lower-brain-gray-matter-volume-in-the-general-population-the-study-of-health-in-pomerania-ship
#9
M R P Markus, T Ittermann, K Wittfeld, S Schipf, U Siewert-Markus, M Bahls, R Bülow, N Werner, D Janowitz, S E Baumeister, S B Felix, M Dörr, W Rathmann, H Völzke, H J Grabe
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated the associations of fasting (FG) and 2-h postload (2HG) plasma glucose from oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with gray (GMV) and white (WMV) matter volume. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed data from 1330 subjects without known diabetes mellitus, aged 21 to 81, from the second cohort (SHIP-Trend-0) of the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP). Following the OGTT, individuals were classified in five groups (according to the American Diabetes Association criteria): normal glucose tolerance (NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), combined IFG and IGT (IFG + IGT) and unknown type 2 diabetes mellitus (UDM)...
October 13, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159580/low-left-amygdala-volume-is-associated-with-a-longer-duration-of-unipolar-depression
#10
Maxim Zavorotnyy, Rebecca Zöllner, L R Schulte-Güstenberg, L Wulff, S Schöning, U Dannlowski, H Kugel, V Arolt, C Konrad
The amygdala plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). While robust findings support a negative impact of illness duration on hippocampal volume in MDD, morphometric studies of the amygdala have yielded inhomogeneous results. Considering the methodical problems of automatic segmentation methods, a standardized segmentation protocol with proven inter- and intra-rater reliability was employed using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. To identify the effect of MDD on amygdala morphometry, 23 unipolar depressed patients who responded to antidepressant medication and 30 age-matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159058/local-and-distant-relationships-between-amyloid-tau-and-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Leonardo Iaccarino, Gautam Tammewar, Nagehan Ayakta, Suzanne L Baker, Alexandre Bejanin, Adam L Boxer, Maria Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Mustafa Janabi, Joel H Kramer, Andreas Lazaris, Samuel N Lockhart, Bruce L Miller, Zachary A Miller, James P O'Neil, Rik Ossenkoppele, Howard J Rosen, Daniel R Schonhaut, William J Jagust, Gil D Rabinovici
The relationships between β-amyloid (Aβ), tau and neurodegeneration within Alzheimer's Disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. To explore these associations in vivo, we evaluated 30 Aβ PET-positive patients (mean ± sd age 62.4 ± 8.3) with mild probable AD and 12 Aβ PET-negative healthy controls (HC) (mean ± sd age 77.3 ± 6.9) as comparison. All participants underwent 3 T MRI, (11)C-PiB (Aβ) PET and (18)F-AV1451 (tau) PET. Multimodal correlation analyses were run at both voxel- and region-of-interest levels...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159057/gray-matter-atrophy-patterns-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-10-year-source-based-morphometry-study
#12
Niels Bergsland, Dana Horakova, Michael G Dwyer, Tomas Uher, Manuela Vaneckova, Michaela Tyblova, Zdenek Seidl, Jan Krasensky, Eva Havrdova, Robert Zivadinov
Objectives: To investigate spatial patterns of gray matter (GM) atrophy and their association with disability progression in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) in a longitudinal setting. Methods: Brain MRI and clinical neurological assessments were obtained in 152 MS patients at baseline and after 10 years of follow-up. Patients were classified into those with confirmed disability progression (CDP) (n = 85) and those without CDP (n = 67) at the end of the study...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159046/imaging-of-glia-activation-in-people-with-primary-lateral-sclerosis
#13
Sabrina Paganoni, Mohamad J Alshikho, Nicole R Zürcher, Paul Cernasov, Suma Babu, Marco L Loggia, James Chan, Daniel B Chonde, David Izquierdo Garcia, Ciprian Catana, Caterina Mainero, Bruce R Rosen, Merit E Cudkowicz, Jacob M Hooker, Nazem Atassi
Background: Glia activation is thought to contribute to neuronal damage in several neurodegenerative diseases based on preclinical and human post-mortem studies, but its role in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is unknown. Objectives: To localize and measure glia activation in people with PLS compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods: Ten participants with PLS and ten age-matched HCs underwent simultaneous magnetic resonance (MR) and proton emission tomography (PET)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158175/changes-in-gray-and-white-matter-in-subgroups-within-the-tinnitus-population
#14
Sara A Schmidt, Benjamin Zimmerman, Richard O Bido Medina, Jake R Carpenter-Thompson, Fatima T Husain
In this study, we investigated gray and white matter changes in subgroups within the larger tinnitus population related to differences in severity or duration of tinnitus symptoms. Tinnitus is the illusory perception of sound in the absence of an external source, most often experienced as a chronic condition. The psychological reaction to the sound constitutes the severity, or degree of discomfort experienced, and the duration refers to the time since onset of chronic tinnitus. We used voxel- and surface-based morphometry to investigate gray matter changes and diffusion tensor imaging (using fractional anisotropy, or FA, metrics) to assess changes in orientation of white matter tracts, using both whole brain and region of interest analyses...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156364/pattern-recognition-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-gray-matter-volume-measurements-classifies-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#15
Harry Rubin-Falcone, Francesca Zanderigo, Binod Thapa-Chhetry, Martin Lan, Jeffrey M Miller, M Elizabeth Sublette, Maria A Oquendo, David J Hellerstein, Patrick J McGrath, Johnathan W Stewart, J John Mann
BACKGROUND: Bipolar Disorder (BD) cannot be reliably distinguished from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) until the first manic or hypomanic episode. Consequently, many patients with BD are treated with antidepressants without mood stabilizers, a strategy that is often ineffective and carries a risk of inducing a manic episode. We previously reported reduced cortical thickness in right precuneus, right caudal middle-frontal cortex and left inferior parietal cortex in BD compared with MDD...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151468/-numerical-and-visual-evaluation-of-compressed-sensing-mri-using-3d-cartesian-sampling
#16
Hiroyuki Shinohara, Takeyuki Hashimoto, Nobuyuki Takeyama, Eriko Tanaka, Takaki Hayashi, Touji Hashimoto
We performed numerical and visual evaluation of compressed sensing MRI (CS-MRI) using 3D Cartesian sampling by numerical simulation. Three brain anatomical ROIs (white matter, gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid) of a T1-weighted image (T1WI), a T2-weighted image (T2WI) and a proton density-weighted image (PDWI) were used for numerical evaluation. Sampling ratio of the Cartesian grid was 30%. Reconstruction was performed by the projection onto convex sets (POCS) method with soft thresholding, subject to data fidelity constraints...
2017: Japanese Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150855/thalamic-volume-reduction-in-drug-naive-patients-with-new-onset-genetic-generalized-epilepsy
#17
Suejen Perani, Tim M Tierney, Maria Centeno, Elhum A Shamshiri, Siti N Yaakub, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, David W Carmichael, Mark P Richardson
OBJECTIVE: Patients with genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) have subtle morphologic abnormalities of the brain revealed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly in the thalamus. However, it is unclear whether morphologic abnormalities of the brain in GGE are a consequence of repeated seizures over the duration of the disease, or are a consequence of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), or are independent of these factors. Therefore, we measured brain morphometry in a cohort of AED-naive patients with GGE at disease onset...
November 18, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#18
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149999/expansion-and-renormalization-of-human-brain-structure-during-skill-acquisition
#19
REVIEW
Elisabeth Wenger, Claudio Brozzoli, Ulman Lindenberger, Martin Lövdén
Research on human brain changes during skill acquisition has revealed brain volume expansion in task-relevant areas. However, the large number of skills that humans acquire during ontogeny militates against plasticity as a perpetual process of volume growth. Building on animal models and available theories, we promote the expansion-renormalization model for plastic changes in humans. The model predicts an initial increase of gray matter structure, potentially reflecting growth of neural resources like neurons, synapses, and glial cells, which is followed by a selection process operating on this new tissue leading to a complete or partial return to baseline of the overall volume after selection has ended...
December 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149632/brain-structural-differences-between-73-and-92-year-olds-matched-for-childhood-intelligence-social-background-and-intracranial-volume
#20
Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Simon R Cox, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Ruth Sibbett, Alison Pattie, Devasuda Anblagan, Paul Redmond, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Adele M Taylor, Sherif Karama, Tom Booth, Alan J Gow, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Fully characterizing age differences in the brain is a key task for combating aging-related cognitive decline. Using propensity score matching on 2 independent, narrow-age cohorts, we used data on childhood cognitive ability, socioeconomic background, and intracranial volume to match participants at mean age of 92 years (n = 42) to very similar participants at mean age of 73 years (n = 126). Examining a variety of global and regional structural neuroimaging variables, there were large differences in gray and white matter volumes, cortical surface area, cortical thickness, and white matter hyperintensity volume and spatial extent...
October 16, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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