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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647831/alterations-in-regional-homogeneity-of-resting-state-brain-activity-in-fatigue-of-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Junyi Li, Yongsheng Yuan, Min Wang, Jiejin Zhang, Li Zhang, Siming Jiang, Jian Ding, Kezhong Zhang
Fatigue is a common complaint in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neural bases of fatigue in PD remain uncertain. In this cross-sectional study, our aim was to study the change of the local brain function in PD patients with fatigue. Among 49 patients with PD, 17 of them had fatigue and the remaining 32 patients without fatigue, and 25 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. All subjects were evaluated with Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and had a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scan...
June 24, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646687/cortical-amyloid-accumulation-is-associated-with-alterations-of-structural-integrity-in-older-people-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#2
Stefan J Teipel, Enrica Cavedo, Sarah Weschke, Michel J Grothe, Katrine Rojkova, Gaëlle Fontaine, Luce Dauphinot, Gabriel Gonzalez-Escamilla, Marie-Claude Potier, Hugo Bertin, Marie-Odile Habert, Bruno Dubois, Harald Hampel
We determined the effect of cortical amyloid load using (18)F-florbetapir PET on cognitive performance and gray matter structural integrity derived from MRI in 318 cognitively normally performing older people with subjective memory impairment from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort using multivariate partial least squares regression. Amyloid uptake was associated with reduced gray matter structural integrity in hippocampus, entorhinal and cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and lentiform nucleus (p < 0...
May 31, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646566/structural-neuroimaging-correlates-of-alcohol-and-cannabis-use-in-adolescents-and-adults
#3
Rachel E Thayer, Sophie YorkWilliams, Hollis C Karoly, Amithrupa Sabbineni, Sarah Feldstein Ewing, Angela D Bryan, Kent E Hutchison
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic alcohol use is associated with lower gray matter volume, and we recently reported that alcohol use showed negative associations with widespread gray matter (GM) volume even among young adults. The current study aimed to test the strength of association between (1) alcohol use and GM volume; (2) alcohol use and white matter (WM) integrity; (3) cannabis use and GM volume; and (4) cannabis use and WM integrity among adults and adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: General linear models within large pooled cross-sectional samples of adolescents and adults who had participated in studies collecting substance use and neuroimaging data in the southwestern United States...
June 23, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#4
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645869/real-time-changes-in-brain-activity-during-sacral-neuromodulation-for-overactive-bladder
#5
Bradley C Gill, Javier Pizarro Berdichevsky, Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Thaddeus S Brink, Brian K Marks, Adrienne Quirouet, Sandip P Vasavada, Stephen E Jones, Howard B Goldman
PURPOSE: To use functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) for identifying changes in brain activity during sacral neuromodulation(SNM) in women with overactive bladder(OAB) who were responsive to therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with non-neurogenic refractory OAB who responded to SNM, had a stable program for at least 3 months, with no subsequent OAB treatment were recruited. Enrolled patients completed pre-fMRI validated symptom and quality of life instruments...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645750/the-effect-of-future-time-perspective-on-delay-discounting-is-mediated-by-the-gray-matter-volume-of-vmpfc
#6
Yiqun Guo, Zhiyi Chen, Tingyong Feng
Although several previous studies have shown that individuals' attitude towards time could affect their intertemporal preference, little is known about the neural basis of the relation between time perspective (TP) and delay discounting. In the present study, we quantified the gray matter (GM) cortical volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods to investigate the effect of TP on delay discounting (DD) across two independent samples. For group 1 (102 healthy college students; 46 male; 20.40±1.87 years), behavioral results showed that only Future TP was a significant predictor of DD, and higher scores on Future TP were related to lower discounting rates...
June 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644997/first-episode-psychosis-moderates-the-effect-of-gray-matter-volume-on-cognition
#7
Luis F S Castro-de-Araujo, Richard A A Kanaan
Patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) present with cognitive deficits and volume differences in certain brain areas. Brain volumetric information further correlates with cognitive testing, and multiple brain areas shows different strengths of correlation with the cognitive functions being tested. Traditionally, these cognitive functions are independently related to volumetric differences, but these functions share variance. Failing to account for this aspect of cognition hinders the proper representation of cognition in neuroimaging studies...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642263/volumetric-analysis-from-a-harmonized-multisite-brain-mri-study-of-a-single-subject-with-multiple-sclerosis
#8
R T Shinohara, J Oh, G Nair, P A Calabresi, C Davatzikos, J Doshi, R G Henry, G Kim, K A Linn, N Papinutto, D Pelletier, D L Pham, D S Reich, W Rooney, S Roy, W Stern, S Tummala, F Yousuf, A Zhu, N L Sicotte, R Bakshi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging can be used to measure structural changes in the brains of individuals with multiple sclerosis and is essential for diagnosis, longitudinal monitoring, and therapy evaluation. The North American Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis Cooperative steering committee developed a uniform high-resolution 3T MR imaging protocol relevant to the quantification of cerebral lesions and atrophy and implemented it at 7 sites across the United States. To assess intersite variability in scan data, we imaged a volunteer with relapsing-remitting MS with a scan-rescan at each site...
June 22, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640143/relationship-between-postural-instability-and-subcortical-volume-loss-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Young-Wook Lee, Hyung Lee, In-Sung Chung, Hyon-Ah Yi
The relationship between postural instability and subcortical structure in AD has received less attention. The aims of this study were to assess whether there are differences in the ability to control balance between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, and to investigate the association between subcortical gray matter volumes and postural instability in AD.We enrolled 107 consecutive AD patients and 37 controls. All participants underwent detailed neuropsychological evaluations, T1-weighted MRI at 3 T, and posture assessment using computerized dynamic posturography...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638982/image-quality-at-synthetic-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-children
#10
So Mi Lee, Young Hun Choi, Jung-Eun Cheon, In-One Kim, Seung Hyun Cho, Won Hwa Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Hyun-Hae Cho, Sun-Kyoung You, Sook-Hyun Park, Moon Jung Hwang
BACKGROUND: The clinical application of the multi-echo, multi-delay technique of synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates multiple sequences in a single acquisition but has mainly been used in adults. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the image quality of synthetic brain MR in children compared with that of conventional images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-nine children (median age: 6 years, range: 0-16 years) underwent synthetic and conventional imaging...
June 22, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638712/frontal-assessment-battery-and-frontal-atrophy-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#11
Tatsuhiro Terada, Jun Miyata, Tomokazu Obi, Manabu Kubota, Miho Yoshizumi, Kinya Yamazaki, Kouichi Mizoguchi, Toshiya Murai
OBJECTIVES: To determine the potential utility of the frontal assessment battery (FAB) in assessing cognitive impairments in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the association between the FAB score and regional gray matter volume, and ascertained whether the regional brain alterations related to cognitive impairments occur in relatively mild stage of ALS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four ALS patients with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of >23, a normal score on the Self-Rating Depression Scale, little or no disturbance in speech and handling utensils on the ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS), and normal measures on respiratory tests (respiratory function test and arterial blood gas analysis), and two age-matched normal control groups (one for FAB assessment and the other for brain morphometry) underwent FAB testing and structural magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638692/a-report-of-three-cases-with-lupus-myelitis
#12
Hiroshi Oiwa, Toru Yamabe, Masanori Kawashima, Yuta Maetani, Dai Agari, Takemori Yamawaki, Eiji Sugiyama
Lupus myelitis (LM) is a rare but serious complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In 2009, Birnbaum et al. suggested that LM could be classified into two subtypes, namely gray and white matter myelitis, based on neurological examination findings. Here we describe three cases of this disorder, one with signs of white matter dysfunction and two with signs of gray matter dysfunction. We discuss the potential role of autoantibodies in the development of LM.
June 2017: European Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638364/impact-of-neuronal-membrane-damage-on-the-local-field-potential-in-a-large-scale-simulation-of-cerebral-cortex
#13
David L Boothe, Alfred B Yu, Pawel Kudela, William S Anderson, Jean M Vettel, Piotr J Franaszczuk
Within multiscale brain dynamics, the structure-function relationship between cellular changes at a lower scale and coordinated oscillations at a higher scale is not well understood. This relationship may be particularly relevant for understanding functional impairments after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) when current neuroimaging methods do not reveal morphological changes to the brain common in moderate to severe TBI such as diffuse axonal injury or gray matter lesions. Here, we created a physiology-based model of cerebral cortex using a publicly released modeling framework (GEneral NEural SImulation System) to explore the possibility that performance deficits characteristic of blast-induced mTBI may reflect dysfunctional, local network activity influenced by microscale neuronal damage at the cellular level...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638338/physical-exercise-with-music-reduces-gray-and-white-matter-loss-in-the-frontal-cortex-of-elderly-people-the-mihama-kiho-scan-project
#14
Ken-Ichi Tabei, Masayuki Satoh, Jun-Ichi Ogawa, Tomoko Tokita, Noriko Nakaguchi, Koji Nakao, Hirotaka Kida, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Findings from previous studies suggest that physical exercise combined with cognitive training produces more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than physical exercise alone. However, the brain plasticity associated with these proposed benefits of combined therapy has not yet been investigated in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that the dual task group would experience greater benefits than the physical exercise alone and non-exercise control groups with regard to both cognitive function and brain plasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638109/voxel-based-morphometric-brain-comparison-between-healthy-subjects-and-major-depressive-disorder-patients-in-japanese-with-the-s-s-genotype-of-5-httlpr
#15
Natsuki Igata, Shingo Kakeda, Keita Watanabe, Satoru Ide, Taro Kishi, Osamu Abe, Ryouhei Igata, Asuka Katsuki, Nakao Iwata, Reiji Yoshimura, Yukunori Korogi
Individuals with s/s genotype of serotonin transporter gene-linked promotor region (5-HTTLPR), which appear with a high frequency in Japanese, exhibit more diagnosable depression in relation to stressful life events than those with the s/l or l/l genotype. We prospectively investigated the brain volume changes in first-episode and medication naïve major depression disorder patients (MDD) with the s/s genotype in Japanese. We assessed the differences between 27 MDD with the s/s genotype and 44 healthy subjects (HS) with the same genotype using a whole-brain voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of MRI...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636705/inflammation-in-the-neurocircuitry-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#16
Sophia Attwells, Elaine Setiawan, Alan A Wilson, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi, Laura Miler, Cynthia Xu, Margaret Anne Richter, Alan Kahn, Stephen J Kish, Sylvain Houle, Lakshmi Ravindran, Jeffrey H Meyer
Importance: For a small percentage of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) cases exhibiting additional neuropsychiatric symptoms, it was proposed that neuroinflammation occurs in the basal ganglia as an autoimmune response to infections. However, it is possible that elevated neuroinflammation, inducible by a diverse range of mechanisms, is important throughout the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit of OCD. Identifying brain inflammation is possible with the recent advance in positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands that bind to the translocator protein (TSPO)...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634624/population-averaged-macaque-brain-atlas-with-high-resolution-ex-vivo-dti-integrated-into-in-vivo-space
#17
Lei Feng, Tina Jeon, Qiaowen Yu, Minhui Ouyang, Qinmu Peng, Virendra Mishra, Mihovil Pletikos, Nenad Sestan, Michael I Miller, Susumu Mori, Steven Hsiao, Shuwei Liu, Hao Huang
Animal models of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), the most widely used nonhuman primate, have been irreplaceable in neurobiological studies. However, a population-averaged macaque brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) atlas, including comprehensive gray and white matter labeling as well as bony and facial landmarks guiding invasive experimental procedures, is not available. The macaque white matter tract pathways and microstructures have been rarely recorded. Here, we established a population-averaged macaque brain atlas with high-resolution ex vivo DTI integrated into in vivo space incorporating bony and facial landmarks, and delineated microstructures and three-dimensional pathways of major white matter tracts in vivo MRI/DTI and ex vivo (postmortem) DTI of ten rhesus macaque brains were acquired...
June 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633995/quantitative-mri-study-of-the-permeability-of-peritumoral-brain-edema-in-lung-cancer-patients-with-brain-metastases
#18
Dan Wang, Ming-Liang Wang, Yue-Hua Li
PURPOSE: To use Ktrans to evaluate the aggressiveness and vascular permeability of peritumoral edema in cases of lung cancer brain metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 68 lung cancer patients with 92 metastatic brain lesions were enrolled (20 metastatic lesions only in the gray matter -group 1; and 72 metastatic lesions located in the gray and white matter junction -group 2). All patients underwent MRI examination, which involved a dual angle (2° and 15°) enhanced T1W-VIBE (volume interpolated breath-hold examination) sequence to calculate the T1 parameter map...
June 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633986/gray-matter-abnormalities-in-non-comorbid-medication-naive-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-or-social-anxiety-disorder
#19
Youjin Zhao, Lizhou Chen, Wenjing Zhang, Yuan Xiao, Chandan Shah, Hongru Zhu, Minlan Yuan, Huaiqiang Sun, Qiang Yue, Zhiyun Jia, Wei Zhang, Weihong Kuang, Qiyong Gong, Su Lui
BACKGROUND: An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients. METHODS: High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs)...
June 15, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631336/a-neuroimaging-approach-to-capture-cognitive-reserve-application-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Anna C van Loenhoud, Alle Meije Wink, Colin Groot, Sander C J Verfaillie, Jos Twisk, Frederik Barkhof, Bart van Berckel, Philip Scheltens, Wiesje M van der Flier, Rik Ossenkoppele
Cognitive reserve (CR) explains interindividual differences in the ability to maintain cognitive function in the presence of neuropathology. We developed a neuroimaging approach including a measure of brain atrophy and cognition to capture this construct. In a group of 511 Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker-positive subjects in different stages across the disease spectrum, we performed 3T magnetic resonance imaging and predicted gray matter (GM) volume in each voxel based on cognitive performance (i.e. a global cognitive composite score), adjusted for age, sex, disease stage, premorbid brain size (i...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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